chemistryand biochemistry, a kinase, alternatively known as a phosphotransferase, is a type of enzymethat transfers phosphategroups from high-energy donor molecules, such as ATP, to specific target molecules (substrates); the process is termed " phosphorylation" (An enzyme that "removes" phosphate groups from targets is known as a phosphatase.)
One of the largest group of kinases are
protein kinases, which act on and modify the activity of specific proteins. These are used extensively to transmit signals and control complex processes in cells. Up to 518 different kinases have been identified in humans. Their enormous diversity and role in signaling makes them attractive targets for drug design.
Various other kinases act on small molecules (lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids, nucleotides, and more), either for signaling or to prime them for biochemical reactions in metabolism. These are named after their substrates.
* Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase
G protein-coupled receptor
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kinase — [ kinaz ] n. f. • 1902; du gr. kinein « mettre en mouvement » et ase ♦ Biochim. Enzyme capable d activer par phosphorylation un métabolite, un autre enzyme (phosphorylase kinase) ou une protéine impliquée dans la réponse cellulaire à certains… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Kinase — Enzymklassifikation EC, Kategorie … Deutsch Wikipedia
kinase — ki nase (k[imac] n[=a]s), n. (Biochemistry) One of a class of enzymes that catalyze transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to another molecule; it is a type of phosphorylase. [PJC] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
kinase — 1902, from Gk. kinein to move (see CITE (Cf. cite)) + chemical suffix ASE (Cf. ase) … Etymology dictionary
kinase — [kī′nās΄, kin′ās΄] n. [ KIN(ETIC) + ASE] an enzyme capable of activating a zymogen or one causing the transfer of the terminal phosphate group, generally from ATP, to a receiving molecule … English World dictionary
Kinase — Les kinases, appelées à tort phosphorylases (catalyseur de la phosphorolyse), sont des enzymes du groupe des transférases catalysant les réactions de phosphorylation par l ajout d un ion phosphate à une molécule cible. La molécule cible,… … Wikipédia en Français
kinase — /kuy nays, nayz, kin ays, ayz/, n. Biochem. a transferase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of a substrate by ATP. [1900 05; KIN(ETIC) + ASE] * * * ▪ enzyme an enzyme that adds phosphate groups (PO43−) to other molecules. A large number of… … Universalium
kinase — Widely used abbreviation for phosphokinase, an enzyme catalysing transfer of phosphate from ATP to a second substrate usually specified in less abbreviated name, eg. creatine phosphokinase (creatine kinase), protein kinase. Serine/threonine… … Dictionary of molecular biology
kinase — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary, from kinetic Date: 1947 any of various enzymes that catalyze the transfer of phosphate groups from a high energy phosphate containing molecule (as ATP) to a substrate compare protein kinase … New Collegiate Dictionary
kinase — 1. An enzyme catalyzing the conversion of a proenzyme to an active enzyme; e.g., enteropeptidase (enterokinase). 2. An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of phosphate groups. For individual kinases, see specific name. * * * ki·nase … Medical dictionary