Royal and noble ranks


Royal and noble ranks
Royal and noble ranks
Coronet of an earl
Emperor & Empress
King & Queen
Viceroy & Vicereine
Archduke & Archduchess
Infante & Infanta
Grand Duke & Grand Duchess
Grand Prince & Grand Princess
Duke & Duchess

Prince & Princess


Marquess & Marchioness
Marquis & Marquise
Margrave & Margravine

Count & Countess

Earl & Countess

Viscount & Viscountess

Baron & Baroness

Freiherr & Freifrau
Baronet & Baronetess
Hereditary Knight, Ritter
Knight & Dame

Nobile, Edler von
This box: view · talk · edit

Traditional rank amongst European royalty, peers, and nobility is rooted in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Although they vary over time and between geographic regions (for example, one region's prince might be equal to another's grand duke), the following is a reasonably comprehensive list that provides information on both general ranks and specific differences.

Contents

Ranks and titles

Sovereign

  • The word monarch is derived from the Greek μονάρχης (from μόνος, or mónos "one/singular," and ἄρχων, or archon "leader/ruler/chief" through the Latin: monarcha (mono: "one" + arch "chief").
  • The word sovereign is derived from the vulgar Latin superanus "chief, principal," from the Latin super "over".
  • Autocrat is derived from the Greek αὐτοκράτωρ: αὐτός ("self") and κρατείν ("rule"), and may be translated as "one who rules by himself".
Common Titles for European and Near Eastern Monarchs

Note that many titles listed may also be used by lesser nobles - non-sovereigns - depending on the historical period and state. The sovereign titles listed below are grouped together into categories roughly according to their degree of dignity; these being: imperial, high royal, royal, others (princely, ducal, more), and religious.

Imperial titles

  • Emperor, from the Latin Imperator, meaning "commander" or "one who commands." In English, the feminine form is Empress (the Latin is imperatrix). The realm of an emperor or empress is termed an Empire. Alternate words meaning Emperor, include:
    • Caesar, the appellation of Roman emperors derived from the Roman dictator Julius Caesar, whose great-nephew and adopted son Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus became the first emperor of Rome.
    • Tsar, derived from Caesar, primarily used in Russian and Slavic countries.
    • Kaiser, derived from Caesar, primarily used in Germanic countries.
    • Perandor, derived from Caesar, used in Albania.
    • Basileus, from Mycenaean Greek meaning "chieftain", later used for the Roman emperors of the Byzantine period.
  • Samraat (Sanskrit: samrāṭ or सम्राज् samrāj) is an Ancient Indian title sometimes translated into modern English as "Emperor". The feminine form is Samrãjñī.
  • King of Kings mostly used to denote Jesus Christ or the Christian Roman emperors of the Late Empire and Byzantine periods.
    • Shahanshah, literally "King of Kings" a corruption of the Middle Persian šāhān šāh, meaning"King's King." Used in Persia, the Ottoman Empire, and surrounding countries.
    • Mepe-Mepeta, Georgian for "King of Kings."
    • Khagan, derived from Khan of Khans, meaning king of kings in the Mongol Empire and successor states.

High royal titles

  • High King, A king who rules over lesser kings.
    • Mahārāja, Sanskrit for a "great king" or "high king".
    • Padishah, Persian pād "master" and shāh "king"
    • Anax, from Mycenaean wanax for "High King". Outranked Basileus in Mycenaean usage.
    • Nam-Lugal High kings of ancient Sumer (Mesopotamia).
    • Pharaoh, used in Ancient Egypt to denote the High kings of the upper and lower kingdoms of the Nile river valley.
    • Ard Rí, Gaelic for high king, most notably used for high kings of Ireland and high kings of Scotland.
    • Bretwalda, high kings of Anglo-Saxon England.
  • Yang di-Pertuan Agong, in Malaysia, is the king's title, and means "He who is made supreme lord" Generally rendered a king, the position is elected among the nine kingdoms, so may properly be classed a high king.

Royal titles

  • King, from the Germanic *kuningaz, roughly meaning "son of the people." (See: Germanic kingship) [1] The realm of a King is termed a Kingdom (sovereign kings are ranked above vassal kings)
    • Rex Latin for "ruler." Cognate with Raja, , Reign, Regina, etc.
    • Raja, Indian for "ruler.". Cognate with Latin Rex, Gaelic , etc.
    • , Gaelic title meaning king, of which there were several grades, the highest being Ard Rí (High king). Cognate with Indian Raja, Latin Rex, and ancient Gaulish rix.
    • Khan, from the Turko-Mongol word for "lord," like Duke it was originally a military rank. A Khan's realm is called a Khanate.
    • Shah, Persian word for king, form Indo-European for "he who rules"
    • Sultan, from Arabic for "has power."
    • Malik, Arabic for King.
    • Lakan, Fillipino title (mostly for the Island of Luzon) which, together with the term "Datu" of Visayas and Mindanao, is used as an equivalent to Raja, and therefore, to King or sovereign Prince.
    • Tuanku, the title of the kings of the nine Royal states of Malaysia; all princes and princesses of the Royal Families also receive the appellation Tengku,
  • Queen, from the Germanic *kwoeniz, or *kwenon, meaning "wife." The female equivalent of a King, a Queen's realm is also a kingdom.
    • Rani, Indian for Queen. See Raja, above.
    • Shahbanu, Persian for Queen. See Shah, above.
    • Sultana, Arab for Queen. See Sultan, above.
    • Ratu, Indochinese term for Queen, derived from Raja

Princely, ducal, and other sovereign titles

  • Prince, from the Latin princeps, meaning "first citizen". The feminine form is Princess. Variant forms include the German Fürst.
  • Morza A Tartar title usually translated as "prince," it ranked below a Khan. The title was borrowed from Persian and Indian appellation Mirza added to the names of certain nobles, which itself derived from Emir.
  • Despot, Greek for "lord, master", initially an appellation for the Byzantine emperor, later the senior court title, awarded to sons and close relatives of the emperor. In the 13th-15th centuries borne by autonomous and independent rulers in the Balkans.
  • Duke, from the Latin Dux, meaning "leader," a military rank in the late Roman Empire. Variant forms include Doge, and Duce; it has also been modified into Archduke (meaning "chief" Duke), Grand Duke (literally "large," or "big" Duke), Vice Duke ("deputy" Duke), etc. The female equivalent is Duchess
  • Emir, often rendered Amir in older English usage; from the Arabic "to command." The female form is Emira (Amirah). Emir is the root of the English military rank "Admiral."
  • Bey, or Beg, Turkish for "Chieftain."

Religious titles

  • Pope (also "Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church and Vicar of Christ"); once wielding substantial secular power as the ruler of the Papal States and holder of various fiefs, the Pope is also the absolute ruler of the sovereign state Vatican City
  • Caliph, was the ruler of the caliphate, an Islamic title indicating the successor to Muhammad. Originally both a religious and a secular leader in the mode of the medieval Popes.

Other sovereigns, royals, peerage, and nobility

Several ranks were widely used (for more than a thousand years in Europe alone) for both sovereign rulers and non-sovereigns. Additional knowledge about the territory and historic period is required to know whether the rank holder was a sovereign or non-sovereign. However, joint precedence among rank holders often greatly depended on whether a rank holder was sovereign, whether of the same rank or not. This situation was most widely exemplified by the Holy Roman Empire (HRE) in Europe. Almost all of the following ranks were commonly both sovereign and non-sovereign within the HRE. Outside of the HRE, the most common sovereign rank of these below was that of Prince. Within the HRE, those holding the following ranks who were also sovereigns had (enjoyed) what was known as an immediate relationship with the Emperor. Those holding non-sovereign ranks held only a mediate relationship (meaning that the civil hierarchy upwards was mediated by one or more intermediaries between the rank holder and the Emperor).

Titles
  • Archduke, ruler of an archduchy; was generally only a sovereign rank when used by the rulers of Austria; it was also used by the Habsburgs of the Holy Roman Empire, Austrian Empire, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire for members of the imperial family; it was also used for those ruling some Habsburg territories such as those that became the modern BeNeLux (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg) nations
  • Grand Prince, ruler of a grand principality; a title primarily used in the medieval Russian principalities; it was also used by the Romanovs of the Russian Empire for members of the imperial family
  • Duke, ruler[1] of a duchy,[2] also for junior members of ducal and some grand ducal families
  • Prince, Prinz in German; junior members of a royal, ducal or princely family (the title of Fürst for heads of princely families and sometimes all members, e.g. Wrede)
    • In particular Crown Prince, Kronprinz in German, was reserved for the heir apparent of an emperor or king
  • Dauphin, title of the crown prince of the royal family of France
  • Infante, title of the cadet members of the royal families of Portugal and Spain
  • Elector, Kurfürst in German, a rank for those who voted for the Holy Roman Emperor, usually sovereign of a state (e.g. the Margrave of Brandenburg, an elector, called the Elector of Brandenburg)
  • Marquess, Margrave, or Marquis was the ruler¹ of a marquessate, margraviate, or march
  • Landgrave, a German title, ruler of a landgraviate
  • Count, theoretically the ruler of a county; known as an Earl in modern Britain
  • Viscount (vice-count), theoretically the ruler of a viscounty or viscountcy
  • Freiherr, holder of an allodial barony – these are "higher" level of barons[citation needed]
  • Baron, theoretically the ruler of a barony – some barons in some countries may have been "free barons" (liber baro) and as such, regarded (themselves) as higher barons

Regarding the titles of duke and prince: in Germany, a sovereign duke (Herzog) outranks a sovereign prince (Fürst), but a royal cadet prince (Prinz) outranks a cadet duke of a ducal or grand ducal family. In the German nobility as well, being created a duke was a higher honour than being created a prince. The issue of a duke were sometimes styled as dukes or as princes; princely issue were styled as princes. In particular, the heir apparent to a certain title would usually append the prefix Erb- (hereditary) to their respective title, e.g. Erbherzog, Erbprinz, Erbgraf, Erbherr etc., to distinguish from their junior siblings.

Aristocracy and gentry

Titles
  • Baronet is an hereditary title ranking below Baron but above Knight; this title is granted only in the British Isles
  • Dominus was the Latin title of the feudal, superior and mesne, lords, and also an ecclesiastical and academical title (equivalent of Lord)
  • Vidame, a minor French aristocrat
  • Seigneur or Knight of the Manor rules a smaller local fief
  • Knight is the basic rank of the aristocratic system
  • Patrician is an Italian title of nobility ranking between that of a knight and an esquire; it was only granted in the Italian aristocratic city republics
  • Fidalgo or Hidalgo is a minor Portuguese and Spanish aristocrat (respectively; from filho d'algo = filho d'alguém = son of someone [noble])
  • Nobile (aristocracy) is an Italian title of nobility for prestigious families that never received a title
  • Principalía the aristocratic class of Filipino nobles, through whom the Spanish Monarchs ruled the Philippines during the colonial period (c. 1600's to 1898).
  • Jonkheer is a title for prestigious Dutch families that never received a title, so instead a new title was invented; Though these titles have no claim to a territory, city, or province in the Netherlands, they are basically claiming a good family name; A woman who holds this title is called a Jonkvrouw, though the wife of a Jonkheer is a Mevrouw or sometimes Freule, which could also be used by daughters of the same
  • Esquire is a rank of gentry originally derived from Squire and indicating the status of an attendant to a knight or an apprentice knight; it ranked below Knight but above Gentleman[3][4]
  • Gentleman is the basic rank of gentry, historically primarily associated with land or manoral lords; within British Commonwealth nations it is also roughly equivalent to some lower nobility of some continental European nations[5]

In Germany, the constitution of the Weimar Republic in 1919 abolished nobility and all nobility titles. They are now merely part of the family name, and there is no more right to the traditional forms of address (e.g., "Hoheit" or "Durchlaucht"). The last title was conferred on 12 November 1918 to Kurt von Klefeld. The actual rank of the holder of a title in Germany was dependent on not only the title, but also on other factors such as the degree of sovereignty and the rank of the lord of the title-holder. Such matters as the age of the princely dynasty also play a role (Uradel, Briefadel, altfürstliche, neufürstliche, see: German nobility). Thus, any sovereign ruler is higher than any formerly sovereign, i.e. mediatized, family of any rank (thus, the Fürst of Waldeck, sovereign until 1918, was higher than the Duke of Arenberg, mediatized). Members of a formerly sovereign house rank higher than the regular nobility. Among the regular nobility, those whose titles derive from the Holy Roman Empire rank higher than those whose titles were granted by one of the German princes after 1806, regardless of what title was held.

In Austria, nobility titles may no longer be used since 1918.[6]

In Switzerland, nobility titles are prohibited and are not recognized as part of the family name.

General chart of "translations" between languages

Below is a comparative table of corresponding royal and noble titles in various European countries. Quite often, a Latin 3rd declension noun formed a distinctive feminine title by adding -issa to its base, but usually the 3rd declension noun was used for both male and female nobles, except for Imperator and Rex. 3rd declension nouns are italicized in this chart. See Royal and noble styles to learn how to address holders of these titles properly.

English French Italian Portuguese Spanish German Dutch Norwegian Swedish Czech Slovak Finnish[7] Polish[8] Russian Danish Greek Slovene Welsh Latin[9] Turkish Maltese Hungarian
Emperor,
Empress
Empereur,
Impératrice
Imperatore,
Imperatrice
Imperador,
Imperatriz
Emperador,
Emperatriz
Kaiser,
Kaiserin
Keizer,
Keizerin
Keiser,
Keiserinne
Kejsare,
Kejsarinna
Císař,
Císařovna
Cisár,
Cisárovná
Keisari,
Keisarinna (or Keisaritar, obsolete)
Cesarz,
Cesarzowa
Imperator/Tsar,
Imperatritsa/Tsaritsa
Kejser,
Kejserinde
Aftokrator,
Aftokratira
Cesar,
Cesarica
Ymerawdwr,
Ymerodres
Imperator/Caesar,
Imperatrix/Caesarina
İmparator,
İmparatoriçe
Imperatur,
Imperatriċi
Császár,
császárnő
King,
Queen
Roi,
Reine
Re,
Regina
Rei,
Rainha
Rey,
Reina
König,
Königin
Koning,
Koningin
Konge,
Dronning
Kung,
Drottning
Král,
Královna
Kráľ,
Kráľovná
Kuningas,
Kuningatar
Król,
Królowa
Koról/Tsar,
Koroléva/Tsaritsa
Konge
Dronning
Vasilefs,
Vasilissa
Kralj,
Kraljica
Brenin,
Brenhines
Rex,
Regina
Kral,
Kraliçe
Re,
Reġina
Király,
királynő
Viceroy,
Vicereine
Viceroi,
Vicereine
Viceré,
Viregina
Vice-rei,
Vice-rainha
Virrey,
Virreina
Vizekönig,
Vizekönigin
Onderkoning,
Onderkoningin
Visekonge,
Visedronning
Visekung,
Visedrottning
      Wicekról,
Wicekrólowa
Vitse-koról,
Vitse-koroléva
  Vizekonge,
Vizedronning
  Prorex,
Proregina
    Alkirály,
alkirálynő
Grand Duke/Grand Prince,
Grand Duchess/Grand Princess
Grand Duc,
Grande Duchesse
Granduca,
Granduchessa
Grão-Duque,
Grã-Duquesa
Gran Duque,
Gran Duquesa
Großherzog/Großfürst,
Großherzogin/Großfürstin
Groothertog,
Groothertogin
Storhertug,
Storhertuginne
Storfurste,
Storfurstinna
Velkovévoda,
Velkovévodkyně
Veľkovojvoda,
Veľkovojvodkyňa
Suuriruhtinas,
Suuriruhtinatar
Wielki Książę,
Wielka Księżna
Velikiy Knyaz,
Velikaya Kniagina
Storhertug,
Storhertuginde
Megas Doux, Megali Doukissa Veliki vojvoda,
Velika vojvodinja
Archddug,
Archdduges
Magnus Dux/ Magnus Princeps,
magna ducissa, magna principissa
Grandük,
Grandüşes
Gran Duka,
Gran Dukessa
Nagyherceg, fejedelem, vajda
nagyhercegnő, fejedelemasszony, -
Archduke,
Archduchess
Archiduc, Archiduchesse Arciduca,
Arciduchessa
Arquiduque,
Arquiduquesa;
Archiduque,
Archiduquesa
Erzherzog,
Erzherzogin
Aartshertog,
Aartshertogin 
Erkehertug,
Erkehertuginne
Ärkehertig,
ärkehertiginna
Arcivévoda,
Arcivévodkyně
Arcivojvoda,
Arcivojvodkyňa
Arkkiherttua,
Arkkiherttuatar
Arcyksiążę
Arcyksiężna
Ertsgertsog,
Ertsgertsoginya
Ærke Hertug,
Ærke Hertuginde
Archidoux, Archidoukissa Nadvojvoda,
Nadvojvodinja
Archddug,
Archdduges
Archidux,
archiducissa
Arşidük,
Arşidüşes
Arċiduka,
Arċidukessa
Főherceg,
főhercegnő
(Prince)-Elector,
Electress
Prince-électeur,
Princesse-électrice
Principe Elettore,
Principessa Elettrice
Príncipe-Eleitor,
Princesa-Eleitora;
Príncipe Elector,
Princesa Electora;
Kurfürst,
Kurfürstin
Keurvorst,
Keurvorstin
Kurfyrste,
Kurfyrstinne
Kurfurste
Kurfurstinna
Kurfiřt
Kurfirst/Knieža voliteľ/Knieža volič
Vaaliruhtinas,
Vaaliruhtinatar
Książę Elektor,
Księżna Elektorowa
Kurfyurst,
Kurfyurstina
Kurfyrste,
Kurfystinde
Pringkips-Eklektor
Pringkipissa-Eklektorissa
Volilni knez,
Volilna kneginja
  Princeps Elector Veliaht Prens,
Veliaht Prenses
Prinċep Elettur,
Prinċipessa Elettriċi
Választófejedelem,
(választófejedelemnő)
Prince,[10]
Princess
Prince,[10]
Princesse
Principe,[10]
Principessa
Príncipe,
Princesa
Príncipe,[10]
Princesa
Prinz/Fürst,
Prinzessin/Fürstin[11]
Prins/Vorst,
Prinses/Vorstin
Prins/Fyrste,
Prinsesse/Fyrstinne
Prins/Furste,
Prinsessa/Furstinna[12]
Kníže,
Kněžna10
Knieža,
Kňažná
Prinssi/Ruhtinas,
Prinsessa/Ruhtinatar[12]
Książę,
Księżna
Kniaz/Gertsog,
Kniagina/Gertsoginya[13]
Prins/Fyrste
Prinsesse/Fyrstinde
Pringkips
Pringkipissa
Knez,
Kneginja
Tywysog,
Tywysoges
Princeps,
principissa
Prens,
Prenses
Prinċep,
Prinċipessa
Királyi herceg,
királyi hercegnő
Duke,
Duchess
Duc,
Duchesse
Duca,
Duchessa
Duque,
Duquesa
Duque,
Duquesa
Herzog,
Herzogin
Hertog,
Hertogin
Hertug,
Hertuginne
Hertig,
hertiginna
Vévoda,
Vévodkyně
Vojovda,
Vojvodkyňa
Herttua,
Herttuatar
Diuk (Książę),
(Księżna)
Hertug
Hertuginde
Doukas/archon
Doux/archontissa
Vojvoda,
Vojvodinja
Dug,
Duges
Dux,
ducissa
Dük,
Düşes
Duka,
Dukessa
Herceg,
hercegnő
Marquess/Margrave,
Marchioness/Margravine
Marquis,
Marquise
Marchese,
Marchesa
Marquês,
Marquesa
Marqués,
Marquesa
Markgraf,[14]
Markgräfin
Markies/Markgraaf,
Markiezin/Markgravin
Marki,
Markise
Markis/markgreve,
markisinna/markgrevinna[12]
Markýz/Markrabě[15] Markíz,
Markíza
Markiisi/rajakreivi,
Markiisitar/rajakreivitär
Markiz/Margrabia,
Markiza/Margrabina
Markiz,
Markiza,
Boyar,
Boyarina[13]
Markis,
Markise
Markissios,
Markissia
Markiz,
Markiza
Marcwis/Ardalydd,
Ardalyddes
Marchio,
marchionissa
Marki,
Markiz
Markiż,
Markiża
Márki, őrgróf
márkinő, őrgrófnő
Earl / Count,
Countess
Comte,
Comtesse
Conte,
Contessa
Conde,
Condessa[16]
Conde,
Condesa
Graf,
Gräfin
Graaf,
Gravin
Jarl / Greve,
Grevinne
Greve,
Grevinna
Hrabě,
Hraběnka
Gróf,
Grófka
Kreivi/(brit:)jaarli,
Kreivitär[12]
Hrabia,
Hrabina
Graf,
Grafinya[13]
Greve
Grevinde, Komtesse
Komis,
Komissa
Grof,
Grofica
Iarll/Cownt,
Iarlles/Cowntes
Comes,
comitissa
Kont,
Kontes
Konti,
Kontessa
Gróf
grófnő
Viscount,
Viscountess
Vicomte,
Vicomtesse
Visconte,
Viscontessa
Visconde,
Viscondessa
Vizconde,
Vizcondesa
Vizegraf,
Vizegräfin
Burggraaf,
Burggravin
Vikomte/Visegreve,
Visegrevinne
Vicomte,
Vicomtessa
Vikomt Vikomt,
Vikontesa
Varakreivi,
Varakreivitär
Wicehrabia,
Wicehrabina
Vikont,
Vikontessa
Vicegreve,
Vicegrevinde/Vicekomtesse
Ypokomis, Ypokomissa Vikont,
Vikontinja
Iarll,
Iarlles
Vicecomes,
vicecomitissa
Vikont,
Vikontes
Viskonti,
Viskontessa
Várgróf, vikomt
Várgrófnő (vikomtnő)
Baron,
Baroness
Baron,
Baronne
Barone,
Baronessa
Barão,
Baronesa
Barón,
Baronesa
Baron, Herr,
Baronin, Frau
Baron,
Barones(se)
Baron,
Baronesse
Baron, Herre,
Baronessa, Fru
Baron,
Baronka
Barón,
Barónka
Paroni, Herra,
Paronitar, Rouva/ Herratar[12]
Baron,
Baronowa
Baron,
Baronessa
Baron,
Baronesse
Varonos,
Varoni
Baron,
Baronica
Barwn,
Barwnes
Baro,
baronissa
Baron,
Barones
Baruni,
Barunessa
Báró,
bárónő
Baronet[17]
Baronetess
Baronnet Baronetto Baronete,
Baronetesa;
Baronet   Erfridder     Baronet   Baronetti, "Herra" (=fiefholder),
Herratar
Baronet Baronet Baronet,
Baronetesse
Baronetos, Baroneta Baronet,
Baronetinja
Barwnig,
Barwniges
  Baronet,
Baronetes
Barunett Baronet,
baronetnő
Knight[18] / Dame Chevalier Cavaliere Cavaleiro Caballero Ritter Ridder Ridder Riddare/ Frälseman,
Fru[12]
Rytíř Rytier Aatelinen/Ritari[12]
style of wife: Rouva
Rycerz/ Kawaler Rytsar Ridder Hippotis Vitez Marchog Eques Şövalye Kavallier Lovag (vitéz[19])
Esquire, Gentleman Ecuyer Nobile,Nobiluomo Fidalgo Escudero, Hidalgo Junker (Prussia), Edler (Austria),
Junkerin, Edle
Jonkheer                    Oproda   Nobilis Homo (N.H.) Bey, Efendi   Nemes,
nemesasszony

Aristocratic titles in medieval Korea

In the Kingdom of Korea, similarly to the Chinese Empire, there were 7 aristocratic titles:

  1. Gun (i.e. Crown Prince),
  2. Kung (hereditary prince or Duke),
  3. Champan (Marquess),
  4. Poguk (Count or Earl),
  5. Pansoh (Viscount),
  6. Chamise (Baron),
  7. Chusa (cca. Baronet).

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Loss of sovereignty or fief does not necessarily lead to loss of title. The position in the ranking table is however accordingly adjusted. The occurrence of fiefs has changed from time to time, and from country to country. For instance, dukes in England rarely had a duchy to rule.
  2. ^ Dukes who are not actually or formerly sovereign, such as all British, French, and Spanish dukes, or who are not sons of sovereigns, as titulary dukes in many other countries, should be considered nobles ranking above marquess.
  3. ^ The meaning of the title Esquire became (and remains) quite diffuse, and may indicate anything from no aristocratic status, to some official government civil appointment, or (more historically) the son of a knight or noble who had no other title above just Gentleman.
  4. ^ In the United States, where there is no aristocracy, the title Esquire is sometimes arrogated (without any governmental authorization) by lawyers admitted to the state bar.
  5. ^ Ruling of the Court of the Lord Lyon (26/2/1948, Vol. IV, page 26): 'With regard to the words 'untitled nobility' employed in certain recent birthbrieves in relation to the (Minor) Baronage of Scotland, Finds and Declares that the (Minor) Barons of Scotland are, and have been both in this nobiliary Court and in the Court of Session recognised as a ‘titled nobility’ and that the estait of the Baronage (i.e. Barones Minores) are of the ancient Feudal Nobility of Scotland’. This title is not, however, in and of itself a peerage title, and nobility, or the noblesse, in Scotland incorporates the concept of gentry in England.
  6. ^ Austrian law on noble titles
  7. ^ Finland accorded the noble ranks of Ruhtinas, Kreivi, Vapaaherra and Aatelinen. The titles Suurherttua, Arkkiherttua, Vaaliruhtinas, Prinssi, Markiisi, Jaarli, Varakreivi, Paroni, and Baronetti were not granted in Finland, though they are used of foreign titleholders. Keisari, Kuningas, Suuriruhtinas, Prinssi, and Herttua have been used as official titles of members of the dynasties that ruled Finland, though not granted as titles of nobility. Some feudally-based privileges in landowning, connected to nobily related lordship, existed into the nineteenth century; and fiefs were common in the late medieval and early modern eras. The title Ritari was not commonly used except in the context of knightly orders. The lowest, untitled level of hereditary nobility was that of the "Aatelinen" (i.e. "noble").
  8. ^ In keeping with the principle of equality among noblemen, no noble titles (with few exceptions) below that of prince were allowed in Poland. The titles in italics are simply Polish translations of western titles which were granted to some Polish nobles by foreign monarchs, especially after the partitions. Instead of heraditory titles, the Polish nobility developed and used a set of titles based on offices held. See "szlachta" for more info on Polish nobility.
  9. ^ Latin titles are for etymological comparisons. They do not accurately reflect their medieval counterparts.
  10. ^ a b c d "Prince" (Prinz in German, Prins in Swedish, Prinssi in Finnish, "Principe" in Spanish) can also be a title of junior members of royal houses. In the British system, for example, prince is not a rank of nobility but a title held exclusively by members of the royal family.
  11. ^ In central Europe, the title of Fürst or kníže (e.g. Fürst von Liechtenstein) ranks below the title of a duke (e.g. Duke of Brunswick). The title of Vizegraf was not used in German-speaking countries, and the titles of Ritter and Edler were not commonly used.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g No noble titles were granted after 1906 when the unicameral legislatures (Eduskunta, Riksdag) were established, removing the constitutional status of the so-called First Estate. However, noble ranks were granted in Finland until 1917 (there, the lowest, untitled level of hereditary nobility was "Aatelinen", or "noble"; it was in essence a rank, not a title).
  13. ^ a b c For domestic Russian nobility, only the titles Kniaz and Boyar were used before the 18th century, when Graf was added.
  14. ^ In the German system by rank approximately equal to Landgraf and Pfalzgraf.
  15. ^ The title Markýz was not used in Bohemia and thus referred only to foreign nobility, while the title Markrabě (the same as the German Markgraf) is connected only to a few historical territories (including the former marches on the borders of the Holy Roman Empire, or Moravia).
  16. ^ In Portugal, a baron or viscount who was a "grandee of the kingdom" (Portuguese: Grandes do Reino) was called a "baron with grandness" (Portuguese: Barão com Grandeza) or "viscount with grandness" (Portuguese: Visconde com Grandeza); each of these grandees was ranked as equal to a count.
  17. ^ Does not confer nobility in the British system.
  18. ^ Non-hereditary. Does not confer nobility in the British system. See also squire and esquire.
  19. ^ The "vitéz" title was introduced in Hungary after 1920. In preceding ages simply meant a warrior or a courageous man.

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Royal and noble styles — Styles represent the fashion by which monarchs and noblemen are properly addressed. Throughout history, many different styles were used, with little standardization. This page will detail the various styles used by royalty and nobility in Europe …   Wikipedia

  • Thai royal and noble titles — are the royal and noble styles signifying relationship to the King introduced by King Trailokanat, who reigned 1448 to 1488. The system is rooted in the Thai language equivalent of feudalism, Sakdina (ศักดินา: literally, power over fields).It is… …   Wikipedia

  • Royal Highness — (abbreviation HRH) is a style ( His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness ); plural Royal Highnesses (abbreviation TRH, Their Royal Highnesses ). It appears in front of the names of some members of some royal families other than the King or… …   Wikipedia

  • Royal Victorian Order — RVO redirects here. For other uses, see RVO (disambiguation). Royal Victorian Order Breast Star of the Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order Awarded by the …   Wikipedia

  • Military ranks of the Thai armed forces — Contents 1 Royal Thai Army 1.1 Officers 1.2 Other Ranks 2 Royal Thai Air Force 2.1 Officers …   Wikipedia

  • Ethiopian aristocratic and court titles — Until the end of the monarchy in 1974, there were two categories of nobility in Ethiopia: the Mesafint (Ge ez መሳፍንት masāfint, modern mesāfint, singular መስፍን masfin, modern mesfin, prince ) or princes, hereditary nobles, formed the upper echelon… …   Wikipedia

  • Table of Ranks — The Table of Ranks (Russian: Табель о рангах; Tabel o rangakh) was a formal list of positions and ranks in the military, government, and court of Imperial Russia. It was introduced in 1722, during the reign of Peter the Great, while he engaged in …   Wikipedia

  • List of Ottoman titles and appellations — This is a list of Ottoman titles and appellations. Muslims in the Ottoman Empire carried titles such as Pasha , Hoca , Bey , Hanım , Efendi , etc. These titles either defined their formal profession (such as Pasha, Hoca, etc.) or their informal… …   Wikipedia

  • Society and culture of the Han Dynasty — A Western Han jade carved door knocker with designs of Chinese dragons (and two other jade figurines) The Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) was a period of ancient China divided by the Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) and Eastern Han (25–220 CE) periods …   Wikipedia

  • Kamboj in Muslim and British Era — Kamboj or Kambohs (Urdu: کمبوہ ) are tribes of the Punjab region, said to be the modern representatives of the ancient Kambojas. They are found as Hindus, Sikhs, Muslims, Persians, Jaina and Buddhists and are mostly confined to northern parts of… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.