Land use planning


Land use planning

Land use planning is the term used for a branch of public policy which encompasses various disciplines which seek to order and regulate the use of land in an efficient and ethical way.

Despite confusing nomenclature, the essential function of land use planning remains the same whatever term is applied. The Canadian Institute of Planners offers a definition that: " [Land use] planning means the scientific, aesthetic, and orderly disposition of land, resources, facilities and services with a view to securing the physical, economic and social efficiency, health and well-being of urban and rural communities" [http://www.cip-icu.ca/English/aboutplan/what.htm]

Nomenclature

In the English speaking world, the terms "land use planning", "town and country planning", "regional planning", "town planning", "urban planning", and "urban design" are often used interchangeably, and will depend on the country in question. In Europe the preferred term is increasingly "spatial planning" or more recently "territorial cohesion" (for regional and trans-national planning).

In Australia, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand, the term "town planning" is common, although "regional planning" and "land use planning" are also used.

In the United States and Canada, the terms "urban planning" and "regional planning" are more commonly used.

Functions

At its most basic level land use planning is likely to involve zoning and transport infrastructure planning. In most developed countries, land use planning is an important part of social policy, ensuring that land is used efficiently for the benefit of the wider economy and population as well as to protect the environment.

Land use planning encompasses the following disciplines:

* Architecture
* Environmental planning
* Landscape architecture
* Regional Planning
* Spatial planning
* Sustainable Development
* Transportation Planning
* Urban design
* Urban planning
* Urban Renaissance
* Urban renewal

Architecture, urban design, urban planning, landscape architecture and urban renewal usually address the selection of physical layout, scale of development, aesthetics, costs of alternatives and selection of building materials and impact upon landscape and species.

Environmental planning, will often address the implications of development and plans upon the environment, for example Strategic Environmental Assessment. At the very local level environmental planning may imply the use of tools to forecast impacts of development decisions, including roadway noise, and pollution, surface runoff and flooding assessments.

Because of the many disciplines and knowledge domains involved, land use planners are increasingly making use of Information Technology, such as Geographic Information Systems, and Spatial Decision Support Systems, to assist with analysis and decision-making.

Tools

* Soil Surveys provide extensive land use planning information such as limitations for dwellings with and without basements, shallow excavations, small commercial buildings, and septic tank adsorptions. These can be obtained most easily with the [http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov Web Soil Survey] . With the Use of a GIS, they can be viewed with the [http://soildataviewer.nrcs.usda.gov Soil Data Viewer]

ee also

*Context theory
*Eminent domain
*Environmental impact assessment
*Geographic information system
*Land Allocation Decision Support System
*Marine Spatial Planning
*Principles of Intelligent Urbanism
*Regulatory taking
*Spatial Decision Support Systems
*Transit-oriented development
*Zoning
*Online Land Planning

Further reading

Academic Journals

* [http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t782043358 Journal of the American Planning Association]
* [http://www.planning.org.au/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=130&Itemid=112 Australian Planner]
* [http://www.envplan.com/ Environment and Planning]
* [http://www.gbhap.com/journals/journal.asp?issn=1747-423X&linktype=1 Journal of Land Use Science]
* [http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30451/description#description Land Use Policy]
* [http://www.law.fsu.edu/journals/landuse/ Journal of Land Use & Environmental Law]
* [http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503347/description#description Landscape and Urban Planning]
* [http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0266-0032&site=1 Soil Use and Management]
* [http://www.sagepub.com/journalsProdDesc.nav?prodId=Journal201559 Planning Theory]
* [http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/08111146.html Urban Policy and Research]
* [http://www.gla.ac.uk/urbanstudiesjournal/ Urban Studies]
* [http://lj.uwpress.org:80/ Landscape Journal]
* [http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/304/description#description Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems]

Other Resources

* [http://www.ecoiq.com/landuse/ EcoIQ.com Land Use Planning and Conservation] Gillfillan, Abigail, "Using Geographic Information Systems to Develop and Analyze Land-Use Policies" (2008). Applied Research Projects. Texas State University. Paper 273.http://ecommons.txstate.edu/arp/273

References

External links

* [http://www.ace.mmu.ac.uk/eae/Sustainability/Older/Land_Use.html A definition from Manchester Metropolitan University] .
* [http://web1.msue.msu.edu/wexford/LU/index.html Schindler's Land Use Page (Michigan State University Extension Land Use Team)]
* [http://www.macaulay.ac.uk/LADSS/papers.html?2005 Combining deliberative and computer-based methods for multi-objective land-use planning, Matthews et al.]
* [http://www.smartgrowth.org/default.asp?res=1024 The 'Smart Growth' network.]
* [http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/LandUseRegulationAndMunicipalUtility/ Land Use Regulation and Municipal Utility] by Roger J. Brown from from "Private Real Estate Investment", The Wolfram Demonstrations Project.


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