- Semyon Budyonny
thumb|170px|Marshal of the Soviet Union Semyon Budyonny Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny Audio|ru-Simeon Budyonniy.ogg| (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (OldStyleDate|April 25|1883|April 13 –
October 26, 1973) was a Soviet military commander and an ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.
Budyonny was born into a poor peasant family in the Terek Cossack region of southern
Russia. Contrary to what many believe, although he grew up in a Cossack region Budyonny was not a Cossack--his family actually came from Voronezhprovince. He worked as a farm laborer until 1903, when he was drafted into the army of the Russian Empire, becoming a cavalryman and serving in the Russo-Japanese Warof 1905. During World War Ihe was a non-commissioned officer on the western front until 1916, when he was transferred to the Caucasusfront. He became famous for his military courage and four times awarder with St. George Cross. When the Russian Revolution overthrew the Tsarist regime in 1917, he was radicalized like many soldiers and became a leading member of the soldiers' councils (Soviets) in the Caucasus area.
During the Russian Civil War
The Civil War broke out in 1918, and Budyonny organised a Red Cavalry force in the Don region, which eventually became the
1st Cavalry Army. This Army played an important role in winning the Civil War for the Bolsheviks, driving the White General Anton Denikinback from Moscow. Budyonny joined the Bolshevik party in 1919, and formed close relationships with Joseph Stalinand Kliment Voroshilov.
In 1920 Budyonny's Cavalry Army took part in the invasion of
Polandin the Polish-Soviet War, in which it was quite successful at first, pushing Polish forces out of Ukraine and later breaking through Polish southern frontlines. However later the Bolsheviks forces sustained a heavy defeat in the Battle of Warsaw, mainly because Budyonny's Army was bogged down at Lwów. After his army was defeated in the Battle of Komarów (one of the biggest cavalry battles in history), Budyonny was then sent south to fight the Whites in Ukraineand the Crimea. Despite the defeat in Poland, he was one of Soviet Russia's military heroes by the end of the Civil War.
Budyonny was considered a courageous and colorful cavalry officer, but knew little about modern warfare, particularly the impact of tanks. It is a measure of his military expertise that during Tukhachevsky's purge trial, he screamed that
Tukhachevsky's effort to create armoured formations amounted to "wrecking", to which the doomed Tukhachevsky replied "I feel I'm dreaming". He was appointed to the position of Cavalry Inspector of the Red Army and similar honorific posts.
Later military career
In 1935 Budyonny was made one of the first five Marshals of the Soviet Union. Three of these five were executed in the
Great Purgeof the late 1930s, leaving only Budyonny and Voroshilov. In 1937 Budyonny commanded the Moscow Military District, and in the Soviet-Finnish War he commanded an army, with disastrous results. Nevertheless, in 1940 Budyonny was made Deputy People's Commissarfor Defense, a position for which he was quite unsuited.
In July-September 1941, Budyonny was Commander-in-Chief (главком, "glavkom") of the Soviet armed forces of the Southwestern Direction (Southwestern and Southern Fronts) facing the German invasion of
Ukraine. This invasion began as part of Germany's Operation Barbarossawhich was launched on June 22. Budyonny's forces were eventually surrounded during the Battle of Umanand the Battle of Kiev. The disasters which followed encirclement cost the Soviet Union 1.5 million men killed or taken prisoner. This was one of the greatest routs in military history.
In September, Stalin dismissed Budyonny and replaced him with
Semyon Timoshenko. He was placed in charge of the Reserve Front (September-October 1941), Commander-in-Chief of the troops in the North Caucasus Direction (April-May, 1942), Commander of the North Caucasus Front(May-August, 1942), and the obsolete Soviet Cavalry (since 1943). Despite being responsible (although acting on Stalin's orders) for some of the Soviet Union's most catastrophic World War IIdefeats, he continued to enjoy Stalin's patronage and suffered no punishment. After the war he was allowed to retire as a Hero of the Soviet Union. He died in 1973. He left five-volumes memories, in which he described the stormy years of civil war as well as the everyday life of the First Cavalry Army.
Budyonny was commemorated in many popular Russian military songs, including "The Red Cavalry song" (Konarmieyskaya) and "The Budyonny March".
Semyon Budyonny also created a new horse breed that is still kept in large studs in Russia: the Budyonny horse which is famous for its high performance in sports and endurance.
Budenovka, a part of Soviet military uniform, is named after Semyon Budyonny.
* [http://www.ets.ru/e/pk000088.htm Colour poster and biography from site of ETS Publishing House]
Hero of the Soviet Union
*cite book | last = Babel | first = Isaac | title = The Complete Works of Isaac Babel | publisher = W. W. Norton & Company | date= 2002 | location = | pages = Page 751 | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=or2uQwqwPlEC&pg=PA751&dq=%22Semyon+Mikhailovich+Budyonny%22+-wikipedia&as_brr=3&ie=ISO-8859-1&sig=oDKxjybmK3QRR4Ux9j497Mp_Zgs | doi = | id = ISBN 0393048462
* cite web | last = RICHARD BERNSTEIN | title = BOOKS OF THE TIMES; A Meticulous Eye for War's Poetry and Brutality | work = | publisher =
The New York Times| date= May 31, 1995 | url = http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=990CE6DA1639F932A05756C0A963958260
format = Web | doi = | accessdate = 2007-12-01
NAME= Budyonny, Semyon
ALTERNATIVE NAMES= Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny
SHORT DESCRIPTION= Soviet military commander
DATE OF BIRTH=
April 25 1883
PLACE OF BIRTH= Southern
DATE OF DEATH=
October 26 1973
PLACE OF DEATH=
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Semyon Budyonny — Semion Boudienny Semion Mikhaïlovitch Boudienny Naissance 25 avril 1883 Décès 26 octobre 1973 (à 90 ans) … Wikipédia en Français
Budyonny horse — Budyonny Young Budyonny stallions in Russia Alternative names Budenny Budjonny Budonny Budennovsky Country of origin Southern Russia … Wikipedia
Semyon Krivoshein — Semyon Moiseevich Krivoshein (November 28, 1899, Voronezh, Russian Empire September 16, 1978, Moscow, Soviet Union) was a Soviet tank commander, who played a vital part in the World War II reform of the Red Army tank forces and in momentous… … Wikipedia
Semyon Timoshenko — Marshal Semyon Timoshenko Семён Тимошенко People s Commissar for Defense of the Soviet Union In office … Wikipedia
Budyonny (horse) — Infobox Horse name= Budyonny image caption= Young Budyonny stallions in Russia features = altname= Budenny Budjonny Budonny Budennovsky nickname= country= Southern Russia group1= std1= The Budyonny is a breed of horse from Russia. They were… … Wikipedia
Battle of Warsaw (1920) — Battle of Warsaw Part of the Polish Soviet War … Wikipedia
1st Cavalry Army (Soviet Union) — The 1st Cavalry Army ( ru. Первая конная армия) was the most famous Red Army сavalry formation. [ 1st Horse Army can be seen as a better literal translation] It was also known as Budyonny s Cavalry Army or simply as Konarmia ( Horsearmy ).When… … Wikipedia
Soviet military academies — There were/are a number of military academies in the Soviet Union/Russia of different specialties. Unlike Western military academies such as West Point, Soviet, now Russian, military and police institutions referred to as academy (Russian:… … Wikipedia
Marshal of the Soviet Union — For the Marshals of Troop Arms, see Chief Marshal. The first five marshals of the Soviet Union from left to right: Tukhachevsky, Budyonny, Voroshilov, Blyukher and Yegorov. Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskogo Soyuza [Маршал… … Wikipedia
Polish–Soviet War — Bohdan Urbankowski, Józef Piłsudski: marzyciel i strateg , (Józef Piłsudski: Dreamer and Strategist), Tom drugi (second tome), Wydawnictwo ALFA, Warsaw, 1997, ISBN 8370019145, p. 83] while the Bolsheviks did proclaim the partitions null and… … Wikipedia