- Store and forward
Store and forward is a
telecommunicationstechnique in which informationis sent to an intermediate station where it is kept and sent at a later time to the final destination or to another intermediate station. The intermediate station, or node in a networking context, verifies the integrity of the message before forwarding it. In general, this technique is used in networks with intermittent connectivity, especially in the wilderness or environments requiring high mobility. It may also be preferable in situations when there are long delays in transmission and variable and high error rates, or if a direct, end-to-end connection is not available.
This technique originates the delay-tolerant networks. No real-time services are available for these kinds of networks.
Store and forward networks predate the use of computers. Point-to-point
teletypeequipment was used to send messages which were stored at the receiving end on punched paper tapeat a relay center. A human operator at the center removed the message tape from the receiving machine, read the addressing information, and then sent it toward its destination on appropriate outbound point-to-point teletype link. If the outbound link was in use, the operator placed the message in tape in a physical queue, usually consisting of a set of clips or hooks. A major relay center in the mid 1900s might have dozens of inbound and outbound teletypes, scores of operators, and thousands of messages in the queues during peak periods. Operators referred to these centers as "torn- tape relaycenters," a reference to removing the received message from the inbound teletype by tearing the paper tape to separate one message from the next. The U.S. military term for such a center was "Non-Automated Relay Center" (NARC).
Prior to the deployment of the
Internet, computers were connected via a variety of point-to-point techniques, with many smaller computers using dial-up connections. The UUCP store-and-forward protocols allowed a message (typically e-mail) to move across the collection of computers and eventually reach its destination. Late in the 20th century, store and forward techniques evolved into packet switchingwhich replaced it for most purposes.
Store and forward delay
Store-and-forward switching center
* [http://support.intel.com/support/express/switches/sb/cs-014410.htm Switches - What Are Forwarding Modes and How Do They Work?]
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См. также в других словарях:
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