Causes of mental disorders


Causes of mental disorders

The causes of mental disorders are complex, and interact and vary according to the particular disorder and individual. Genetics, early development, drugs, a loss of a family member, disease or injury, neurocognitive and psychological mechanisms, and life experiences, society and culture, can all contribute to the development or progression of different mental disorders.

Contents

General theories

There are a number of theories or models seeking to explain the causes (etiology) of mental disorders. They may be based on different foundations, including their basic classification of mental disorders.

The most common view is that disorders tend to result from genetic vulnerabilities and environmental stressors combining to cause patterns of dysfunction or trigger disorders (Diathesis-stress model). A practical mixture of models may often be used to explain particular issues and disorders,[1] although there may be difficulty defining boundaries for indistinct psychiatric syndromes.[2]

The primary model of contemporary mainstream Western psychiatry is the biopsychosocial model (BPS), which merges together biological, psychological and social factors.[1] It may be commonly neglected or misapplied in practice due to being too broad or relativistic, however, and biopsychiatry has tended to follow a biomedical model focused on organic or "hardware" pathology of the brain.[1]

Psychoanalytic theories, focused on unresolved internal and relational conflicts, have been posited as overall explanations of mental disorder, although today most psychoanalytic groups are said to adhere to the biopsychosocial model and to accept an eclectic mix of subtypes of psychoanalysis.[1]

Evolutionary psychology (or more specifically evolutionary psychopathology or psychiatry) has also been proposed as an overall theory, positing that many mental disorders involve the dysfunctional operation of mental modules adapted to ancestral physical or social environments but not necessarily to modern ones.[3][4][5] Attachment theory is another kind of evolutionary-psychological approach sometimes applied in the context for mental disorders, which focuses on the role of early caregiver-child relationships, responses to danger, and the search for a satisfying reproductive relationship in adulthood.[6]

An overall distinction is also commonly made between a "medical model" (also known as a biomedical or disease model), and a "social model" (also known as an empowerment or recovery model) of mental disorder and disability, with the former focusing on hypothesized disease processes and symptoms, and the latter focusing on hypothesized social constructionism and social contexts.[7]

Genes

Family-linkage and twin studies have indicated that genetic factors often play an important role in the development of mental disorders. The reliable identification of specific genetic susceptibility to particular disorders, through linkage or association studies, has proven difficult.[8][9] This has been reported to be likely due to the complexity of interactions between genes, environmental events, and early development[10] or to the need for new research strategies.[11] The heritability of behavioral traits associated with mental disorder may be greater in permissive than in restrictive environments, and susceptibility genes probably work through both "within-the-skin" (physiological) pathways and "outside-the-skin" (behavioral and social) pathways.[12] Investigations increasingly focus on links between genes and endophenotypes—more specific traits (including neurophysiological, biochemical, endocrinological, neuroanatomical, cognitive, or neuropsychological)—rather than disease categories.[13][14] With regard to a prominent mental disorder, Schizophrenia, genetics have been shown to have an increasingly complicated role in the disease. For a long time consensus among scientists was that certain alleles were responsible for schizophrenia, but recent research has shown that this is not necessarily the case. In a study done in 2008 by Walsh et al., the genetics of schizophrenics were compared to those of non-affected individuals. The group did micro-arrays of each individuals' genome looking for structural variants greater than 100kbp. Individuals with schizophrenia were three times as likely to harbor structural variants that duplicated or deleted one or more genes. This was even more prevalent in children as schizophrenics under age 18 were four times as likely to harbor these mutations. More importantly 53 previously unreported microduplications/deletions were discovered and virtually every rare structural mutation was different . [15]

Pregnancy and birth

Environmental events surrounding pregnancy and birth have been linked to an increased development of mental illness in the offspring. This includes maternal exposure to serious psychological stress or trauma, conditions of famine, obstetric birth complications, infections, and gestational exposure to alcohol or cocaine. Such factors have been hypothesized to affect specific areas of neurodevelopment within the general developmental context and to restrict neuroplasticity.[16]

People with developmental disabilities, such as mental retardation, are more likely to experience mental illness than those in the general community.[17]

Disease, injury and infection

Higher rates of mood, psychotic, and substance abuse disorders have been found following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Findings on the relationship between TBI severity and prevalence of subsequent psychiatric disorders have been inconsistent, and occurrence has been linked to prior mental health problems as well as direct neurophysiological effects, in a complex interaction with personality and attitude and social influences.[18]

A number of psychiatric disorders have often been tentatively linked with microbial pathogens, particularly viruses; however while there have been some suggestions of links from animal studies, and some inconsistent evidence for infectious and immune mechanisms (including prenatally) in some human disorders, infectious disease models in psychiatry are reported to have not yet shown significant promise except in isolated cases.[19] There have been some inconsistent findings of links between infection by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and human mental disorders such as schizophrenia, with the direction of causality unclear.[20][21][22] A number of diseases of the white matter can cause symptoms of mental disorder.[23]

Poorer general health has been found among individuals with severe mental illnesses, thought to be due to direct and indirect factors including diet, bacterial infections, substance use, exercise levels, effects of medications, socioeconomic disadvantages, lowered help-seeking or treatment adherence, or poorer healthcare provision.[24] Some chronic general medical conditions have been linked to some aspects of mental disorder, such as AIDS-related psychosis.

The current research on Lyme's disease caused by a deer tick, and related toxins, is expanding the link between bacterial infections and mental illness.[citation needed]

Individual characteristics

Mental characteristics of individuals, as assessed by both neurological and psychological studies, have been linked to the development and maintenance of mental disorders. This includes cognitive or neurocognitive factors, such as the way a person perceives, thinks or feels about certain things;[25][26][27][28][29] or an individual's overall personality, temperament or coping style[30][31][32] or the extent of protective factors or "positive illusions" such as optimism, personal control and a sense of meaning.[33][34]

Abnormal levels of dopamine activity have been implicated in a number of disorders (e.g., reduced in ADHD, increased in schizophrenia), thought to be part of the complex encoding of the importance of events in the external world.[35] Dysfunction in serotonin and other monoamine neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and dopamine has also been centrally implicated in mental disorders, including major depression as well as obsessive compulsive disorder, phobias, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, although the limitations of a simple "monoamine hypothesis" have been highlighted[36] and studies of depleted levels of monoamine neurotransmitters have tended to indicate no simple or directly causal relation with mood or major depression, although features of these pathways may form trait vulnerabilities to depression.[37] Dysfunction of the central gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) system following stress has also been associated with anxiety spectrum disorders and there is now a body of clinical and preclinical literature also indicating an overlapping role in mood disorder.[38]

Findings have indicated abnormal functioning of brainstem structures in disorders such as schizophrenia, related to impairments in maintaining sustained attention.[39] Some abnormalities in the average size or shape of some regions of the brain have been found in some disorders, reflecting genes and/or experience. Studies of schizophrenia have tended to find enlarged ventricles and sometimes reduced volume of the cerebrum and hippocampus, while studies of (psychotic) bipolar disorder have sometimes found increased amygdala volume. Findings differ over whether volumetric abnormalities are risk factors or are only found alongside the course of mental health problems, possibly reflecting neurocognitive or emotional stress processes and/or medication use or substance use.[40][41] Some studies have also found reduced hippocampal volumes in major depression, possibly worsening with time depressed.[42]

Life events, emotional stress and relationships

It is reported that there is good evidence on the importance of psychosocial influences on psychopathology in general, although less known about the specific risk and protective mechanisms.[43] Maltreatment in childhood and in adulthood, including sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, domestic violence and bullying, has been linked to the development of mental disorders, through a complex interaction of societal, family, psychological and biological factors.[44][45][46][47][48][49] Negative or stressful life events more generally have been implicated in the development of a range of disorders, including mood and anxiety disorders. The main risks appear to be from a cumulative combination of such experiences over time, although exposure to a single major trauma can sometimes lead to psychopathology, including PTSD. Resilience to such experiences varies, and a person may be resistant to some forms of experience but susceptible to others. Features associated with variations in resilience include genetic vulnerability, temperamental characteristics, cognitive set, coping patterns, and other experiences.[43]

Relationship issues have been consistently linked to the development of mental disorders, with continuing debate on the relative importance of the home environment or work/school and peer group. Issues with parenting skills or parental depression or other problems may be a risk factor. Parental divorce appears to increase risk, perhaps only if there is family discord or disorganization, although a warm supportive relationship with one parent may compensate. Details of infant feeding, weaning, toilet training etc. do not appear to be importantly linked to psychopathology. Early social privation, or lack of ongoing, harmonious, secure, committed relationships, have been implicated in the development of mental disorders.[50][51]

Some approaches, such as certain theories of co-counseling, may see all non-neurological mental disorders as the result of the self-regulating mechanisms of the mind (which accompany the physical expression of emotions) not being allowed to operate.

Neighborhoods, society and culture

Problems in communities or cultures, including poverty, unemployment or underemployment, lack of social cohesion, and migration, have been implicated in the development of mental disorders.[7][43] Stresses and strains related to socioeconomic position (socioeconomic status (SES) or social class) have been linked to the occurrence of major mental disorders, with a lower or more insecure educational, occupational, economic or social position generally linked to more mental disorders.[52] There have been mixed findings on the nature of the links and on the extent to which pre-existing personal characteristics influence the links. Both personal resources and community factors have been implicated, as well as interactions between individual-level and regional-level income levels.[53] The causal role of different socioeconomic factors may vary by country.[54] Socioeconomic deprivation in neighborhoods can cause worse mental health, even after accounting for genetic factors.[55] In addition, minority ethnic groups, including first or second-generation immigrants, have been found to be at greater risk for developing mental disorders, which has been attributed to various kinds of life insecurities and disadvantages, including racism.[56] The direction of causality is sometimes unclear, and alternative hypotheses such as the Drift Hypothesis sometimes need to be discounted.

Mental disorders have also been linked to the overarching social, economic and cultural system.[57][58][59][60][61] A value system that promotes individualism, weakens social ties, and creates ambivalence towards children, is being spread or imposed via globalization, yet could adversely affect children's mental health.[62]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Ghaemi SN (November 2006). "Paradigms of psychiatry: eclecticism and its discontents". Curr Opin Psychiatry. 19 (6): 619–24. doi:10.1097/01.yco.0000245751.98749.52. PMID 17012942. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/547497_print. 
  2. ^ Kendler KS (1 December 1999). "Setting boundaries for psychiatric disorders". Am J Psychiatry. 156 (12): 1845–8. PMID 10588394. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/156/12/1845. 
  3. ^ Baron-Cohen, Simon (1997). The maladapted mind: classic readings in evolutionary psychopathology. East Sussex: Psychology Press. ISBN 0-86377-460-1. 
  4. ^ Brüne M (2002). "Toward an integration of interpersonal and biological processes: evolutionary psychiatry as an empirically testable framework for psychiatric research". Psychiatry 65 (1): 48–57. PMID 11980046. 
  5. ^ Nesse RM (February 2002). "Evolutionary biology: a basic science for psychiatry". World Psychiatry 1 (1): 7–9. PMC 1489830. PMID 16946805. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1489830. 
  6. ^ Crittenden PM (June 2002). "Attachment, information processing, and psychiatric disorder". World Psychiatry 1 (2): 72–5. PMC 1525137. PMID 16946856. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1525137. 
  7. ^ a b Pilgrim, David; Rogers, Anne (2005). A sociology of mental health and illness. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-21583-1. 
  8. ^ Insel TR, Collins FS (April 2003). "Psychiatry in the genomics era". Am J Psychiatry 160 (4): 616–20. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.4.616. PMID 12668345. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/160/4/616. 
  9. ^ Bearden CE, Reus VI, Freimer NB (June 2004). "Why genetic investigation of psychiatric disorders is so difficult". Curr Opin Genet Dev. 14 (3): 280–6. doi:10.1016/j.gde.2004.04.005. PMID 15172671. 
  10. ^ Kas MJ, Fernandes C, Schalkwyk LC, Collier DA (April 2007). "Genetics of behavioural domains across the neuropsychiatric spectrum; of mice and men". Mol Psychiatry. 12 (4): 324–30. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001979. PMID 17389901. 
  11. ^ Burmeister M (2006). "Genetics of Psychiatric Disorders: A Primer". Focus 4 (3): 317. http://focus.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/4/3/317. 
  12. ^ Kendler KS (November 2001). "Twin studies of psychiatric illness: an update". Arch Gen Psychiatry. 58 (11): 1005–14. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.58.11.1005. PMID 11695946. http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11695946. 
  13. ^ Bearden CE, Freimer NB (June 2006). "Endophenotypes for psychiatric disorders: ready for primetime?". Trends Genet. 22 (6): 306–13. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2006.04.004. PMID 16697071. 
  14. ^ Glahn DC, Thompson PM, Blangero J (June 2007). "Neuroimaging endophenotypes: strategies for finding genes influencing brain structure and function". Hum Brain Mapp 28 (6): 488–501. doi:10.1002/hbm.20401. PMID 17440953. 
  15. ^ Walsh, Tom. "Rare Structural Variants Disrupt Multiple Genes in Neurodevelopmental Pathways in Schizophrenia". Science. http://www.uwpsychiatry.org/Docs/News/McClellan_Science_Paper.pdf. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 
  16. ^ Fumagalli F, Molteni R, Racagni G, Riva MA (March 2007). "Stress during development: Impact on neuroplasticity and relevance to psychopathology". Prog Neurobiol. 81 (4): 197–217. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2007.01.002. PMID 17350153. 
  17. ^ Learning about Intellectual Disabilities and Health URL last accessed on August 24, 2006.
  18. ^ Fann JR, Burington B, Leonetti A, Jaffe K, Katon WJ, Thompson RS (January 2004). "Psychiatric illness following traumatic brain injury in an adult health maintenance organization population". Arch Gen Psychiatry. 61 (1): 53–61. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.61.1.53. PMID 14706944. 
  19. ^ Pearce, B.D. (2003) Modeling the role of infections in the etiology of mental illness Clinical Neuroscience Research Volume 3, Issues 4-5 , December 2003, Pages 271-282
  20. ^ Vyas A, Kim SK, Giacomini N, Boothroyd JC, Sapolsky RM (April 2007). "Behavioral changes induced by Toxoplasma infection of rodents are highly specific to aversion of cat odors". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 104 (15): 6442–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0608310104. PMC 1851063. PMID 17404235. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1851063. 
  21. ^ Thomas HV, Thomas DR, Salmon RL, Lewis G, Smith AP (2004). "Toxoplasma and coxiella infection and psychiatric morbidity: A retrospective cohort analysis". BMC Psychiatry 4: 32. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-4-32. PMC 526777. PMID 15491496. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=526777. 
  22. ^ Alvarado-Esquivel C, Alanis-Quiñones OP, Arreola-Valenzuela MA, et al. (2006). "Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in psychiatric inpatients in a northern Mexican city". BMC Infect Dis. 6: 178. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-6-178. PMC 1764421. PMID 17178002. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1764421. 
  23. ^ Walterfang M, Wood SJ, Velakoulis D, Copolov D, Pantelis C (September 2005). "Diseases of white matter and schizophrenia-like psychosis". Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 39 (9): 746–56. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1614.2005.01678.x. PMID 16168032. 
  24. ^ Phelan M, Stradins L, Morrison S (February 2001). "Physical health of people with severe mental illness : Can be improved if primary care and mental health professionals pay attention to it". BMJ 322 (7284): 443–4. doi:10.1136/bmj.322.7284.443. PMC 1119672. PMID 11222406. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/322/7284/443#B8. 
  25. ^ Iacoviello BM, Alloy LB, Abramson LY, Whitehouse WG, Hogan ME (July 2006). "The course of depression in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression: a prospective study". J Affect Disord. 93 (1–3): 61–9. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2006.02.012. PMID 16545464. 
  26. ^ Peer JE, Rothmann TL, Penrod RD, Penn DL, Spaulding WD (December 2004). "Social cognitive bias and neurocognitive deficit in paranoid symptoms: evidence for an interaction effect and changes during treatment". Schizophrenia Research 71 (2–3): 463–71. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2004.03.016. PMID 15474917. 
  27. ^ Bell V, Halligan PW, Ellis HD (May 2006). "Explaining delusions: a cognitive perspective". Trends Cogn Sci. 10 (5): 219–26. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2006.03.004. PMID 16600666. 
  28. ^ Weems CF, Costa NM, Watts SE, Taylor LK, Cannon MF (March 2007). "Cognitive errors, anxiety sensitivity, and anxiety control beliefs: their unique and specific associations with childhood anxiety symptoms". Behav Modif. 31 (2): 174–201. doi:10.1177/0145445506297016. PMID 17307934. 
  29. ^ Brunelin J, d'Amato T, Brun P, et al (January 2007). "Impaired verbal source monitoring in schizophrenia: an intermediate trait vulnerability marker?". Schizophrenia Research 89 (1–3): 287–92. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.08.028. PMID 17029909. 
  30. ^ Gil S, Caspi Y (2006). "Personality traits, coping style, and perceived threat as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder after exposure to a terrorist attack: a prospective study". Psychosom Med. 68 (6): 904–9. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000242124.21796.f8. PMID 17079704. 
  31. ^ Brandes M, Bienvenu OJ (August 2006). "Personality and anxiety disorders". Curr Psychiatry Rep. 8 (4): 263–9. doi:10.1007/s11920-006-0061-8. PMID 16879789. 
  32. ^ Christensen MV, Kessing LV (2006). "Do personality traits predict first onset in depressive and bipolar disorder?". Nord J Psychiatry 60 (2): 79–88. doi:10.1080/08039480600600300. PMID 16635925. 
  33. ^ Taylor Shelley E., Stanton Annette L. (2007). "Coping Resources, Coping Processes, and Mental Health". Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 3: 377–401. doi:10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091520. PMID 17716061. 
  34. ^ Andrew Mathews and Colin MacLeod (2004)Cognitive vulnerability to emotional disorders Annual Review of Clinical Psychology vol. 1: 167-195
  35. ^ Iversen SD, Iversen LL (May 2007). "Dopamine: 50 years in perspective". Trends Neurosci. 30 (5): 188–93. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2007.03.002. PMID 17368565. 
  36. ^ Hindmarch I (July 2002). "Beyond the monoamine hypothesis: mechanisms, molecules and methods". Eur Psychiatry. 17 Suppl 3: 294–9. doi:10.1016/S0924-9338(02)00653-3. PMID 15177084. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0924933802006533. 
  37. ^ Ruhé HG, Mason NS, Schene AH (April 2007). "Mood is indirectly related to serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine levels in humans: a meta-analysis of monoamine depletion studies". Mol Psychiatry. 12 (4): 331–59. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001949. PMID 17389902. 
  38. ^ Kalueff AV, Nutt DJ (2007). "Role of GABA in anxiety and depression". Depress Anxiety. 24 (7): 495–517. doi:10.1002/da.20262. PMID 17117412. 
  39. ^ Mirsky AF, Duncan CC (2005). "Pathophysiology of mental illness: a view from the fourth ventricle". Int J Psychophysiol. 58 (2–3): 162–78. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2005.06.004. PMID 16213042. 
  40. ^ McDonald C, Marshall N, Sham PC, et al. (March 2006). "Regional brain morphometry in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and their unaffected relatives". Am J Psychiatry. 163 (3): 478–87. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.478. PMID 16513870. 
  41. ^ Velakoulis D, Wood SJ, Wong MT, et al. (February 2006). "Hippocampal and amygdala volumes according to psychosis stage and diagnosis: a magnetic resonance imaging study of chronic schizophrenia, first-episode psychosis, and ultra-high-risk individuals". Arch Gen Psychiatry. 63 (2): 139–49. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.2.139. PMID 16461856. 
  42. ^ Colla M, Kronenberg G, Deuschle M, et al. (October 2007). "Hippocampal volume reduction and HPA-system activity in major depression". J Psychiatr Res. 41 (7): 553–60. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.06.011. PMID 17023001. 
  43. ^ a b c Rutter M (2000). "Psychosocial influences: critiques, findings, and research needs". Dev Psychopathol. 12 (3): 375–405. doi:10.1017/S0954579400003072. PMID 11014744. 
  44. ^ Spataro J, Mullen PE, Burgess PM, Wells DL, Moss SA (May 2004). "Impact of child sexual abuse on mental health: prospective study in males and females". Br J Psychiatry. 184 (5): 416–21. doi:10.1192/bjp.184.5.416. PMID 15123505. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15123505. 
  45. ^ Maughan B, McCarthy G (1 January 1997). "Childhood adversities and psychosocial disorders". Br Med Bull. 53 (1): 156–69. PMID 9158291. http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9158291. 
  46. ^ Teicher MH, Samson JA, Polcari A, McGreenery CE (June 2006). "Sticks, stones, and hurtful words: relative effects of various forms of childhood maltreatment". Am J Psychiatry 163 (6): 993–1000. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.6.993. PMID 16741199. 
  47. ^ Kessler RC, Davis CG, Kendler KS (September 1997). "Childhood adversity and adult psychiatric disorder in the US National Comorbidity Survey". Psychol Med. 27 (5): 1101–19. doi:10.1017/S0033291797005588. PMID 9300515. 
  48. ^ Pirkola S, Isometsä E, Aro H, et al. (October 2005). "Childhood adversities as risk factors for adult mental disorders: results from the Health 2000 study". Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 40 (10): 769–77. doi:10.1007/s00127-005-0950-x. PMID 16205853. 
  49. ^ MacMillan HL, Fleming JE, Streiner DL, et al. (November 2001). "Childhood abuse and lifetime psychopathology in a community sample". Am J Psychiatry. 158 (11): 1878–83. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.158.11.1878. PMID 11691695. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11691695. 
  50. ^ Heinrich LM, Gullone E (October 2006). "The clinical significance of loneliness: a literature review". Clin Psychol Rev. 26 (6): 695–718. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2006.04.002. PMID 16952717. 
  51. ^ Hara Estroff Marano (2003) The Dangers of Loneliness Psychology Today
  52. ^ Muntaner C, Eaton WW, Miech R, O'Campo P (2004). "Socioeconomic position and major mental disorders". Epidemiol Rev. 26 (1): 53–62. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxh001. PMID 15234947. http://epirev.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/26/1/53. 
  53. ^ Lorant V, Deliège D, Eaton W, Robert A, Philippot P, Ansseau M (January 2003). "Socioeconomic inequalities in depression: a meta-analysis". Am J Epidemiol 157 (2): 98–112. doi:10.1093/aje/kwf182. PMID 12522017. http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/157/2/98#KWF182C19. 
  54. ^ Araya R, Lewis G, Rojas G, Fritsch R (July 2003). "Education and income: which is more important for mental health?". J Epidemiol Community Health. 57 (7): 501–5. doi:10.1136/jech.57.7.501. PMC 1732519. PMID 12821693. http://jech.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/57/7/501. 
  55. ^ Caspi A, Taylor A, Moffitt TE, Plomin R (July 2000). "Neighborhood deprivation affects children's mental health: environmental risks identified in a genetic design". Psychol Sci. 11 (4): 338–42. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00267. PMID 11273396. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0956-7976&date=2000&volume=11&issue=4&spage=338. 
  56. ^ Chakraborty A, McKenzie K (June 2002). "Does racial discrimination cause mental illness?". Br J Psychiatry. 180 (6): 475–7. doi:10.1192/bjp.180.6.475. PMID 12042221. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/180/6/475. 
  57. ^ Fee, D. (2000). Pathology and the Postmodern: Mental Illness as Discourse and Experience. London: Sage Publications Ltd.
  58. ^ Al-Issa, Ihsan (1995). Handbook of culture and mental illness: an international perspective. New York: International Universities Press. ISBN 0-8236-2288-6. 
  59. ^ Krause, I. (2006). Hidden Points of View in Cross-cultural Psychotherapy and Ethnography. Transcultural Psychiatry, 43, 181-203.
  60. ^ Bergin, Allen E.; Richards, P.J. (2000). Handbook of Psychotherapy and Religious Diversity. American Psychological Association (APA). ISBN 1-55798-624-X. 
  61. ^ Lipsedge, Maurice; Littlewood, Roland (1997). Aliens and alienists: ethnic minorities and psychiatry (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-15725-0. 
  62. ^ Timimi S (July 2005). "Effect of globalisation on children's mental health". BMJ 331 (7507): 37–9. doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7507.37. PMC 558539. PMID 15994691. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/331/7507/0-e. 

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Classification of mental disorders — Main article: Mental disorder Psychology …   Wikipedia

  • History of mental disorders — The history of mental disorder spans prehistoric times, ancient civilisations, the Middle Ages, the early modern period, the enlightenment and modern times.Prehistoric timesThere is limited evidence by which to judge the existence or nature of… …   Wikipedia

  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders — The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association and provides a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders. It is used in the United States… …   Wikipedia

  • Trauma model of mental disorders — Trauma models of mental disorder (alternatively called trauma models of psychopathology) emphasise the effects of psychological trauma, particularly in early development, as the key causal factor in the development of some or many psychiatric… …   Wikipedia

  • Mental disorder — Classification and external resources Eight women representing prominent mental diagnoses in the 19th century. (Armand Gautier) ICD 10 F …   Wikipedia

  • mental disorder — Any illness with a psychological origin, manifested either in symptoms of emotional distress or in abnormal behaviour. Most mental disorders can be broadly classified as either psychoses or neuroses (see neurosis; psychosis). Psychoses (e.g.,… …   Universalium

  • Mental breakdown — Nervous breakdown redirects here. For other uses, see Nervous breakdown (disambiguation). Mental breakdown (also known as a nervous breakdown) is a non medical term used to describe an acute, time limited phase of a specific disorder that… …   Wikipedia

  • Mental health — describes either a level of cognitive or emotional well being or an absence of a mental disorder.[1][2] From perspectives of the discipline of positive psychology or holism mental health may include an individual s ability to enjoy life and… …   Wikipedia

  • Mental health literacy — has been defined as “knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders which aid their recognition, management or prevention. Mental health literacy includes the ability to recognize specific disorders; knowing how to seek mental health information;… …   Wikipedia

  • Mental retardation — Classification and external resources ICD 10 F70 F …   Wikipedia