Monsieur (French pronunciation: [məsjø]; pl. Messieurs; 1512, from Middle French mon sieur, literally "my lord"[1]) is an honorific title that used to refer to or address the eldest living brother of the king in the French royal court. It is also a customary French title of respect and term of address for a French-speaking man, corresponding to such English titles as Mr. or sir.[2]



Under the Ancien Régime, the court title of Monsieur referred to the next living brother of the King of France.

Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon (1555–1584), was the first notable royalty to assume the title without the use of an adjoining proper name.[2] In 1576, Monsieur pressured his brother King Henry III of France into signing the Edict of Beaulieu and effectively ending the Fifth Religious War of France. The resulting peace became popularly known as the Peace of Monsieur.[3]

The title was later assumed by Gaston, Duke of Orléans, brother of Louis XIII, and then Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, brother of Louis XIV. From 1643 to 1660, while both princes were alive, Philippe was commonly known as le Petit Monsieur, while Gaston, his uncle, was known as le Grand Monsieur.[4][5][unreliable source?]

For over seventy years, from 1701 to 1774, the title had no living representatives in the French court, as Philippe of France, died in 1701 and Louis XV was the youngest of the sons of Louis of France, Duke of Burgundy and at the time of ascension to the throne in 1715 had no brothers.[citation needed]

The title was restored in 1775 for Louis Stanislas Xavier, Count of Provence, the oldest surviving brother of the reigning Louis XVI and the future Louis XVIII. After his coronation in 1814, the title passed to Charles Philippe, Count of Artois, his younger brother.[6] Charles Philippe, who led the ultras during the Bourbon Restoration and became King Charles X in 1824,[7] was the last royal sibling to officially hold the title of Monsieur. His successor, Louis-Philippe I, the next and last king to rule France, had lost both his brothers, Louis Charles and Antoine Philippe, many years before when he overtook the throne.

A fuller list of those who have been known by this title includes:

Modern usage

In modern French, monsieur is used as a courtesy title of respect, an equivalent of English "mister" or "sir".[2] It can be abbreviated in M. (plural: MM.), and rarely Mr (plural: Mrs), but never Mr., which is only for Mister.


See also

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, / / , (in contempt or ridicule)

Look at other dictionaries:

  • monsieur — plur. messieurs [ məsjø, mesjø ] n. m. • 1314; de mon et sieur 1 ♦ Titre donné autrefois aux hommes de condition assez élevée (nobles ou bourgeois). ♢ Spécialt Titre donné aux princes de la famille royale. Absolt (Depuis le XVI e s.) Monsieur …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Monsieur R — Nom Richard Makela Naissance 1975 Etterbeek,  Belgique Pays d’origine …   Wikipédia en Français

  • monsieur — Monsieur. s. m. Qualité, titre que l on donne par honneur, civilité, bien seance aux personnes à qui on parle, à qui on escrit. Oüy, Monsieur, je vous supplie, Monsieur, de &c. On dit prov. d Un homme & d une femme que l on compare ensemble, que… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Monsieur Nô — Surnom Jean Nô Pays d’origine France Genre musical Chanson française Instruments Clarinette Labels Bizou Muzic Site officiel http://www …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Monsieur — Monsieur, aus dem Lateinischen meus senior (mein Aelterer) gebildet. Lange Zeit war der Titel Monsieur das ausschließliche Recht der Adeligen; Bürgerliche wurden Sieur genannt. Berühmte Männer nennt man in Frankreich einfach Monsieur, z. B.… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • Monsieur N. — Monsieur N. Monsieur N. film poster Directed by Antoine de Caunes Produced by …   Wikipedia

  • Monsieur R — Monsieur R, (Richard Makela), is a French rap artist whose work focuses on the political rap genre. His music features hard driven rhythms with thumping base lines, known as old school, which conveys the hard reality of his environment. There is… …   Wikipedia

  • Monsieur — [məˈsjø] steht für: Monsieur (Anrede), französische Anrede für Herr seit dem 16. Jahrhundert der Titel des jeweils ältesten Bruders der Könige von Frankreich, siehe Monsieur (Titel) Roman von Jean Philippe Toussaint, erschienen 1986 –… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Monsieur N — Monsieur N. Monsieur N. est un film d Antoine de Caunes, sorti en 2003. L histoire est consacrée à l exil à Sainte Hélène jusque l épisode de la mort de Napoléon. Sommaire 1 Synopsis 2 Fiche technique 3 Acteur …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Monsieur N. — Monsieur N. Données clés Réalisation Antoine de Caunes Scénario René Manzor et Antoine de Caunes Acteurs principaux Philippe Torreton Richard E. Grant Jay Rodan Sociétés de production France 3 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • monsieur — 1510s, from Fr. monsieur, from mon sieur my lord, from sieur lord, shortened form of seigneur (see MONSEIGNEUR (Cf. monseigneur)) It was the historical title for the second son or next younger brother of the king of France …   Etymology dictionary

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