Han Fei


Han Fei

Han Fei (also Han Feizi) (zh-cpw|c=|p=Hán Fēi|w=Han Fei) (ca. 280–233 BC) was a philosopher who, along with Li Si, developed Xun Zi's mutualism into the doctrine embodied by the "School of Law" or Legalism. Unlike the other famed philosophers of the time, Han Fei was a member of the ruling aristocracy, having been born into the ruling family of the state of Han during the end phase of the Warring States Period. In this context, his works have been interpreted by some scholars as being directed to his cousin, the King of Han.ref|nobility After many years in the Qin court, Han Fei committed suicide by drinking poison [ [http://www.ying-zheng.cn/chinshihhuang/wenxian/093044724.html] 后来李斯又用毒酒把韩非毒死。] .

Multiple Names

Han Fei is his name, while Han Feizi (韓非子) most commonly denotes the book written by him. However, as "zi" is often added to philosophers' names as a honorific (meaning "Master"), Han Feizi is also used in reference to the person.

Legalism

Han Fei's philosophy, called Legalism, centered on the ruler. In his philosophy, the ruler firmly controls the state with the help of three concepts: his position of power (勢, "Shi"); certain techniques (術, "Shu"), and laws (法, "Fa"). Legalism assumes that everyone acts according to one principle: avoiding punishment while simultaneously trying to achieve gains. Thus, the law must severely punish any unwanted action, while at the same time reward those who follow it. (compare: Legalism)

Legalism synthesised the ideas of Shang Yang, Shen Buhai, and Shen Dao. He borrowed Shang Yang's emphasis on laws, Shen Buhai's emphasis on techniques, and Shen Dao's ideas on authority and legitimacy.

Comparison with Confucianism and Taoism

Apart from the Confucianist Xun Zi, who was his and Li Si's teacher, the other main source for his political theories was Lao Zi's Daoist work, the Tao Te Ching, which he interpreted as a political text, and on which he wrote a commentary (chapters 20 and 21 in his book, "Han Feizi"). He saw the Tao as a natural law that everyone and everything was forced to follow. Parallel to this, he believed that an ideal ruler made laws, like an inevitable force of nature, that the people could not resist.

His philosophy was very influential on the first King of Qin and the first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, becoming one of the guiding principles of the ruler's policies. After the early demise of the Qin Dynasty, Han Fei's philosophy was officially vilified by the following Han Dynasty. Despite its outcast status throughout the history of imperial China, Han Fei's political theory continued to heavily influence every dynasty afterwards, and the Confucian ideal of a rule without laws was never again realized.

Han Fei's philosophy experienced a renewed interest under the rule of the Communist Party during the leadership of Mao Zedong, who personally admired some of the principles laid out in it.Fact|date=December 2007

Han Fei's entire recorded work is collected in the "Han Feizi", a book containing 55 chapters. It is also important as the only surviving sourceFact|date=February 2007 for numerous anecdotes from the Warring States Period.

Demographic Theory

Han Fei was the first Chinese thinker to raise the question of population control.Fact|date=August 2008

Notes


# Watson, Burton, Han Fei Tzu: Basic Writings. 1964, p. 2. The king in question is believed to be either King An (238–230 BC) or his predecessor, King Huan-Hui (272–239 BC).

References

* Li, Fucker, [http://203.72.198.245/web/Content.asp?ID=10066&Query=1 "Han Fei"] . "Encyclopedia of China" (Law Edition), 1st ed.
* Gu, Fang, [http://203.72.198.245/web/Content.asp?ID=56518&Query=1 "Han Fei"] . "Encyclopedia of China" (Philosophy Edition), 1st ed.
* Burton Watson (1964). "Han Fei Tzu: Basic Writings". New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231086097.

External links

* [http://www.iath.virginia.edu/xwomen/testdir/texts/hanfeiBook1.xml The complete works of Han Fei Tzu, A classic of Chinese political science. Translator, Wenkui Liao.]
* [http://chinese.dsturgeon.net/text.pl?node=1879&if=en Full text of Han Feizi]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Han Fei — Zi Han Fei Zi (韩非), philosophe et penseur politique chinois (mort en 233 av. J. C.) du courant légiste, ayant vécu à la fin de la période des Royaumes combattants. Selon lui, l ordre et la prospérité ne peuvent être apportés que par un État fort …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Han Fei Zi — (韓非), philosophe et penseur politique chinois (mort en 233 av. J. C.) du courant légiste, ayant vécu à la fin de la période des Royaumes combattants. Selon lui, l ordre et la prospérité ne peuvent être apportés que par un État fort, qui repose… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Han Fei — (chinesisch 韓非 / 韩非 Hán Fēi; * um 280 v. Chr.; † 233 v. Chr.) war ein Philosoph aus dem Staat Han der chinesischen Zeit der Streitenden Reiche, der mit seinen Schriften als einer der Begründer der Lehre des Legalismus gilt. In …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Han Fei-tzu — /hahn fay dzu / died 233 B.C., Chinese philosopher and legal theorist. Also, Pinyin, Han Feizi /hahn fay zue /. * * * …   Universalium

  • Han Fei-tzu — /hahn fay dzu / died 233 B.C., Chinese philosopher and legal theorist. Also, Pinyin, Han Feizi /hahn fay zue / …   Useful english dictionary

  • Han (Etat) — Han (État) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Han. Histoire de la Chine …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Han-Fluss — Han steht für: Han (Staat) (韓, Hán), ein chinesischer Staat in der Zeit der streitenden Reiche Han Dynastie (漢, Hàn), eine chinesische Dynastie die Westliche Han Dynastie (206 v. Chr.–8 n. Chr.) die Östliche Han Dynastie (23–220) die Shu Han… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Han (Fluss) — Han steht für: Han (Staat) (韓, Hán), ein chinesischer Staat in der Zeit der streitenden Reiche Han Dynastie (漢, Hàn), eine chinesische Dynastie die Westliche Han Dynastie (206 v. Chr.–8 n. Chr.) die Östliche Han Dynastie (23–220) die Shu Han… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Han Feizi — (chinesisch 韓非子 / 韩非子 „Meister Han Fei“) bezeichnet: die Schriften des altchinesischen legistischen Philosophen und Staatsmannes Han Fei den Philosophen Han Fei …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • HAN FEIZI — [HAN FEI TSEU] (HAN FEIZI 280 env. HAN FEIZI 234) Le plus grand des penseurs de l’école chinoise des Légistes, Han Feizi naquit dans la seigneurie de Han, dont le nom lui sert de patronyme. Fils de seigneur, il ne reçut pourtant jamais ni titre… …   Encyclopédie Universelle


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.