Store and forward

Store and forward

Store and forward is a telecommunications technique in which information is sent to an intermediate station where it is kept and sent at a later time to the final destination or to another intermediate station. The intermediate station, or node in a networking context, verifies the integrity of the message before forwarding it. In general, this technique is used in networks with intermittent connectivity, especially in the wilderness or environments requiring high mobility. It may also be preferable in situations when there are long delays in transmission and variable and high error rates, or if a direct, end-to-end connection is not available.

This technique originates the delay-tolerant networks. No real-time services are available for these kinds of networks.

Manually-operated relay

Store and forward networks predate the use of computers. Point-to-point teletype equipment was used to send messages which were stored at the receiving end on punched paper tape at a relay center. A human operator at the center removed the message tape from the receiving machine, read the addressing information, and then sent it toward its destination on appropriate outbound point-to-point teletype link. If the outbound link was in use, the operator placed the message in tape in a physical queue, usually consisting of a set of clips or hooks. A major relay center in the mid 1900s might have dozens of inbound and outbound teletypes, scores of operators, and thousands of messages in the queues during peak periods. Operators referred to these centers as "torn-tape relay centers," a reference to removing the received message from the inbound teletype by tearing the paper tape to separate one message from the next. The U.S. military term for such a center was "Non-Automated Relay Center" (NARC).

UUCP

Prior to the deployment of the Internet, computers were connected via a variety of point-to-point techniques, with many smaller computers using dial-up connections. The UUCP store-and-forward protocols allowed a message (typically e-mail) to move across the collection of computers and eventually reach its destination. Late in the 20th century, store and forward techniques evolved into packet switching which replaced it for most purposes.

ee also

*Cut-through switching
*Email forwarding
*FidoNet
*Fragment free
*Hop-by-hop transport
*Internet fax
*Network switch
*Packet radio
*Stofor
*Store and forward delay
*Store-and-forward switching center
*Wormhole routing

References

* [http://support.intel.com/support/express/switches/sb/cs-014410.htm Switches - What Are Forwarding Modes and How Do They Work?]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

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  • store-and-forward — …   Useful english dictionary

  • Store-and-forward switching center — In telecommunication, a store and forward switching center is a message switching center in which a message is accepted from the originating user, i.e., sender, when it is offered, held in a physical storage, and forwarded to the destination user …   Wikipedia

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  • voice store-and-forward (VSF) system —    PBX feature which permits the storage and remote retrieval of messages …   IT glossary of terms, acronyms and abbreviations


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