- Byzantine Senate
The Byzantine Senate or Eastern Roman Senate was the continuation of the
Roman Senate, established in the 4th centuryby Constantine I. It survived for centuries but was increasingly irrelevant until its eventual disappearance in the 13th century.Fact|date=August 2008
The Senate of the
Byzantine Empireoriginally consisted of Roman senators who happened to live in the East, or those who wanted to move to ConstantinopleFact|date=February 2007, and a few other bureaucrats who were appointed to the Senate. Constantine offered free land and grain to any Roman Senators who were willing to move to the East. When Constantine founded the senate in Byzantium, it initially resembled the councils of important cities like Antioch rather than the Roman Senate. His son Constantius IIraised it from the position of a municipal to that of an Imperial body but the Senate in Constantinople had essentially the same limited powers as the Senate in Rome. Constantius II increased the number of Senators to 2,000 by including his friends, courtiers, and various provincial officials.
Admission and Composition
The traditional principles that Senatorial rank was hereditary and that the normal way of becoming a member of the Senate itself was by holding a magistracy still remained in full force.Bury, J.B. History of the Later Roman Empire, Volume 1, Chapter 1.] By the time of the permanent division of the
Roman Empirein 395, Praetors' responsibilities had been reduced to a purely municipal role. Their sole duty was to manage the spending of money on the exhibition of games or on public works. However, with the decline of the other traditional Roman offices such as that of tribunethe Praetorship remained an important portal through which aristocrats could gain access to either the Western or Eastern Senates. The Praetorship was a costly position to hold as Praetors were expected to possess a treasury from which they could draw funds for their municipal duties. There is known to have been 8 Praetors in the Eastern Empire who shared the financial burden between them.However the offices of aedileand tribuneeventually disappeared as the Byzantine Empire progressed and by the end of the 4th century the quaestorship was on the point of disappearing. The Emperor or the Senate itself could also issue a decree to grant a man not born into the Senatorial order a seat in the Senate. Exemption from the expensive position of praetor would also often be conferred on such persons that had become Senators in this way.
The Senate was mostly composed of statesmen and officials, ranging from the most important statesmen in the Empire such as the Master of the Office and the Master of Soldiers to provincial governors and retired civil servants. The Senatorial families in Constantinople tended to be less affluent and less distinguished than those in the West (where the size of the Senate had also been increased to 2,000 in the 4th century). Some aristocrats attempted to become Senators in order to escape the difficult conditions that were imposed on them by late Roman Emperors such as
Diocletian(reigned 284-305 AD). The curiales(Roman middle class) were often forced to become decurionswhere they were charged with participating in local government at their own expense as well as having to collect taxes and pay any deficits from their own pockets. As it was recognised that many who sought seats in the Senate were doing so primarily to escape the harsh duties of the decurion Theodosius Idecreed that they must complete their public service even if they became Senators.
The Senate was lead by the Prefect of the City (Constantinople), who conducted all of its communications with the Emperor. It was composed of three orders, the "illustres", "spectabiles" and "clarissimi". The members of the "illustres" were those who held the highest offices in Eastern Rome, such as the Master of Soldiers and Praetorian Prefects. The "spectabiles" formed the middle class of the Senate and consisted of important statesmen such as proconsuls, vicars and military governors of the provinces. The "clarissimi" was the lower class of the senate and was attached to the governors of the provinces and to other lesser posts. Members of the lower two orders were permitted to live anywhere within the empire and were generally inactive Senators. The majority of active members in the Senate were the "illustres", whose important offices were usually based in Constantinople and so were able to attend the Senate frequently. By the end of the
5th centurythe two lower classes were completely excluded from sitting in the Senate. During the reign of Justinian Ithe numbers of "clarissimi" were significantly increased which caused many officials to be promoted to the rank of "spectabiles" and this in turn caused there to be an increase of the numbers of "illustres", which had previously been the elite class of the Senate. As a result a new order, the "gloriosi", was created to accommodate the highest ranking senators. It is important to note that being a Senator was generally a secondary career for most of the Senates members, who usually possessed important positions within the administrative machinery of the Empire.
Powers and Functions
Whilst the powers of the Byzantine Senate were limited, it could pass resolutions ("senatus consulta") which the Emperor might adopt and issue in the form of
edicts. It could thus suggest Imperial legislation, and it acted from time to time as a consultative body in co-operation with the Imperial Council. Some Imperial laws took the form of 'Orations to the Senate', and were read aloud before the body. The Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian III, in 446, formulated a legislative procedure which granted to the Senate the right of co-operation, where any new law was to be discussed at a meeting between the Senate and the Council before being confirmed by the Emperor. This procedure was included in Justinian's code although it is unclear whether it was fully adopted in the East. In addition the Emperor would use the Senate as a judicial court, and trials for high treason were sometimes referred to it. Ordinary crimes would also often be judged by a court consisting of the Prefect of the City and five Senators chosen by lot. The Senate also maintained constitutional significance in that officially Emperors were to be chosen by the military and the Senate, although succession was almost always hereditary.
Confrontations with the Emperor
There were at least three incidents when the Senate attempted to assert authority on the basis of their constitutional importance regarding the succession of an Emperor. In
457they offered to make the Master of Soldiers, the Alan Aspar, Emperor, but the tribune and Senator Marcian, who was Aspar's subordinate, ascended to the throne. In 532, some of the Senators gave their support to the Nika rioters against Justinian I, who did not like or trust the wealthy Senate. After 541, the Senate lost many of its members due to a plague pandemic and during the ensuing economic turmoil, Justinian confiscated the wealth of many of the remaining Senators. In 608during Phocasrule the Senate declared Heracliusconsul. Heraclius later was elected emperor. Previous emperor Phocas was deposed by the Senate and arrested in a church by two senators. [ [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/herrin.html Judith Herrin. The Formation of Christendom. Princeton Univ Press. 1987] ]
When Emperor Heraclius died in
641, he left the empire to be ruled by his both sons, Constantine III and Heraklonas. Martina, the wife of late Heraclius, demanded imperial power for herself, and declared this in a grand ceremony held in the Hippodrome of Constantinoplewhich was attended by the Senate, other high official and people of Constantinople. Opinion of the Senate and the people being strongly against her, wanting Heraclius' sons to rule, Martina was forced to return to the Great Palace of Constantinoplein defeat. However, Constantine died only four months later, leaving his brother Heraklonas as sole ruler, and rumours of his own mother having assassinated him started to spread. Soon afterwards, a revolt led by general of the army named Valentinus began, and Heraklonas was forced to accept his young nephew Constans IIas co-ruler.
In an attempt to lower the chances of Constans ruling, Heraklonas named his brother David (Tiberius) as co-ruler too. This, however, did not ease the discontent among the Senate and the people, and soon the Byzantine Senate deposed Heraklonas. His nose was slit, Martina's tongue cut out and they were exiled to Rhodes. Constans II became sole emperor.
The Senate's power was gradually reduced over the course of history, although it still existed into the
13th century. The Senate's last known act was to elect Nicolas Canabusas Emperor in opposition against Isaac IIand Alexius IVduring the Fourth Crusade. [Phillips, Jonathan. "The Fourth Crusade and the Siege of Constantinople". 2004. pp. 222-226.]
There were two Senate houses in Constantinople; one, built by Constantine, was on the east side of the Augusteum, close to the Imperial Palace whilst the other was on the north side of the
Forum of Constantine. The Senate lost its houses in the 6th centuryand from then on assembled in the Great Palace of Constantinople.
* Bury, J. B. "History of the Later Roman Empire", vol. 1.
Byzantine aristocracy and bureaucracy
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