Braunschweig


Braunschweig

Infobox German Location
Art = Stadt
image_photo = Braunschweig Kohlmarkt.jpg
Wappen = Wappen Braunschweig.svg
lat_deg = 52 | lat_min = 16 | lat_sec = 9
lon_deg = 10 | lon_min = 31 | lon_sec = 16
Bundesland = Lower Saxony
Landkreis = Kreisfreie Stadt
Höhe = 75
Fläche = 192.13
Einwohner = 245810
Stand = 2007-12-31
pop_ref = [ [http://www.nls.niedersachsen.de/Tabellen/Bevoelkerung/Ranking_2008.html 2007 population ranking of Lower Saxony] ]
PLZ = 38100–38126
PLZ-alt = 3300
Vorwahl = 0531, 05307, 05309
Kfz = BS
Gemeindeschlüssel = 03 1 01 000
Gliederung = 20 Boroughs
Adresse =
Website = [http://www.braunschweig.de/ www.braunschweig.de]
Bürgermeister = Gert Hoffmann
Bürgermeistertitel = Oberbürgermeister
Partei = CDU
ruling_party1 = CDU
ruling_party2 = FDP
ruling_party3 =
year = before 1031 (probably in the 9th century)

Braunschweig IPA| [ˈbraʊnʃvaɪk] , known as Brunswiek IPA| [ˈbrɔˑnsviːk] in Low German, is a city of 245,810 people (as of 31 December 2007), located in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is located north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker river, which connects to the North Sea via the rivers Aller and Weser.

The historic English name for Braunschweig is Brunswick.

History

The date and circumstances of the town's foundation are unknown. Tradition maintains that Braunschweig was created through the merger of two settlements, one founded by Bruno II, a Saxon count who died before 1017 on one side of the river Oker - the legend gives the year 861 for the foundation - and the other the settlement of Count Dankward, after whom the still surviving Castle Dankwarderode "(Dankward's clearing)" is named. The town's original name of "Brunswik" is a combination of the name Bruno and "wik" , a place where merchants rested and stored their goods. The town's name therefore indicates an ideal resting-place, as it lay by a ford across the Oker River. Documents from the St. Magni Church from 1031 give the city's name as "Brunesguik". Another explanation of the city's name is that it comes from "Brand", or burning, indicating a place which developed after the landscape was cleared through burning.

In the 12th century Duke Henry the Lion made Braunschweig the capital of his state and built the Cathedral. He became so powerful that he dared to refuse military aid to emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, which led to his condemnation and fall.

Braunschweig was a member of the Hanseatic League from the 13th century to the middle of the 17th century. In the 18th century Braunschweig was not only a political, but also a cultural centre. "Emilia Galotti" by Lessing and Goethe's "Faust" were performed for the first time in Braunschweig.

Braunschweig was the main residence of the rulers of the Duchy of Brunswick, which was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire until 1806 and of the German Empire from 1871. At the end of World War I the Duchy became the Free State of Brunswick within the Weimar Republic.

During World War II thousands of forced Eastern workers were brought to the city. During the years 1943-1945 at least 360 children taken away from the workers died in the Entbindungsheim für Ostarbeiterinnen.

In World War II, Braunschweig was a Sub-area Headquarters (Untergebiet Hauptquartier) of Military District (Wehrkreis) XI. It was also the garrison city of the 31st Infanterie Division, which took part in the invasions of Poland, Belgium, France, and Russia, and was largely destroyed during the German withdrawal from Russia. The city was severely damaged by Anglo-American aerial attacks. The air raid on 15 October, 1944 destroyed most of the "Altstadt" (old town), which had been the largest ensemble of half-timbered framework houses in Germany, as well as most of the churches. The Cathedral, which had been converted to a "National shrine" (German: "Nationale Weihestätte") by the Nazi-Government, still stood.

After the war, Braunschweig ceased to be a capital when the Free State of Brunswick was dissolved by the Allied occupying authorities (most of its lands were incorporated in the newly formed state of Lower Saxony). The Cathedral was restored to its function as a Protestant church. The rebuilding of the city was intended to make it modern and automobile-oriented. A small section of the Altstadt survived the bombing and remains quite distinctive. In the 1990s efforts increased to reconstruct historic buildings that had been destroyed in the air raid. Buildings such as the "Alte Waage" (originally built in 1534) now stand again in their pre-war glory.

Demography 12col|830px|1811|1830|1849|1880|1890|1900|1925|1939|1950|1975|1989|2004
27,600|35,300|39,000|75,000|100,000|128,200|146,900|196,068|223,767|269,900|253,794|239,921

Main sights

* The "Burgplatz" (Castle Square), comprising a group of buildings of great historical and cultural significance: the Cathedral (built at the end of the 12th century), the "Burg Dankwarderode" (a 19th-century reconstruction of the old castle of Henry the Lion), the Neo-Gothic Town Hall (built in 1893-1900), as well as some picturesque half-timbered houses, such as the "Gildehaus" (Guild House), today the seat of the Craftsman's Association. On the centre of the square stands a copy of the "Burglöwe", a Romanesque statue of a Lion, cast in bronze in 1166. The original statue can be seen in the museum of the Castle Dankwarderode. Today the lion has become the true symbol of Braunschweig.
* The "Altstadtmarkt" ("old town market"), surrounded by old town hall (built between the 13th and the 15th centuries in Gothic style), and the "Martinikirche" (church of Saint Martin, from 1195).
* The "Kohlmarkt" ("coal market"), a market with many historical houses and a fountain from 1869.
* The "Magniviertel" (St Magnus' Quarter), a remainder of ancient Braunschweig, lined with cobblestoned streets, little shops and cafés, centered around the 13th-century "Magnikirche" (St Magnus' Church). Here is also the "Rizzi-Haus", a highly distinctive, cartoonish office building designed by architect James Rizzi for the Expo 2000.
* The Romanesque and Gothic "Andreaskirche" (church of Saint Andrew), built mainly between the 13th and 16th centuries. The church was heavily damaged in World War II, and is expected to enter into its final stage of restoration in 2009 after some sixty years of intermittent work.
* The Gothic "Aegidienkirche" (church of Saint Giles), built in the 13th century, with an adjoining monastery, which is today a museum.
* The "Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum", a worldwide important art museum and the oldest public museum in Germany (founded 1754).
* The "Staatstheater" (State Theater), newly built in the 19th century, goes back to the first standing public theater in Germany, founded in 1690 by Duke Anton Ulrich.
* The royal palace of Braunschweig was bombed in World War II and demolished in 1960. The exterior was rebuilt to contain a palace museum and shopping centre, which opened in 2007.

Attractions in the neighbourhood include:
* Celle: a town with old half-timbered houses and a castle.
* Hildesheim: a medieval town famous for its UNESCO-cultural heritage cathedrals, market place and old half-timbered houses.
* Hamelin: a town famous for the folk tale of the Pied Piper of Hamelin
* Wolfenbüttel: the "Residenzstadt" (residential city) of the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg for several centuries, Wolfenbüttel is home to a "Wasserburg" (castle surrounded by a moat) and the "Bibliotheca Augusta" (Herzog-August Bibliothek, or the Duke August library) housing the largest collection of medieval manuscripts in Europe. The city is historically important also for its numerous half-timber houses, many of which date back several centuries since Wolfenbüttel was left largely untouched by WWII.

Transport

Automobile

Two main autobahns serve Braunschweig, the A2 (Berlin-Hannover-Dortmund) and the A39 (Salzgitter-Wolfsburg). City roads are generally wide, built after World War II to support the anticipated use of the automobile. There are several car parks in the city.

Bicycle

Many residents travel around town via bicycle using an extensive system of bicycle-only lanes. The main train station includes a bicycle parking area.

Train

The city is on the main rail line between Frankfurt and Berlin. Deutsche Bahn (German Railways) serves the city with local, inter-city and high-speed InterCityExpress (ICE) trains, with frequent stops at the Hauptbahnhof (main train station).

Tram

The city has an inexpensive and extensive 35 km electric tram system. First opened in 1897, it has been modernized, including a 3.2 km extension in 2007. [ [http://www.lightrailnow.org/news/n_newslog2007q1.htm Light Rail Now: Braunschweig (Germany): New light rail tram line to suburbs reverses Transit Holocaust, 13 February 2007] ]


=Sister Cities=

*flagicon|Indonesia Bandung, Indonesia (since 1960)
*flagicon|France Nîmes, France (since 1962)
*flagicon|United Kingdom Bath, United Kingdom (since 1971)
*flagicon|Tunisia Sousse, Tunisia (since 1980)
*flagicon|Israel Qiryat Tivon, Israel (since 1985/1986)
*flagicon|Germany Magdeburg, Germany (since 1987)
*flagicon|Russia Kazan, Russian Federation (since 1988)
*flagicon|United_States Omaha, Nebraska United States (since 1992)

Miscellaneous

Many other geographical names are named after Braunschweig such as New Brunswick in Canada due to the personal union of the Duchy of Hanover with Great Britain from 1714 to 1837 (see House of Hanover, also referred to as the House of Brunswick, Hanover line). For a list of places named after Braunschweig see Brunswick (disambiguation).

Research and Science

Braunschweig has been an important industrial area.Today it is known for its University and research institutes, mainly the Federal Agricultural Research Centre and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The PTB Braunschweig maintains the atomic clock responsible for the DCF77 time signal and the official German time. The region of Braunschweig is the most R&D-intensive area in the whole European Economic Area investing a whopping 7.1% of its GDP for research & technology. [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-NS-06-006/EN/KS-NS-06-006-EN.PDF (Eurostat, 2006)] . Braunschweig was named Germany's "City of Science 2007" ( _de. Stadt der Wissenschaft 2007).

Education

Also located in Braunschweig is the "Martino-Katharineum", a secondary school founded in 1415. It had such famous pupils as Carl Friedrich Gauss, Hoffmann von Fallersleben, Richard Dedekind and Louis Spohr. Since 2005, Braunschweig has an "international school".

Economy

Braunschweig is the home of two piano companies, both known worldwide for the high quality of their instruments: Schimmel and Grotrian-Steinweg (cf. Steinway). Both companies were founded in the 19th century.

Culture

Braunschweig is famous for "Till Eulenspiegel", a medieval jester who played many practical jokes on its citizens.It also had — and still has — many breweries, and still a very peculiar kind of beer is made called "Mumme" (see ), first quoted in 1390, a malt-extract that was shipped all over the world.

Near Braunschweig at Cremlingen-Abbenrode, there is a large medium wave transmitter, which transmits the program of "Deutschlandfunk" on 756 kHz, the Cremlingen transmitter.

The Braunschweig-Wolfsburg Regional Airport (BWE / EDVE) is located north of the city at coord|52|19|9|N|10|33|22|E, elev. 295 ft.

Braunschweiger liverwurst is named after the city.

ports

Braunschweig's local football team is Eintracht Braunschweig. Founded in 1895, the club can look back on a long and chequered history. It won the German football championship in 1967. Despite playing the German 3rd Soccer Division now (2008/2009 season), the club still attracts a large number of supporters.

The Braunschweig Lions is the city's American football team, seven times German Bowl Defender and two times Eurobowl winner.

External links

* [http://www.brunswick.de/english/index.html Official website] en icon
* [http://www.panorama-cities.net/braunschweig/braunschweig.html Braunschweig - 360° Panoramas]
* [http://braunschweig.cjd.de/public/unser_angebot/is_english/index.php International School Braunschweig-Wolfsburg]
*Wikitravel

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Braunschweig [2] — Braunschweig (Geschichte). I. Von der ältesten Zeit bis zur Theilung des Landes in das ältere Lüneburgische u. Wolfenbüttelsche Haus (1267). Das Land, welches das jetzige Herzogthum B. bildet, wurde vormals von sächsischen Stämmen bewohnt, u.… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Braunschweig [1] — Braunschweig (Geogr.), Herzogtum in Norddeutschland, besteht aus drei größeren u. vier kleineren getrennten Theilen; der größte ist der nördlichste (mit B., Wolfenbüttel u. Helmstädt) zwischen dem preußischen Regierungsbezirk Magdeburg u. den… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Braunschweig [1] — Braunschweig (hierzu Karte »Braunschweig, Lippe und Waldeck«), zum Deutschen Reiche gehöriges Herzogtum im nördlichen Deutschland, zwischen 8°55 –11°27 östl. L. und 51°33 –53° nördl. Br. gelegen, wird fast ganz von Preußen, und zwar im N. und S.… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Braunschweig [2] — Braunschweig (hierzu der Stadtplan), Haupt und Residenzstadt des Herzogtums Braunschweig, an der Oker, 63 m ü. M., Knotenpunkt der preuß. Staatsbahnlinien Eilsleben Helmstedt B., B. Jerxheim und andrer Linien, ist eine interessante, ihr… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Braunschweig [3] — Braunschweig (Genealogie). Der Vater des jetzigen Herzogs war Herzog Wilhelm (s.d.) Friedrich, geb. 9. Oct. 1771, vermählt mit Marie geb. Prinzessin von Baden, Wittwer seit 1808, fiel 16. Juni 1815 bei Quatrebras; er hatte 2 Söhne, welche beide… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Braunschweig [4] — Braunschweig, Prinzen von B., s.u. den Vornamen bes. Anton Ulrich, Ludwig Ernst, Ferdinend, [246] Albrecht Heinrich August, Albrecht, Friedrich Franz, Maximilian Julius Leopold …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Braunschweig [5] — Braunschweig (Stadt), 1) Hauptstadt des Herzogthums an der Ocker; öffentliche Plätze: der Burgplatz, auf welchem der eherne Löwe Heinrichs des Löwen seit 1172 (n. And. 1166) steht, der Schloßplatz mit dem Schlosse, der Altstadtmarkt mit… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Braunschweig [6] — Braunschweig, Hieron., so v.w. Brunschweig …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Braunschweig — Braunschweig, ein zum Deutschen Reich gehöriges Herzogtum [Karte: Mittleres Westdeutschland, beim Artikel Rheinprovinz], 3672 qkm, 464.333 meist luth. E. (24.120 Katholiken, 1824 Israeliten), zerfällt in 3 Teile (Kr. B., Wolfenbüttel, Helmstedt;… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Braunschweig — Braunschweig, das Herzogthum, liegt fast ganz zwischen hannöverschem und preußischem Gebiet, hat 73 Quadrat M. Flächeninhalt mit 252,000 Einwohnern. Der Boden ist abwechselnd bergig und eben. Die Hauptprodukte sind Getreide, Flachs, Rübsamen,… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • Braunschweig [1] — Braunschweig, das Herzogthum, der 12. Staat im deutschen Bunde besteht aus nicht weniger als 9 von einander getrennten Theilen bei einem Flächeninhalt von wenig über 67 QM. Das größte Stück liegt zwischen hannöv. und preuß. Gebiete, das… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon


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