- Battle of the Atlantic (1914–1918)
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Battle of the Atlantic
World War I
date=28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918
Atlantic Ocean, North Sea
result=Decisive Allied Victory
Royal Canadian Navy
flagicon|United States|1912 United States Navy
commander1=flagicon|UK|naval Sir John Jellicoe
The First Battle of the Atlantic (
1914– 1918) was a naval campaign of World War I, largely fought in the seas around the British Islesand in the Atlantic Ocean. Both the German Empireand United Kingdom relied heavily on imports to feed their population and supply their war industry; thus both aimed to blockadeeach other. The British had the Royal Navywhich was superior in numbers and could operate within the British Empire. The German Kaiserliche Marinesurface fleet was mainly restricted to the German Bight, and used commerce raidersand unrestricted submarine warfareto operate elsewhere. The successful blockade of Germanycontributed to its military defeat in 1918, and still in effect, enforced also the signing of the Versailles Treatyin mid-1919.
At the beginning of 1914, the
submarineremained something of a nautical curiosity of uncertain usefulness.Fact|date=July 2007 By the end of 1918, the value of the submarine as a weapon had been proved beyond all reasonable doubt.
On 6 August 1914, two days after Britain declared war on Germany over the German invasion of Belgium, ten German
U-boatsleft their base in Heligolandto attack Royal Navywarships in the North Sea. They were effectively all the blue-water submarines the Germans had.
It was the first submarine war patrol in history. It was also a fiasco. One of the U-boats was sunk in a minefield. Another, "U-15", fired torpedoes at several British warships and missed each time. "U-15" was later rammed and sunk by the Royal Navy
light cruiser"Birmingham" while the U-boat was trapped on the surface by mechanical troubles.
The U-boats went on following war patrols in small numbers, however, and they finally got lucky on 5 September 1914, when "U-21" commanded by Lieutenant
Otto Hersingtorpedoed the Royal Navy light cruiser "Pathfinder". The cruiser's magazine exploded, and the ship sank in four minutes, taking 259 of her crew with her. It was the first combat victory of the modern submarine.
The German U-boats were to get even luckier on 22 September. Early in the morning of that day, a lookout on the bridge of "U-9", commanded by Lieutenant
Otto Weddigen, spotted a vessel on the horizon. Weddigen ordered the U-boat to submerge immediately, and the submarine went forward to investigate.
At closer range, Weddigen discovered three old Royal Navy
armoured cruisers, "Aboukir", "Cressy", and "Hogue". These three vessels were not merely antiquated, but were staffed mostly by reservists, and were so clearly vulnerable that a decision to withdraw them was already filtering up through the bureaucracy of the Admiralty. The order did not come soon enough for the ships. Weddigen sent one torpedo into "Aboukir". The captains of "Hogue" and "Cressy" assumed "Aboukir" had struck a mine and came up to assist. "U 9" put two torpedoes into "Hogue", and then hit "Cressy" with two more torpedoes as the cruiser tried to flee. The three cruisers sank in less than an hour, killing 1,460 British sailors. (See Live Bait Squadron, the navy nickname for the ships)
Three weeks later, on 15 October, Weddigen also sank the old cruiser "Hawke". The crew of "U 9" became national heroes. Each was awarded the
Iron CrossSecond Class, except for Weddigen, who received the Iron Cross First Class.
The sinkings caused alarm within the British Admiralty. The Royal Navy base at
Scapa Flowin the Orkney Islands, just north of Scotland, seemed clearly vulnerable. The Admiralty was also increasingly nervous about mines, which had sunk the light cruiser HMS "Amphion" off the Thames Estuarythe first week of the war, and much more significantly sending the battleship HMS "Audacious" to the bottom of the Irish Sea on 27 October. Most of the crew of the "Audacious" was saved as it took several hours to sink, but it was still a major humiliation.
The fleet was sent to refuge in Ireland and on the western coast of Scotland until adequate defenses were installed at
Scapa Flow. This, in a sense, was a more significant victory than sinking a few old cruisers. The submarine, which had been held in such suspicion, had forced the world's most powerful fleet from its home base.
So far, the U-boats had kept to the international rules of warfare. The vessels sunk had been warships and legitimate targets, and however shocked the British might have been at such a great loss of life, it was still a case of "kill or be killed." The first unarmed merchantman was sunk in the following month, but it was also done by the book. On 20 October, "U-17" crew boarded the small British freighter "Glitra" off the Norwegian coast, allowed the crew to take to the lifeboats, and then scuttled the vessel.
Such behavior did not last for long. On 26 October, "U-17" sank the French ferry "
Admiral Ganteaume" in the English Channel. There were 2,500 Belgian refugees on board, but the ferry managed to make port before going down, and only 40 lives were lost. It was an unpleasant sign for the future.
In January 1915, "U-20" sank three vessels in the Channel without warning, and two days later sank the hospital ship "Asturias", even though it was clearly marked with the red cross. "U-20" was commanded by Lieutenant
Walter Schwieger, who would make a much bigger name for himself before the year was out. The acts of maritime aggression were beginning to look less like accidents of war and more like policy. In fact, within a month they would be policy.
Unrestricted submarine warfare
By early 1915, all the combatants had lost the illusion that the war could be won quickly, and began to consider harsher measures in order to gain an advantage.
The British, with their overwhelming sea power, of course had established a naval blockade of Germany early in the war. This blockade was unusually restrictive in that even foodstuffs were considered "contraband of war". The Germans regarded this as a blatant attempt to starve the German people into submission and wanted to retaliate in kind, and in fact the severity of the British blockade did not go over well in America, either.
Germany could not possibly deal with British naval strength on an even basis, and the only possible way Germany could impose a blockade on Britain was through the U-boat. The German Chancellor,
Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg, felt that such a submarine blockade, based on "shoot without warning", would antagonise the United States and other neutrals. However, he was unable to hold back the pressures for taking such a step.
On 4 February 1915, Kaiser
Wilhelm II of Germanydeclared the seas around the British Isles a war zone. Effective 18 February, Allied ships in the area would be sunk without warning. British ships hiding behind neutral flags would not be spared, though some effort would be made to avoid sinking clearly neutral vessels.
The German U-boat force was now primarily based at
Ostendin Belgium, giving the submarines better access to the sea lanes around England. The Germans made use of this advantage, sending out about 20 U-boats to begin the naval blockade. In January, before the declaration of "unrestricted submarine warfare" as the submarine blockade was called, 43,550 tonnes of shipping had been sunk by U-boats. The number of sinkings then steadily increased, with 168,200 tonnes going down in August.
Losses of British warships were small. Although the battleship "Formidable" had been sunk by "U-24" on New Year's Day, the times of U-boats sneaking up to British warships on the open sea whose captains were idly daydreaming were over, and the fast destroyer screens made successful attacks on battleships and cruisers a thing of the past. On the other hand, there was little a Royal Navy warship could do to sink a U-boat if the submarine's captain was reasonably alert. The U-boat was generally safe from shelling once it had submerged. It could be rammed if it were at periscope depth, but ramming was hardly a reasonable tactic as a standard practice.
It did work on occasion. On 18 March 1915, Lieutenant Otto Weddigen, now in command of "U-29", stumbled into the British Grand Fleet on maneuvers. The U-boat was spotted by the mother of modern battleships, HMS "Dreadnought", and rammed. "U-29" went to the bottom with all hands in the only ever sinking of a submarine by a battleship.
Destroyers were not able to hunt the U-boats as they were protecting the fleet, so the British pressed every vessel they could into service, including yachts and trawlers, as auxiliary patrol vessels. However, the U-boats were able to easily evade the patrols and sink merchant vessels traveling unescorted.
Militarily, unrestricted submarine warfare was proving a great success, and the U-boats stood a good chance of starving Britain into surrender. However, in terms of the propaganda war, it was a great disaster for Germany. America wanted to stay out of the European war, but lurid stories of "the
rape of Belgium" early in the conflict had turned American public opinion against Germany, and unrestricted submarine warfare seemed to confirm the German reputation for brutality and ruthlessness. The deaths of American citizens traveling on British vessels torpedoed by U-boats began to make headlines in the US.
In April 1915, the British cargo vessel "Harpalyce" was torpedoed without warning by a U-boat and sunk. The "Harpalyce" was steaming to America to pick up food relief for Belgium, had the words "Commission for Belgian Relief" painted in big white letters on her sides, and was flying the
white flag. International opinion was outraged. Worse was to come very shortly.
The Cunard liner "Lusitania" was a pre-war
ocean liner. She continued her transatlantic passenger cruises after the outbreak of war. The British Admiralty had paid some of her construction costs on condition of her being available for war service, but decided she would not be economical to operate. However, they did require that some of "Lusitania"s cargo capacity be reserved for transport of war materials from America.
On 7 May 1915, "Lusitania" was making for the port of Queenstown, Ireland, 40 kilometers away when the liner crossed in front of "U 20" at 15:10. [cite book |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others= |title=Information Annual |origdate= |origyear=1916|edition= |series= |volume=|year=2007|publisher=R.R. Bowker |location=|oclc= |doi= |id= |pages=p 198|quote= |ref= ] "U 20"'s commander
Walther Schwiegergave the order to fire, sending a single torpedo towards "Lusitania" without warning. [cite book|last=Hyde|first=Charles Cheney|authorlink=|title=International Law Chiefly as Interpreted and Applied by the United States|origyear=1922|edition=|volume=v. 2|year=2007|publisher=Little, Brown, and company|oclc= |doi= |id= |pages=p 479] It hit cleanly under the bridge, blowing a hole in the side of the ship. The detonation was quickly followed by a big secondary explosion.
Nobody knows what caused the second explosion. Many believe it was caused by a large store of munitions concealed on the manifest, since the relatively small quantities listed could not have resulted in such a large blast. Others believe it was a coal gas explosion or even a second torpedo, even though Schwieger's own log entries made it clear that he only fired one. Also it has been theorised that a torpedo from another submarine hit the port side of the "Lusitania". [cite book |last=Hart|first=Albert Bushnell|authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others= |title=Harper's Pictorial Library of the World War|origyear=1920|edition= |series= |volume= |date= |year= |month= |publisher=Harper|location=|oclc= |doi= |id= |pages=p 363] She sank in 18 minutes, 8 miles off of the Old Head of Kinsale, Ireland. [cite book|last= Zinn |first=Howard |authorlink=|title=A People's History of the United States: 1492-present|origyear=2003|edition= |date= |year= |month= |publisher=Pearson Longman |isbn=0582772834 |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages=p 362] 1,198 people died with her, including 128 Americans and almost a hundred children. [cite book |last=Ballard |first=Robert |authorlink= |coauthors=Spencer Dunmore|title=Exploring the Lusitania|origyear=1995|edition= |series= |volume= |date= |year= |month= |publisher=Warner Books|isbn=0446518514|quote=This number includes the German spies detained below decks. The Cunard Steamship Company announced the official death toll of 1,195 on 1 March 1916.]
American outrage from this sinking brought the US closer to declaring war on Germany. Under threat of US retaliation, on 27 August, the Kaiser imposed severe restrictions on U-boats attacks against large passenger vessels. On 18 September 1915, he called off unrestricted submarine warfare completely.
As losses of British shipping to U-boats mounted in late 1914 and early 1915, the Royal Navy became increasingly desperate to obtain workable countermeasures. They settled on the "decoy ship", a merchantman with concealed weapons that attempted to lure a U-boat in to close range so it could be shelled and sunk. The decoy ship had to be small and shabby, not worth a torpedo, making it an ideal target for a U-boat's deck gun.
There was no particular champion for the concept; the idea just bubbled up from a number of officers and set the Admiralty's machinery in motion. In November 1914, the Royal Navy outfitted the merchantman "Vittoria" with a few guns and set her to patrolling the sea lanes under a neutral flag. The "Vittoria" patrolled for three months without seeing a single submarine, and was withdrawn in January 1915.
A number of fishing trawlers were discreetly armed and sent to sea in the spring of 1915 to look for U-boats, but had no more luck than "Vittoria". The decoy ships didn't draw blood until that summer.
U-boats had been infesting the sea off the northern coast of Scotland, and colliers ferrying coal to the Royal Navy base at Scapa Flow were prime targets. One of the colliers, a little ship named "Prince Charles", had been fitted with a pair of small naval guns. The ship's civilian crew still served on the "Prince Charles", along with ten Royal Navy personnel.
On the evening of on 24 July 1915, the "Prince Charles" encountered the Danish steamer "Louise" which had been halted by "U-36". "U 36" spotted "Prince Charles", and the submarine's captain decided to abandon the Danish vessel and pursue the "Prince Charles".
"U 36" closed on the collier and opened fire on her with the submarine's deck gun from long range. Royal Navy Lieutenant Mark Wardlaw, in command of "Prince Charles", halted the collier and ordered the civilian crew to abandon ship in an apparent panic. "U 36" closed to 550 meters (600 yards) to finish "Prince Charles" off.
Wardlaw decided he'd lured the submarine in as close as he could, and blew a whistle. Wardlaw's gun crews dropped the screens that hid the two guns and immediately opened fire on "U 36". The Germans were startled, climbed back into the submarine in a hurry and tried to dive, but the fire from "Prince Charles" was accurate and destructive. The submarine crew abandoned ship, and "U 36" went nose up and slid beneath the waves. "Prince Charles" rescued 15 of the 33 German crewmen.
The sinking of "U 36" seemed to show that the decoy ship was a workable idea, and the Royal Navy began to convert other vessels to decoy ships. The whole effort was kept absolutely secret. They were originally referred to by the nondescript name of "special-service ships", but for reasons that remain lost they became known as "
Q-ships were created from everything from fishing boats to ocean liners, but the most popular candidates were small tramp steamers and colliers. The main operating areas of the U-boats were the southern approaches to England from the Bay of Biscay, and the northern approaches off the west coast of Ireland. Tramp steamers and colliers often traveled these waters, and no one would think one traveling through these waters as anything out of the ordinary.
The vessels selected were usually the least impressive available. A Q-ship was supposed to fight it out at close range with a U-boat and so stood a good chance of being sunk itself, and as noted, the less impressive the target, the more a U-boat captain was inclined to surface and use the deck gun at close range rather than a torpedo.
Armament fit of a Q-ship varied considerably, depending on factors such as what weapons were available at the time, how big the ship was, and how well the weapons could be concealed. A typical Q-ship might be fitted with torpedo tubes, two or three naval guns, machine guns, and other weapons. The weapons could be hidden behind panels in the hull, inside structures or "cargo" on the deck that collapsed, or even inside lifeboats that were cut in half and hinged open for firing. Later in the war, the holds of some Q-ships were also filled with floatable materials in hopes of keeping them above water even when badly damaged.
It wasn't enough to just fit a tramp steamer with a few guns and send her to sea in hopes of trapping a U-boat. Elaborate theatrics were involved as well. Since U-boats were likely to observe a ship for some time before attacking it, the Q-ship's crew had to look like dirty and sloppy merchant seamen above deck. Black men were signed on as cooks, and it is said that on some Q-ships a few crewmen even dressed as women. As if to ensure that the seamen didn't get any idea that this was a proper way for Royal Navy sailors to behave, discipline below decks was unusually severe.
The masquerade was maintained even when the Q-ship was in port, since enemy agents might be watching. Q-ship seamen were occasionally treated as cowards avoiding the service by zealous womenfolk, though considering how much danger ordinary merchant seamen faced from U-boats, this seems irrational even on its own terms. Q-ship captains sometimes had to submit to snubs and condescension from mainstream Royal Navy officers who were in fact their juniors in rank.
In reality, Q-ship crews were generally an elite, volunteers who signed up for the adventure of the thing. Some were even retired admirals who wanted to return to action.
The Q-ship itself was something of a chameleon. Since a ship prowling back and forth across the same area of ocean would be very suspicious, Q-ships were repainted during the night, while fake funnels, deck structures, masts, and deck cargoes were added and removed. The flags were changed and when morning came, few could recognize the Q-ship as the vessel it had been as the day before. Some Q-ships also had special pipe systems installed to allow them to simulate battle damage with clouds of steam.
The theatrics became particularly intense when the Q-ship was attacked by a U-boat. A portion of the vessel's crew, equal in size to the crew of a normal tramp steamer, went into a panic, ran around to grab prize possessions such as a (fake) pet parrot or the like, and then abandoned ship in a frenzy that led to confusion, blunders, and delay, all the more to keep the U-boat's captain distracted as the submarine moved in closer.
The "captain" was the last to abandon ship, carrying with him a bundle of the ship's papers. The U-boat captain wanted those papers, since they provided intelligence on the ship's cargo. Once in the boats, the "panic party" dithered, annoying the enemy captain and luring him in further. This was a dangerous game, since some U-boat captains had little hesitation in using machine guns to command obedience.
The secret of the Q-ships began to come to light on 19 August 1915, when the Leyland liner "Nicosian" was attacked on the surface by "U-27", under command of Lieutenant Bernhardt Wegener. "Nicosian" was carrying 800 mules, destined for the British Army. The mules had been loaded in New Orleans and were under the care of 80 American muleteers, and the ship was approaching port through the English Channel.
"U-27" was shelling "Nicosian" when another ship, the tramp steamer "Baralong", flying the American flag, incautiously intervened to assist the helpless "Nicosian". Wegener decided to shell "Baralong", but the intruder passed behind "Nicosian" and his gun crews had to hold their fire.
When "Baralong" emerged, it was no longer flying the American flag. It had raised the white battle flag of the British Royal Navy, and had also produced a pair of 12-pounder (3-inch) deck guns. The submarine only managed get off one inaccurate shot before "Baralong", which was a Q-ship under Lieutenant Commander Godfrey Herbert, punched holes in it and sank it.
Some of the German survivors tried to climb on board "Nicosian". The memory of "Lusitania" was still raw, in fact enhanced by the fact that "U-24" had sunk the liner "Arabic" in the area earlier that day. Herbert ordered his men to kill the Germans. British sailors shot them as they tried to climb on board "Nicosian", and then hunted down the few that made to the deck and shot them as well.
"Nicosian" managed to make it to port and the British tried to persuade the ship's crew and passengers to keep quiet about what they had seen. However, the American muleteers talked freely to the press when they returned to the United States. The killing of the crew of "U-27" became a cause of outrage in Germany, and the captured captain of a merchant ship who had tried to ram a U-boat was shot by the Germans in July 1916 as a "maritime guerrilla".
More to the point, German submarine crews now knew that some vessels that looked like prey were actually predators. Kills by Q-ships went into decline after that, but the Royal Navy still refused to admit the Q-ships existed until the war was nearly over.
U-boats in the Mediterranean
With the suspension of unrestricted submarine warfare, U-boat activities around the British Isles declined to routine minelaying at the mouths of harbors and in sea lanes. With nothing much to do in the Atlantic, U-boats went to the
Mediterraneanto see how the hunting was there.
It proved good. The Germans wanted to support their allies, the Turks, who were fighting the British landings at Gallipoli, and also intercept British shipping moving through the Mediterranean through the
Suez Canal. They had little opposition and plenty of targets.
Lieutenant Otto Hersing, who had drawn first blood in the submarine war by sinking HMS "Pathfinder" the year before, had led the way in the Mediterranean even while the unrestricted submarine warfare campaign was in full swing against Britain.
After sneaking through the
Straits of Gibraltarwith "U-21" and taking the U-boat across the Mediterranean, he engaged the British fleet bombarding the Turks at Gallipoli. On 25 May 1915, Hersing spotted the old battleship HMS "Triumph" through the periscope of his submarine and sank it with a single torpedo. On 27 May, Hersing similarly crept up on a second old battleship, HMS "Majestic", and after patiently waiting for a chance to attack, sent her to the bottom with a single torpedo as well. The British were forced to withdraw their capital ships from the bombardment squadron.
Other U-boats followed Hersing. Although the Germans had managed to ship a few small coastal-patrol submarines by rail in sections through Austria for operations in the
Adriaticand the Black Sea, the Germans also sent large blue-water submarines through Gibraltar, and by the fall of 1915 there were five such submarines operating in the Mediterranean.
A number of U-boat captains scored significant numbers of kills in the Mediterranean. The most notorious was
Max Valentinerof "U-38", who was enthusiastic about attack without warning, sinking troopships and liners. He went to the head of the British list of war criminals for sinking the liner SS Persia on 30 December 1915, with a loss of 334 passengers. Protests over such sinkings led to the now-familiar waverings of the German high command on submarine warfare policy.
Valentiner only placed third in total tonnage sunk among the captains of the Mediterranean flotilla, following
Walther Forstmannof "U-39", with both trailing the top scoring U-boat "ace" of all time, a descendant of a French soldier of fortune who had signed up with Frederick the Great with the grand name of Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière.
Von Arnauld, in command of "U-35", achieved a score of sinkings that was never equaled, and did it strictly by the book. He stopped a merchantman, had it boarded, and its papers examined. If it was a legitimate target, he told the crew to take to the lifeboats, directed them towards land, and sank the ship. Between 26 July and on 20 August 1916, Arnauld sank 54 vessels, totalling 82,850 tonnes. When he finally left command of "U-35", he had sunk 195 ships, including two warships, an armed merchantman, five troopships, and large number of steamers and sailing ships.
Allied antisubmarine measures in the Mediterranean proved as muddled as they were in the Atlantic. Although patrols were established, they were easily evaded by the U-boats. The Allies also spent a great deal of effort trying to find the "secret bases" in the Mediterranean that U-boats were operating from, never realizing that German submarines had much better endurance than their own, and neither had nor needed such bases.
Losses in the Mediterranean were so troublesome that the Allies began to divert shipping around the
Cape of Good Hoperather than through the Suez Canal, even though the Germans never had more than a handful of submarines in the Mediterranean at any one time. The Allies were so desperate that they even asked Japan, which had come into the war on the side of the Allies, to send help, and the Japanese sent two flotillas of destroyers to the Mediterranean in 1917.
The Germans also investigated use of the submarine as a blockade runner, in the form of the U-boat Deutschland, which was developed with private funds, operated by a German shipping company and commanded by
The "Deutschland" was unarmed and had a wide beam to provide space for cargo. She managed to slip through the British blockade with a cargo of dyes, chemicals, and precious stones, arriving in Baltimore harbor in July 1916 after four weeks at sea. The voyage was a remarkable propaganda coup, and profitable as well, with the U-boat returning to Germany with a valuable cargo of nickel, tin, and crude rubber.
Another mercantile submarine, Bremen, departed for America, but disappeared en route, apparently sunk by a mine north of the Orkneys. The "Bremen" had been escorted by the conventional submarine "U-53". Some of "U-53"'s ballast tanks had been converted to carry extra fuel to allow it to make the trip. However, the commander of "U-53", Lieutenant
Hans Rose, decided to demonstrate just how fearsome Germany's U-boats were by sinking three British, one Norwegian, and one Dutch merchantmen just outside US territorial waters. He apparently meant to intimidate the Americans, but instead largely succeeded in antagonising them.
The "Deutschland" made another merchant trip in the fall of 1916, making landfall in New London, Connecticut, but after that the merchant voyages were halted. "Deutschland" was given two torpedo tubes and a deck gun, and the remaining six in the class under construction were finished as warships. The seven were designated "U-151" through "U-157", with "Deutschland" being renamed "U-155".
Unrestricted submarine warfare resumed
After the cessation of unrestricted submarine warfare in September 1915, the German government waffled on what to do with their U-boats. The military wanted to resume the submarine blockade, while Bethmann-Hollweg was with good reason fearful that doing so would bring the United States into the war against Germany.
A compromise was reached. German diplomats would attempt to negotiate a peace, and if they were unsuccessful, the U-boats would be set loose again. Under these circumstances, the Germans could claim they were forced into such measures by the stubbornness of the Allies.
The negotiations went nowhere, and in early 1916, a blockade was established, with attacks limited to armed merchantmen. After loud protests by neutrals, particularly the United States, the campaign was given up after two months. However, the military pressure on Germany continued to build, and in the fall of 1916 the U-boat blockade was established again, once again limited to armed vessels.
The Germans had 134 submarines by this time. The blue-ocean U-boats, descendants of "U-19", had been refined and now generally had four forward and two rear torpedo tubes, and had one or two 86 millimeter guns, or a single 105 millimeter gun. A large blue-ocean minelaying submarine, the type "UE", was built as well, evolving through two classes of increasing size; as were coastal patrol submarines, the type "UB", with three classes; and small minelayers derived from the UB, the type "UC", also with three classes.
Even with restrictions, the effect of this fleet was overwhelming. In the last months of 1916, the U-boats sank 154 merchant vessels with a total displacement of 443,000 tonnes. The British were desperate. Admiral Sir
John Jellicoe, in command of the Grand Fleet, said that if things continued to get worse Britain would have to sue for peace by the summer of 1917.
Early in 1917, the Kaiser declared full unrestricted submarine warfare once more. Some German diplomats believed that the Americans would avoid war at all costs, and if not, hopefully Germany could bring Britain to its knees before the weight of American power made itself felt in Europe. In February, 86 vessels were sunk, followed by 103 in March, and then 155 in April.
The Royal Navy expanded the Q-ship fleet to 78 vessels and managed to get in some blows. The three-masted schooner "Prize" beat up "U-93" on 30 April 1917, capturing three men found floundering in the water, including the submarine's captain, Baron Spiegel von und zu Peckelsheim. "U-93" was presumed sunk, and the baron properly wrote letters to the families of his crew to express his condolences. He found out to his combined relief and embarrassment that the submarine had made it home after all, even though its
conning towerhad been badly damaged and several holes had been punched in the hull. The U-boat had gone under just deep enough to wash him and the gun crew off the deck.
On on 7 June 1917, the Q-ship "Pargust" managed to sink "U-29", though "Pargust" itself sank as a result of the battle. That was the third U-boat kill for the ship's captain, Gordon Campbell, who as the commander of the Q-ship "Farnborough" had sunk "U-68" in March 1916, and then sank "U-83" in February 1917, for which he received the Victoria Cross.
Campbell was a perfect example of British coolness under pressure, and once radioed from "Farnborough" after a particularly rough engagement: "Q-5 slowly sinking respectfully wishes you goodbye". In fact, "Farnborough" survived and was sold off in 1919.
Campbell's coolness was demonstrated in one of the most dramatic sea battles of the war, on 8 August 1917. He was then in command of the Q-ship "Dunraven" when he was attacked by the "UC-71" at 11:17 that morning. "Dunraven" was camouflaged as an armed merchantman and had a small deck gun that was visible to the U-boat, and the gun crew traded shots with the U-boat for some time. The Germans were not able to hit the Q-ship, and the British gunners were not trying very hard to hit the Germans.
After a half-hour of this, the German captain, Lieutenant
Reinhold Saltzwedel, grew impatient and closed on the "Dunraven". The U-boat's gun crew began scoring hits, and the panic party "abandoned ship" at 12:10. One hit set fire to the poop shack at the stern of the vessel, which had a powder magazine inside and a gun crew on top.
Campbell knew the powder magazine would eventually blow up and take the gun crew with it, but he had to balance that against the prospect of sinking a submarine and saving more British ships and lives. The crew stayed at their posts, in hopes of preserving the illusion that there was nobody on board the "Dunraven" and luring the submarine in closer.
It almost worked, but as "UC-71" closed in for the kill, at 12:58 the powder magazine blew up, blasting off much of "Dunraven"s stern and tossing the gun crew through the air. Astonishingly, only one of the men was killed, though the others were injured. The lieutenant of the gun crew, burned and bleeding and apparently in a daze, reported to Captain Campbell: "I am sorry, sir, for leaving my gun without orders. I think I must have been blown up."
Alarms went off on "Dunraven" immediately and the Q-ship's gun crews blasted away at "UC-71", but Lieutenant Saltzwedel was thoroughly alerted and submerged immediately. At 13:20, the "Dunraven" was hit with a torpedo, blowing a large hole in the ship's side.
Campbell ordered another "panic party" to abandon ship, but still stayed on board with a small crew on board to man the weapons in hopes of tricking the U-boat's captain into thinking the ship had really been abandoned this time. Saltzwedel wasn't being fooled again, however, and inspected the battered "Dunraven" through the submarine's periscope until 2:30, when the U-boat surfaced dead astern of the Q-ship, and began shelling the dying vessel with its deck gun.
"Dunraven" had no power and there was no way to shoot back at "UC-71" from that position. The U-boat pounded the Q-ship for 20 minutes. Campbell later described his situation as "extremely unpleasant".
The submarine submerged and went around the "Dunraven" once more. Campbell ordered the launch of the Q-ship's two torpedoes. One missed, the other grazed the U-boat but failed to detonate. Campbell prepared a third panic party, but he still ordered one gun crew to remain on board.
Fortunately, "UC-71" then departed, having used up all its torpedoes. Lieutenant Saltzwedel had enough of pounding "Dunraven", the Q-ship was clearly not going anywhere, and the British seemed so determined to fight back that they might just get lucky if he stayed around any longer.
The British wounded were picked up by an American yacht, and a British destroyer took "Dunraven" in tow. However, the Q-ship was too badly damaged to stay afloat, and sank the next night. The lieutenant and petty officer in charge of the rear gun crew were both awarded the Victoria Cross, and the rest of the crew received other awards, including a grant of 300 pounds to the collective.
Campbell and the crew were transferred back to the regular Navy. The fight of "Dunraven" was one of the last acts of glory for the Q-ship.
The Q-ships were not very effective weapons. 180 Q-ships were operated by the Royal Navy through the war, with ten of them sinking a total of 14 U-boats. Seven of the ten sank one, two sank two, and one sank three. Q-ships would be used again for a short time in the Second World War, but with no success. In fact, some naval scholars have claimed with a good deal of justification that all they did was provoke German U-boat captains to be more ruthless in attacking merchant vessels without warning.
On the other hand, early in World War I, they were the only offensive weapon the Royal Navy had to use against the U-boat, and they did damage 60 other U-boats, in some cases severely. Q-ships made U-boat captains more willing to use a torpedo on a merchantman instead of surfacing and sinking it with its deck gun. The torpedoes were much more expensive and a U-boat could only carry a relatively small number of them, limiting the effectiveness of their combat patrols. Either way, the Q-ships wrote an exciting chapter in naval history.
Britain needed other weapons and tactics to really defeat the U-boats. By now, the Americans were active belligerents in the conflict. The U-boat attacks had pushed US public sentiment to the breaking point, and the strain was badly aggravated when a high German Foreign Office official,
Arthur Zimmermann, sent a telegram to the Mexican government with a proposal for Germany to aid Mexico in an invasion of the United States.
The British intercepted and deciphered the telegram, and passed it on to the United States. Between the Zimmermann Telegram and unrestricted submarine warfare, the US finally declared war on Germany in April 1917, and both America and Britain directed their resources to deal with the U-boat problem.
America in the war
The Germans had managed to provoke the Americans into a collective rage, and the US was eager to get into the fight. The only problem was that America was not particularly ready to go to war, and Britain might well be defeated by the time the US was fully mobilized.
William Sims, in command of US Navy forces in Europe, felt that the British were facing imminent disaster at the hands of the U-boats and begged for antisubmarine resources. The US ambassador to Britain, Walter Hines Page, reported the same fears back to Washington. Sinkings rose again in May, and the Admiralty predicted the country would not be able to hold out past November 1917.
The US Navy sent six destroyers to Queenstown, Ireland, in early May, with many more to follow. America's production capabilities were much greater than Britain's, and American shipyards could turn out a destroyer in six weeks that British yards took a year and a half to build. Losses could now be made good.
The convoy system
The simple statistics encouraged the British Admiralty to begin merchant convoys. The Royal Navy had conducted convoys in the
Napoleonic Warsand they had been used effectively to protect troopships in the current war, but the idea of using them to protect merchant shipping had been debated for several years. Nobody was sure if convoys were Britain's salvation or ruin.
Consolidating merchant ships into
convoys might just provide German U-boats with a target-rich environment, and packing ships together might lead to collisions and other accidents. It was potentially a logistical nightmare as well, and Royal Navy officers judged it too much so. They also felt it was a much too passive approach to war. The Admiralty stubbornly resisted forming merchant convoys.
With the ability to replace losses, the dilemma of using convoys was not as painful. The British prime minister,
David Lloyd George, finally insisted that convoys be implemented, and after experiments through the early months of 1917 that proved successful, the first formal convoys were organized in late May.
Although the Admiralty dragged their feet, by the autumn the convoy system had become very well organized, and losses for ships in convoy fell drastically, with 2% losses for ships in convoy compared to 10% losses for ships traveling on their own. The convoy loss rate dropped to 1% in October. However, convoy was not mandatory, and monthly loss rates did not fall below their 1916 levels until August 1918.
In the meantime, the Allies were laying down new minefields to prevent U-boats from reaching the open sea. Such minefields had been laid since early in the war, but at the time the British mines hadn't been very effective. However, by 1917 the British had the "Mark H2" mine, copied from a German mine, which was much deadlier than earlier British mines.
Some of the minefields were huge. One, the
Northern Barrage, included 70,000 mines and ran across the North Sea from the Orkney Islandsto Norway, in principle blocking access to the North Atlantic, though in practice the mines were too widely scattered to be very effective. Another had 25,000 mines and sealed off German naval bases on the North Sea. A third blocked off the English Channel at the Dover Straits. Eventually, mines claimed several dozen U-boats.
The British had also perfected the first weapon that could be used to attack a U-boat underwater, the
depth charge. The concept was first proposed by Admiral Sir Charles Madden, an Admiralty staff officer, who heard a report of a U-boat escaping a British warship by diving, and suggested to Admiral Sir John Jellicoe: "Wouldn't it have been fine if they had had a mine that when dropped overboard exploded when it reached the depth at which the submarine was lying?"
Jellicoe liked the idea and set the Admiralty technical bureaucracy to work on it. Building such a weapon turned out to be simple, and the result was the "D Pattern Mark III" depth charge, a big can filled with 130 kg of TNT and a pressure-sensitive detonator. The detonator could be set to cause the charge to explode at six depths from 30 m to 180 m. The detonator mechanism itself was inside a hollow chamber in the middle of the depth charge that filled with water. The inlet to the chamber could be switched with a tool to six holes of different size, with the smaller holes causing detonation at greater depths.
Depth charges were first used in action in July 1916 when the patrol craft HMS "Salmon" attacked "UC-7", though "UC-7" escaped. On 6 December 1917, depth charges scored their first U-boat kill when the destroyer HMS "Llewellyn" sank the "UC-19" in the Dover Straits. The next week, HMS "Landrail" sank "UB-29" in the English Channel. The Americans quickly adopted the "ash can", as they called it, and the weapon accounted for several dozen U-boats by the end of the war. Even when the blows from the depth charges did no real damage to the submarine, the barrage was terrifying and demoralizing to the U-boat crews.
At first, depth charges were simply rolled off the stern of a destroyer or Q-ship, but by 1918 destroyers were carrying "projectors", a type of mortar designed by the British Thornycroft shipyards, that could blast them 70 meters (75 yards) from the ship. With four projectors and twin stern chutes, a destroyer could drop a pattern of charges to bracket the presumed position of the U-boat.
In parallel with the development of the depth charge, the British also introduced the first means of locating a submerged submarine, the
hydrophone. This was a primitive device, essentially a directional underwater microphone that could be steered by an operator to locate the source of an undersea sound.
Hydrophones had actually been developed as far back as 1894, and were originally based on telephone technology. They were first developed as much as a navigational aid to pick up underwater bells set up near lighthouses, wrecks, and other hazards, or as the receiver for a short-range water-based telegraphy system as to detect underwater objects.
Some directional capability was obtained by using them in pairs, with the operator balancing the intensity of the sound in his two headphones. This had the drawback that it was difficult to determine if the sound was in a particular direction, or 180 degrees away. Hydrophones were tricky to use, easily confounded by other sources of noise such as a sub-hunter's own propeller, but they were vastly better than nothing. Radio direction finding stations were set up as well, in hopes of locating U-boats from their wireless transmissions, and had limited success.
The Allies also began to make increasingly effective use of air power. Air bases were set up around Britain to support maritime air patrols. Flying boats attacked U-boats cruising on the surface, ultimately sinking seven and damaging forty. Four hundred
blimps, which could cruise slowly and stay in the air for long periods of time, accompanied convoys through the dangerous approaches to Britain, and also patrolled the sea lanes for raiders.
The Germans had gambled they could choke Britain before America could exert its influence on the war, or at least prevent American supplies and reinforcements from crossing the Atlantic. They failed. Two million American soldiers were sent to Europe, and the U-boats only managed to sink one troop transport.
The result of stronger Allied antisubmarine activity was a rising number of U-boat kills and increasingly desperate and demoralized German submariners. In May 1918, 55 U-boats were sent to sea, a record number, but sixteen were destroyed, also a record. By the summer of 1918, the life expectancy of a U-boat was six combat patrols.
Terror increased the ruthlessness of U-boat commanders, some of whom had been ruthless enough to begin with. Even before the U-boat kills began to rise, in April 1917, Lieutenant Wilhelm Werner of "U-53" had coldly murdered survivors of two sunken steamers by lining them up on the deck of the submarine, taking away their life preservers, and then submerging. Lieutenant Paul Wagenfuehr pulled the same vicious trick on the crew of a steamer in July 1917.
By 1918, U-boat commanders were also attacking clearly marked hospital ships. On 4 January 1918, Lieutenant Werner and "U-55" sank the hospital ship "Rewa", though most of the crew and all of the patients were rescued. The hospital ship "Glenart Castle" was sunk on 26 February 1918, with the loss of 153 lives, and on 10 March, the hospital ship "Guildford Castle" barely escaped sinking by outmaneuvering a torpedo that grazed the ship's side and went on.
On the night of on 27 June 1918, the hospital ship "Llandovery Castle" was torpedoed off southern Ireland by "U-86". There were fortunately no patients on board, but when the crew took to the lifeboats, "U-86" surfaced, ran down all the lifeboats except one, and shot at the people in the water. The 24 people in the surviving lifeboat were rescued. All 234 others disappeared into the sea.
After the war, the captain of "U-86", Lieutenant Helmut Patzig, and two of his lieutenants were arraigned for trial, but Patzig disappeared, and though the two lieutenants were convicted and sentenced to four years in prison, they both escaped.
Some U-boat captains were conscientious as well, or at least as conscientious as their role allowed them to be. Lieutenant Hans Rose often towed the lifeboats containing crews of ships he had sunk to within sight of land. After sinking the US Navy destroyer "Jacob Jones" on 6 December 1917, he was so concerned for the survival of the American crew in the wintry ocean that at great risk to his crew and himself, Rose actually radioed the British to inform them of the sinking and provide the location of the lifeboats.
The last gasp of the U-boats
Late in the war, the German high command decided to take the war to US shores. This required submarines with very long range, but Germany had the seven U-boats derived from the
merchant submarine"Deutschland" class. Two purpose-built long-range "cruiser" submarines were built as well, and featured six torpedo tubes and at least two 150 millimeter deck guns.
A few of the converted merchantmen made long voyages south to the Azores and the African coast, where they operated generally unmolested against shipping operating in the area, though one, "U-154", was torpedoed by the British submarine
E 35off the coast of Portugal in May 1918.
One voyage by this class of U-boat began on 14 April 1918, when the "U-151" left Kiel. "U-151" was under the command of Lieutenant Commander Heinrich von Nostitz und Jaeckendorff. His mission was to attack shipping along the American Atlantic coast and lay mines off major coastal outlets.
"U-151" laid a batch of mines off Baltimore harbor on 21 May. The Americans were not expecting trouble off their own shores and had taken no precautions. "U-151" conducted its business without interference or any sign of alarm. "U 151" discreetly seized three schooners that night, apparently to obtain provisions. The Germans took the crews on board and sank the vessels. "U 151" laid its remaining mines across Delaware Bay and proceeded to New York, arriving on 28 May. The submarine spent the next three days "trawling" the sea bottom with a cable-cutter, and severed two telegraph lines.
Nostitz then steamed south to attack shipping, racking up score after score. His conduct was considerate as possible, with crews allowed to abandon ship and given assistance afterward. In fact, one of his kills carried a mother with a little girl, who were taken on board and taken care of until they could be put on lifeboats in sight of land. The German crew spoiled the little girl.
However, after the sinking the liner "Carolina", on her way from Puerto Rico to New York, on 2 June, although the passengers and crew were allowed to safely abandon ship, a storm came up during the night and overturned one of the liner's lifeboats. 13 people drowned.
By this time, there was a panic in progress along the US eastern seaboard, but "U 151" was on the move and many steps ahead of any pursuers. "U 151" returned to Kiel on 20 July 1918, after having steamed 17,570 kilometers and sent 27 ships to the bottom, including four that were sunk by the mines the submarine had laid.
Encouraged by this success, "U-140", "U-156", and "U-117" were sent over as well, but the Americans were better prepared and the hunting was not as good. "U-156" was lost with all hands on the return voyage when she struck a mine off Bergen, Norway, on 25 September 1918. Another trio of long-range submarines, "U-155", "U-152", and "U-139" were already on their way across the Atlantic when the war ended.
Lieutenant Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière sank the last ship to be destroyed by a U-boat in the war on 1 October 1918, when he was in command of "U-139", one of the big "U-cruiser" boats. He managed to torpedo one vessel in a heavily protected British convoy crossing the Bay of Biscay, and in a hideous irony worthy of urban legends, the sinking vessel sank on top of "U 139". Von Arnauld and his crew managed to escape by blowing all ballast tanks and were able to patch up the submarine on the surface.
By early October, Germany was seeking terms for armistice, and on 22 October, a wireless message was sent to U-boats at sea for them to cease attacks on merchant shipping, though warships were still legitimate targets. By end of the month, German sailors began to mutiny in scattered Bolshevik uprisings, and by early November Germany was in a state of complete collapse. Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated and went into exile in Holland on 9 November, and the Germans signed the
Armisticeon 11 November.
The terms of the Armistice required that Germany turn over all U-boats to the British. Beginning on 20 November, the U-boats were taken into custody at the port of Harwich. Counting those handed over in other ports, 176 were taken. Most were looted by souvenir-hunters, and later scrapped.
Despite Germany's defeat, the U-boat force had distinguished itself in combat. The Germans had 20 submarines at the beginning of the war and eventually built 345 more. The U-boats had sunk almost 5,000 Allied ships, at a cost of 178 submarines and the lives of over 5,000 men out of the 13,000 who had served.
They had also killed at least 15,000 civilians, and British headlines read: "Hang the Kaiser, hang the U-boat commanders!" [cite book
pages=p 74] There were in fact no such mass reprisals, but U-boat officers in Allied prisons had an anxious time of it. One of them was a young lieutenant named
Karl Dönitz, whose submarine, "UB 68", had been sunk in the Mediterranean on 2 October. Dönitz spent his months in prison camp considering what the U-boats had done right, what they had done wrong, and would apply those lessons in the Second Battle of the Atlantic twenty years later.
Allied and Neutral Tonnage sunk by submarines in World War I
Grand Total 12,850,814 gross tons
Unrestricted submarine warfare was resumed in February 1917 and the British began full-scale convoying in September 1917. The heaviest losses were suffered in April 1917 when a record 881,027 tons were sunk by the U-boats. [Fayle, C. Ernest, "Seaborn Trade", Vol. 3, p. 465, Table I [a] ; London: John Murray, 1924.]
German Submarine Force 1914-1918
*Total operational boats: 351
*Total sunk in combat (50%): 178
*Other losses (11%): 39
*Completed after Armistice: 45
*Surrendered to Allied: 179
* [http://www.worldwar1atsea.net World's Navies in World War 1, Campaigns, Battles, Warship losses]
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