New Delhi


New Delhi
New Delhi

नई दिल्ली

—  capital  —
From top clockwise: Lotus Temple, Humayun's Tomb, Connaught Place, Akshardham Temple, and India Gate
New Delhi
Location of New Delhi
in Delhi
Coordinates 28°36′50″N 77°12′32″E / 28.61389°N 77.20889°E / 28.61389; 77.20889Coordinates: 28°36′50″N 77°12′32″E / 28.61389°N 77.20889°E / 28.61389; 77.20889
Country India
Territory Delhi
District(s) New Delhi
Established 1911
Lieutenant Governor Tejendra Khanna
Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit
Population

Density
Metro

249,998 (2011)

5,854.7 /km2 (15,164 /sq mi)
13,850,507

Ethnic groups 
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area

Elevation

42.7 km2 (16 sq mi)

216 metres (709 ft)

Website www.ndmc.gov.in

New Delhi About this sound pronunciation (Hindi: नई दिल्ली, naī dillī; Urdu: نئی دلّی, nayee dillī;) is the capital city of India. It serves as the centre of the Government of India and the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is situated within the metropolis of Delhi. It is one of the nine districts of Delhi Union Territory. The total area of the city is 42.7 km2.[1] New Delhi hosts 134 foreign embassies and high commissions.

The foundation of the city was laid on December 15, 1911. It was planned by two leading 20th century British architects namely Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. The new Capital was christened "New Delhi" in 1927,[2] and subsequently inaugurated on February 13, 1931, by British India's Governor-General Lord Irwin.

New Delhi is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Humayun's Tomb and the Qutub complex.[3]

It is one of the fastest growing cities in the world and has a total population of nearing three hundred thousand residents. New Delhi is one of the world’s top global cities.[4] The World Cities Study Group at Loughborough University rated New Delhi as an "alpha- world city".[5] The National Geographic's Traveler Magazine describes it as "one of the Ultimate Cities of a Lifetime to visit and explore."[6] In a report jointly prepared by Institute for Competitiveness and Confederation of Indian Industry, the city is listed as the best to live in.[7][8] According to Mercer, New Delhi is the most expensive city in India for expatriates in terms of cost of living.[9] New Delhi is known for its wide, tree-lined boulevards and is home to numerous national institutions, museums and landmarks.

Contents

History

Built in 1193, the Qutub Minar is the world's tallest free-standing brick minaret.[10] and part of the ancient capital of the Tughlaq dynasty

Delhi was laid out to the south of the Old City which was constructed by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. However, New Delhi overlies the site of seven ancient cities and hence includes many historic monuments like the Jantar Mantar and the Lodhi Gardens.

Establishment of New Delhi

Calcutta was the capital of India until December 1911 during the British Raj. However, Delhi had served as the political and financial centre of several empires of ancient and Delhi Sultanate, most notably of the Mughal Empire from 1799 to 1849. During the early 1900s, a proposal was made to the British administration to shift the capital of the British Indian Empire (as it was officially called) from Calcutta to Delhi.[11] Unlike Calcutta, which was located on the eastern coast of India, Delhi was located in northern India and the Government of British India felt that it would be easier to administer India from Delhi rather than from Calcutta.[11] On December 12, 1911, during the Delhi Durbar, George V, the then Emperor of India, along with Queen Mary, his Consort, made the announcement that the capital of the Raj was to be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, while laying the foundation stone for the Viceroy's residence in the Coronation Park, Kingsway Camp.[12][13]

The foundation stone of New Delhi was laid by King George V and Queen Mary at the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911 at Kingsway Camp on December 15, 1911, during their imperial visit. Large parts of New Delhi were planned by Edwin Lutyens (Sir Edwin from 1918) and Herbert Baker (Sir Herbert from 1926), both leading 20th century British architects, and the contract was given to Sobha Singh (later Sir Sobha Singh). Lutyens first visited Delhi in 1912, and construction really began after World War I and was completed by 1931, when the city later dubbed "Lutyens' Delhi" was inaugurated on February 13, 1931, by Lord Irwin, the Viceroy. Lutyens laid out the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial aspirations.[1]

India Gate commemorates Indian soldiers who fought in World War I

However, soon Lutyens started considering other places. Indeed, the "Delhi Town Planning Committee on the planning of new Imperial capital" with George Swinton as chairman and John A. Brodie and Lutyens as members, submitted its reports for both "North" and "South" sites. However, it was rejected by the Viceroy, when the cost of compensation while acquiring the properties, was found to be too high. The central axis of New Delhi, which today faces east at India Gate, was previously meant to be a North-South axis, linking Viceroy's House with Paharganj, as the end of the axis.[14] Eventually owning to space constraints and presence of a large number heritage sites in the North side, the committee finalized on South site.[15] A site atop the Raisina Hill, formerly Raisina village, a Meo village, was chosen for the Rashtrapati Bhawan, then known as the Viceroy's House. The historic reason for this choice was that the hill lay directly opposite to the Dinapanah citadel, which was also considered the site of Indraprastha, the ancient region of Delhi. Subsequently, the foundation stone was shifted from the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911-1912, where the Coronation Pillar stood as well, and embedded in the walls of the forecourt of the Secretariat. The Rajpath, also known as King's Way, stretched from the India Gate to the Rashtrapati Bhawan. The Secretariat building, which houses various ministries of the Government of India, flanked out of the Rashtrapati Bhawan, and the Parliament House, both designed by Herbert Baker, is located at the Sansad Marg, which runs parallel to the Rajpath.[16] Towards the south, land till Safdarjung's Tomb was acquired for construction to create what is today known as Lutyens' Bungalow Zone.[17] Before the construction could begin on the rocky ridge of Raisina Hill, a circular railway line, around the Council House (now Parliament House), called the 'Imperial Delhi Railway', was built to transport construction material and workers for the next 20 years. The last stumbling block was the Agra-Delhi railways line that cut right through the site earmarked for the hexagonal All-India War Memorial (India Gate), Kingsway (Rajpath) as the Old Delhi Railway Station served the entire city till then, eventually the line was shifted along Yamuna river and open in 1924. The New Delhi Railway Station was opened in 1926 with a single platform at Ajmeri Gate near Paharganj, ahead of the inauguration of the city in 1931.[18][19] As the principal construction of the Viceroy House (present Rashtrapati Bhavan), Central Secretariat, Parliament House, and All-India War Memorial (India Gate) was winding down the construction of shopping district and plaza of the new capital, Connaught Place began in 1929, and was complete by 1933. Named after The Prince Arthur, 1st Duke of Connaught (1850–1942), it was designed by Robert Tor Russell, chief architect to the Public Works Department (PWD).[20]

After the capital of India moved to Delhi, a temporary secretariat building was constructed in a few months in 1912 in North Delhi. Most of the government offices of the new capital moved here from the 'Old secretariat' in Old Delhi (the building now houses the Delhi Legislative Assembly), a decade before the new capital was inaugurated in 1931. Many employees were brought into the new capital from distant parts of India, including the Bengal Presidency and Madras Presidency. Subsequently housing for them was developed around Gole Market area in 1920s.[2] Built in 1940s, to house government employees, with bungalows for senior officials in the nearby Lodhi Estate area, Lodhi colony near historic Lodhi Gardens, was the last residential areas built by the British Raj.[21]

Post-independence

Rashtrapati Bhavan and adjacent buildings, illuminated for the Republic Day.

After India gained independence in 1947, a limited autonomy was conferred to New Delhi and was administered by a Chief Commissioner appointed by the Government of India. In 1956, Delhi was converted into a union territory and eventually the Chief Commissioner was replaced by a Lieutenant Governor. The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as National Capital Territory of Delhi.[22] A system of diarchy was introduced under which the elected Government was given wide powers, excluding law and order which remained with the Central Government. The actual enforcement of the legislation came in 1993.

The first major extension of New Delhi outside of Lutyens' Delhi came in the 1950s when the Central Public Works Department (CPWD) developed a large area of land southwest of Lutyens' Delhi to create the diplomatic enclave of Chanakyapuri, where land was allotted for embassies, chanceries, high commissions and residences of ambassadors, around wide central vista, Shanti Path.[23][24] The second phase of extension of New Delhi, which started in late 1950s by acquiring land from Munirka farmers. Developed by CPWD to south-West of Central Secretariat, its development continued till 1970s, when R. K. Puram, one of the largest residential colonies of the time was established.[23] By now Delhi was growing in all directions, especially towards South Delhi and trans-Yamuna areas, with new private colonies coming up rapidly, filling up all the spaces left behind by government housing colonies. The construction picked further speed when Delhi Development Authority (DDA) started developing public housing colonies across Delhi, as well as housing townships, from Pitampura, Patparganj, Rohini, Dwarka to Vasant Kunj in the south, in the 1980s and 90s.[23] So much so, that Safdarjung Airport which was once at the edge of the city, came almost in its middle, and is no longer in use for commercial flights, which started operating from the Palam Airport in 1962. Two big spurts of growth in the city, came when the city hosted international sports events, first the 1982 Asian Games and more recently the 2010 Commonwealth Games.

Geography and climate

Geography

New Delhi is situated in the centre of Delhi
Map of New Delhi
The Yamuna River lies east of New Delhi.

With a total area of 42.7 km2, New Delhi forms a small part of the Delhi metropolitan area[25] and is located in the Indo-Gangetic Plain because of which there is little difference in the city's altitude. New Delhi and surrounding areas were once a part of the Aravalli Range, but all that is left now is the Delhi ridge, which is also called the Lungs of Delhi. The second feature is the Yamuna floodplains; New Delhi lies west of the Yamuna river, although for the most part, New Delhi is a landlocked city. East of the river is the urban area of Shahdara. New Delhi falls under the seismic zone-IV, making it vulnerable to earthquakes.[26]

Climate

The climate of New Delhi is a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) with high variation between summer and winter, in terms of both temperatures and rainfall. The temperature varies from 40 °C (104 °F) in summers to around 7 °C (45 °F) in winters. The area's version of a humid subtropical climate is noticeably different from many other cities with this climate classification in that it features long and very hot summers, relatively dry and cool winters, a monsoonal period, and dust storms. Summers are long, from early April to October, with the monsoon season in between. Winter starts in November and peaks in January. The annual mean temperature is around 25 °C (77 °F); monthly daily mean temperatures range from approximately 14 to 34 °C (57 to 93 °F). The average annual rainfall is 714 millimetres (28.1 in), most of which is during the monsoons in July and August.[27]

Climate data for Delhi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 21.1
(70.0)
24.2
(75.6)
30.0
(86.0)
36.2
(97.2)
39.6
(103.3)
39.3
(102.7)
35.1
(95.2)
33.3
(91.9)
33.9
(93.0)
32.9
(91.2)
28.3
(82.9)
23.0
(73.4)
31.4
Average low °C (°F) 7.3
(45.1)
10.1
(50.2)
15.4
(59.7)
21.5
(70.7)
25.9
(78.6)
28.3
(82.9)
26.6
(79.9)
25.9
(78.6)
24.4
(75.9)
19.5
(67.1)
12.8
(55.0)
8.2
(46.8)
18.8
Rainfall mm (inches) 20.3
(0.799)
15.0
(0.591)
15.8
(0.622)
6.7
(0.264)
17.5
(0.689)
54.9
(2.161)
231.5
(9.114)
258.7
(10.185)
127.8
(5.031)
36.3
(1.429)
5.0
(0.197)
7.8
(0.307)
797.3
(31.39)
Avg. rainy days 1.7 1.3 1.2 0.9 1.4 3.6 10.0 11.3 5.4 1.6 0.1 0.6 39.1
Sunshine hours 213.9 217.5 238.7 261.0 263.5 198.0 167.4 176.7 219.0 269.7 246.0 217.0 2,688.4
Source no. 1: WMO [28]
Source no. 2: HKO (sun only, 1971–1990) [29]

Government

The Secretariat Building houses Ministries of Defence, Finance, Home Affairs and External Affairs. It also houses the Prime Ministers office.

As of 2005, the government structure of the New Delhi Municipal Council includes a chairperson, three members of New Delhi's Legislative Assembly, two members nominated by the Chief Minister of National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT) and five members nominated by the central government. The current Chief Minister of the NCT is Sheila Dikshit. According to the Indian constitution, if a law passed by Delhi's legislative assembly is repugnant to any law passed by the Parliament of India, then the law enacted by the parliament shall prevail over the law enacted by the assembly.[30] Utkrisht Raithwal is the new member of parliament in new delhi

New Delhi is governed through a municipal government, known as the New Delhi Municipal Council. Other urban areas of the metropolis of Delhi are administered by the Municipal Corporation of Delhi. However, the entire metropolis of Delhi is commonly known as New Delhi in contrast to Old Delhi.

International organizations

The city is home to numerous international organizations. The Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology of the UNESCAP servicing the Asia-Pacific region is headquartered in New Delhi.[31] New Delhi is home to most UN regional offices in India namely the UNDP, UNODC, UNESCO, UNICEF, WFP, UNV, UNCTAD, FAO, UNFPA, WHO, World Bank, IMF, UNIFEM, IFC and UNAIDS.

Urban structure

Rashtrapati Bhavan is the official residence of the President of India

Much of New Delhi, planned by the leading 20th century British architect Edwin Lutyens, was laid out to be the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial pretensions. New Delhi is structured around two central promenades called the Rajpath and the Janpath. The Rajpath, or King's Way, stretches from the Rashtrapati Bhavan to the India Gate. The Janpath (Hindi: "Path of the People"), formerly Queen's Way, begins at Connaught Circus and cuts the Rajpath at right angles. Nineteen (19) foreign embassies are located on the nearby Shantipath (Hindi: "Path of Peace"), making it the largest diplomatic enclave in India.[32]

At the heart of the city is the magnificent Rashtrapati Bhavan (formerly known as Viceroy's House) which sits atop Raisina Hill. The Secretariat, which houses various ministries of the Government of India, flanks out of the Rashtrapati Bhavan. The Parliament House, designed by Herbert Baker, is located at the Sansad Marg, which runs parallel to the Rajpath. The Connaught Place is a large, circular commercial area in New Delhi, modeled after the Royal Crescent in England. Twelve separate roads lead out of the outer ring of Connaught Place, one of them being the Janpath.

Transport

The Delhi Transport Corporation operates the world's largest fleet of CNG powered buses.[33]

Being a planned city, New Delhi has numerous arterial roads, some of which have an iconic status associated with them such as Rajpath, Janpath and Akbar Road. In 2005, private vehicles accounted for 30% of total transportation demand for the Delhi metropolitan area.[34] Road construction and maintenance is primarily the responsibility of New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC)'s Civil Engineering Department.[35] Underground subways are a common feature across New Delhi. As of 2008, 15 subways were operational.[36] In 1971, the administrative responsibility of the Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) was transferred from Municipal Corporation of Delhi to Government of India following which DTC extended its operations to New Delhi. In 2007, there were 2700 bus stops in New Delhi, of which 200 were built and maintained by NDMC and the rest by DTC.[37]

The Delhi Metro, constructed and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), connects the city with the rest of the metropolis of Delhi. Under an agreement with NDMC, DMRC can acquire land for the construction of metro rail and stations in New Delhi without any financial implications.[38] NDMC is also constructing multi-level parking systems in collaboration with DMRC at various Delhi metro stations across New Delhi to increase parking space.[39] The New Delhi Railway Station which is the main railway station in Delhi, is the second busiest and one of the largest stations in India connects Delhi with the rest of the country.

Indira Gandhi International Airport (DEL) is the primary aviation hub of Delhi. In 2006–07, the airport recorded a traffic of more than 23 million passengers,[40][41] making it one of the busiest airports in South Asia. New US$1.93 billion Terminal 3 will handle an additional 34 million passengers annually.[42] Further expansion programs will allow the airport to handle more than 100 million passengers per annum by 2020.[40] Safdarjung Airport is the other airfield in Delhi used for general aviation purpose.[43]

Delhi Metro

Public transport in Delhi is provided by buses, auto rickshaws and a metro rail system. Buses are the most popular means of transport catering to about 60% of the total demand. The state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) is a major bus service provider for the city. The DTC operates the world's largest fleet of environment-friendly CNG buses. Delhi BRTS is Bus rapid transit serving the city which runs between Ambedkar Nagar and Delhi Gate.

CNG powered Auto rickshaw for common public transport.

The Delhi Metro, a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi as well as the satellite city of Gurgaon and Noida. As of October 2010, the metro consists of six operational lines with a total length of 153 km (95 mi) and 130 stations while several other lines are under construction. The Phase-I was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II will cost an additional US$4.3 billion. Phase-II of the network is under construction and will have a total length of 128 km. It is expected to be completed by 2010. Phase-III and IV will be completed by 2015 and 2020 respectively, creating a network spanning 413.8 km, longer than that of the London Underground.

Auto rickshaws are a popular means of public transportation in Delhi, as they charge a lower fare than taxis. Most run on Compressed natural gas and are yellow and green in colour. Taxis are not an integral part of Delhi public transport, though they are easily available. Private operators operate most taxis, and most neighborhoods have a taxi stand from which taxis can be ordered or picked up. In addition, air-conditioned radio taxis, which can be ordered by calling a central number, have become increasingly popular, charging a flat rate of 15 per kilometre.

Delhi is a major junction in the rail map of India and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway. The five main railway stations are New Delhi Railway Station, Old Delhi, Nizamuddin Railway Station, Anand Vihar Railway Terminal and Sarai Rohilla. Delhi is connected to other cities through many highways and expressways. Delhi currently has three expressways and three are under construction to connect it with its prosperous and commercial suburbs. The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway connects Delhi with Gurgaon and the international airport. The DND Flyway and Noida-Greater Noida Expressway connect Delhi with two prosperous suburbs of Noida and Greater Noida.

Indira Gandhi International Airport is one of the largest airports in the world and the busiest airports in South Asia.[44]

Indira Gandhi International Airport (DEL) is situated in the western corner of Delhi and serves as the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. In 2006–07, the airport recorded a traffic of more than 23 million passengers, making it one of the busiest airports in South Asia. A new US$1.93 billion Terminal 3 handles an additional 34 million passengers annually in 2010. Further expansion programs will allow the airport to handle more than 100 million passengers per annum by 2020.

Private vehicles account for 30% of the total demand for transport. At 1922.32 km of road length per 100 km², Delhi has one of the highest road densities in India. Delhi is well connected to other parts of India by five National Highways: NH 1, 2, 8, 10 and 24. Roads in Delhi are maintained by MCD (Municipal Corporation of Delhi), NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board, Public Works Department (PWD) and Delhi Development Authority.

Delhi's high population growth rate, coupled with high economic growth rate has resulted in an ever increasing demand for transport creating excessive pressure on the city's existent transport infrastructure. As of 2008. Also, the number of vehicles in the metropolitan region, i.e., Delhi NCR is 112 lakhs (11.2 million). In 2008, there were 85 cars in Delhi for every 1,000 of its residents. In order to meet the transport demand in Delhi, the State and Union government started the construction of a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro. In 1998, the Supreme Court of India ordered all public transport vehicles of Delhi to use compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel instead of diesel and other hydro-carbons.

Northern Peripheral Road road is being developed under the public private partnership (PPP) model. This stretch will connect Dwarka with National Highway 8 at Kherki Dhaula and will pass Pataudi Road. The NPR stretch has been planned as an alternate link road between Delhi and Gurgaon, and is expected to ease the traffic situation on the Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway. The road will also provide connectivity to the much-touted Reliance-HSIIDC SEZ besides the Garhi Harsaru dry depot.

Demographics

The Laxminarayan Temple is a famous Hindu temple in New Delhi

According to the 2011 census New Delhi has a population of 249,998.[45] This gives it a ranking of 609th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 5,854.7 inhabitants per square kilometre (15,164 /sq mi).

Hinduism is the religion of 86.8% of New Delhi's population. There are also large communities of Muslims (6.3%), Sikhs (2.4%), Jains (1.1%) and Christians (0.9%) in Delhi.[46] Other minorities include Parsis, Buddhists and Jews.[47] Hindi is the principal spoken language while English is the principal written language of the city. The linguistic groups from all over India are well represented in the city; among them are Punjabi, Urdu, Bihari, Bengali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Garhwali, Kannada, North-East, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya and Gujarati roughly in same order.[citation needed]

Culture

The National Museum in New Delhi is the largest museum in India.

New Delhi is a cosmopolitan city due to the multi-ethnic and multi-cultural presence of the vast Indian bureaucracy and political system. The city's capital status has amplified the importance of national events and holidays. National events such as Republic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti (Gandhi's birthday) are celebrated with great enthusiasm in New Delhi and the rest of India. On India's Independence Day (15 August) the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation from the Red Fort. Most Delhiites celebrate the day by flying kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom.[48] The Republic Day Parade is a large cultural and military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and military might.[49][50]

Religious festivals include Diwali (the festival of light), Maha Shivaratri, Teej, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Baisakhi, Durga Puja, Holi, Lohri, Eid ul-Fitr, Eid ul-Adha, Christmas and Mahavir Jayanti.[50] The Qutub Festival is a cultural event during which performances of musicians and dancers from all over India are showcased at night, with the Qutub Minar as the chosen backdrop of the event.[51] Other events such as Kite Flying Festival, International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchami (the Spring Festival) are held every year in Delhi.

New Delhi also has a thriving theatre scene,[52] with many active theatre groups including Pierrot's Troupe.

Sports

New Delhi hosted the 2010 Commonwealth Games, the largest sporting event held in India. Shown here is the Opening Ceremony at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium.

The city hosted the 2010 Commonwealth Games and annually hosts Delhi Half Marathon foot-race. The city has previously hosted the 1951 Asian Games and the 1982 Asian Games. It will bid for the 2019 Asian Games and the 2024 Olympic Games.

Economy

The Auto Expo, Asia's largest auto show,[53] is held biennially at Pragati Maidan

Connaught Place, one of northern India's largest commercial and financial centres, is located in the northern part of New Delhi. Adjoining areas such as Barakhamba Road, ITO are also major commercial centres. Government and quasi government sector was the primary employer in New Delhi. The city's service sector has expanded due in part to the large skilled English-speaking workforce that has attracted many multinational companies. Key service industries include information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism.

The 2011 World Wealth Report ranks economic activity in New Delhi at 39, but overall the capital is ranked at 37, above cities like Jakarta and Johannesburg.[54]

The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi does not release any economic figures specifically for New Delhi but publishes an official economic report on the whole of Delhi annually. According to the Economic Survey of Delhi, the metropolis has a net State Domestic Product (SDP) of Rs. 83,085 crores (for the year 2004–05)[55] and a per capita income of Rs. 53,976($ 1,200).[55] In the year 2008-09 New Delhi had a Per Capita Income of Rs.1,16,886 ($ 2,595).It grew by 16.2% to reach Rs.1,35,814 ($ 3,018) in 2009-10 fiscal.The tertiary sector contributes 78.4% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary and primary sectors with 20.2% and 1.4% contribution respectively.[55]

Sister cities

New Delhi has sixty official sister cities[56][57]

City Geographical location Nation Since
Chicago Illinois  United States 2001
London England  United Kingdom 2002
Ulan Bator Mid-East Mongolia  Mongolia 2001
Moscow Central Federal District  Russia 2002
Saint Petersburg Northwestern Federal District  Russia 2002
Johannesburg Gauteng province  South Africa 2007

See also

References

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Further reading

  • Johnson, David A. "A British Empire for the twentieth century: the inauguration of New Delhi, 1931," Urban History, Dec 2008, Vol. 35 Issue 3, pp 462–487
  • Kumar, Pushpam (February 2009). "Assessment of Economic Drivers of Land Use Change in Urban Ecosystems of Delhi, India". AMBIO 38 (1): 35–39. doi:10.1579/0044-7447-38.1.35. 
  • Ridley, Jane. "Edwin Lutyens, New Delhi, and the Architecture of Imperialism," Journal of Imperial & Commonwealth History, May 1998, Vol. 26 Issue 2, pp 67–83
  • Sonne, Wolfgang. Representing the State: Capital City Planning in the Early Twentieth Century (2003) 367pp; compares New Delhi, Canberra, Washington & Berlin.
  • Volwahsen, Andreas. Imperial Delhi: The British Capital of the Indian Empire (2002)

External links


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  • New delhi —  Ne doit pas être confondu avec Delhi. New Delhi Connaught Place Administration …   Wikipédia en Français

  • New Delhi — New De|lhi [nju: deli ]: ↑ Neu Delhi. * * * New Delhi   [ njuː delɪ], die Hauptstadt Indiens, südlicher Stadtteil von Delhi. * * * New De|lhi [nju: deli]: ↑Neu Delhi …   Universal-Lexikon

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