- Numantine War
2nd Celtiberian War Part of Celtiberian Wars Date 154 to 152 BC Location Hispania Result Roman victory Belligerents Roman Republic Belli, Titti, Arevaci Commanders and leaders Quintus Fulvius Nobilior, Marcus Claudius Marcellus Caros Numantine War Part of Celtiberian Wars Date 143 to 133 BC Location Hispania Result Roman victory Territorial
Expansion of the Roman territory through Celtiberia. Belligerents Roman Republic Arevaci, Lusones, Vaccaei, Vettones Commanders and leaders Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus, Quintus Pompeius, Marcus Popillius Laenas, Gaius Hostilius Mancinus, Scipio Aemilianus
The Numantine War (from Bellum Numantinum in Appian's Roman History) was the last conflict of the Celtiberian Wars fought by the Romans to subdue those people along the Ebro. It was a twenty year long conflict between the Celtiberian tribes of Hispania Citerior and the Roman government. It began in 154 BC as a revolt of the Celtiberians of Numantia on the Douro. The first phase of the war ended in 151, but, in 143, war flared up again with a new insurrection in Numantia.
The first war was fought contemporaneously with the Lusitanian War in Hispania Ulterior. The Lusitanians were subdued by Sulpicius Galba, who betrayed their surrender and executed their leading men, and the Arevaci of Hispania Citerior continued the war and allied with the Lusitanian leader Viriathus.
After open war was reinvigorated in 143, Rome sent a series of generals to the Iberian peninsula to deal with the Numantines. In that year, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus tried and failed to take the city by siege, but subjugated all the other tribes of the Arevaci. His successor, Quintus Pompeius, was inept and suffered severe defeats at their hands, so he secretly negotiated a peace with the city abiding by the previous treaty. Yet in 138 a new general arrived, Marcus Pompillius Laenas, and when the Numantine envoys came to finish their obligations of the peace treaty, Pompeius disavowed negotiating any such peace. The matter was referred to the Senate for a judgment. Rome decided to ignore Pompeius' peace and sent Gaius Hostilius Mancinus to continue the war in 136, who assaulted the city and was repulsed several times before being routed and encircled, and so forced to accept a treaty. The Senate did not ratify his treaty either. His successors Lucius Furius Philus and Gaius Calpurnius Piso avoided conflict with the Numantines.
In 134 BC, the Consul Scipio Aemilianus was sent to Hispania Citerior to end the war. He recruited 20,000 men and 40,000 allies, including Numidian cavalry under Jugurtha. Scipio built a ring of seven fortresses around Numantia itself before beginning the siege proper. After suffering pestilence and famine, most of the surviving Numantines committed suicide rather than surrender to Rome. The great Roman victory over Numantia ushered in an era of lasting peace in Hispania until the Sertorian War over half a century later.
- ^ The term Numantine War can refer to the whole conflict lasting from 154 to 133 or to just the latter part, from 143 to 133. Thus, the two conflicts are sometimes called the Numantine Wars (plural) and subdivided into the First and Second Numantine War. The two are also called the Second and Third Celtiberian (or Spanish) Wars.
- Davis, Paul K. Besieged: 100 Great Sieges from Jericho to Sarajevo. Oxford University Press, 2001.
- Wintle, Justin. The Rough Guide History of Spain. Rough Guides: Spain, 2003.
- Encyclopaedia Romana: The Celtiberian War and Numantia.
- Works by Theodor Mommsen at Project Gutenberg The History of Rome, Book IV
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Lusitanian War — The Lusitanian War, called the Purinos Polemos (meaning Fiery War ), [This is the name for it in Polybius and Appian.] was a war of resistance fought between the advancing legions of the Roman Republic and the Lusitani tribes of Hispania Ulterior … Wikipedia
Campaign history of the Roman military — This article is part of the series on: Military of ancient Rome (portal) 753 BC – AD 476 Structural history Roman army (unit types and ranks … Wikipedia
Siege of Numantia — Infobox Military Conflict caption= partof=the Numantine War conflict=Siege of Numantia date=134 ndash; 133 BC, lasting either eight or sixteen months place=Numantia, Iberia result=Roman victory combatant1=Roman Republic combatant2=Celtiberians… … Wikipedia
Celtiberian Wars — The Celtiberian Wars [The term comes from Appian.] or Spanish Wars were a series of three wars lasting, off and on, from 181 to 133 BC. They were fought between the advancing legions of the Roman Republic and the Celtiberian tribes of Hispania… … Wikipedia
List of Roman wars — The following is a List of Roman wars fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date. 4th century BC*First Samnite War (343 341 BC) *Latin War (340 338 BC) *Second Samnite War (326 304 BC)3rd century… … Wikipedia
Roman infantry tactics — refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The article first presents a short overview of Roman training. Roman… … Wikipedia
Viriathus — (known as Viriato in Portuguese and Spanish) (? 139 BC) was the most important leader of the Lusitanian people that resisted Roman expansion into the regions of Western Iberia (as the Romans would call it), where the Roman province of Lusitania… … Wikipedia
Polybius — (ca. 203 ndash;120 BC, Greek Polytonic|Πολύβιος) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic Period noted for his book called The Histories covering in detail the period of 220 ndash;146 BC. He is also renowned for his ideas of political balance in… … Wikipedia
Publius Rutilius Rufus — (born 158 BC ndash; after 78 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator and historian of the Rutilius family, as well as great uncle of Gaius Julius Caesar.He started his military career in 134 BC, as a member of the staff of Scipio Africanus Minor during … Wikipedia
History of Portugal — This article is part of a series Prehistoric Iberi … Wikipedia