- Charlotte of Spain
Charlotte of Spain A portrait today held at Ajuda Queen consort of Portugal Spouse John VI of Portugal Teresa, Princess of Beira
Maria Isabel, Queen of Spain
Pedro I of Brazil
Miguel of Portugal
Infanta Ana, Duchess of Loulé
Full name Carlota Joaquina Teresa Caetana House House of Bourbon Father Charles IV of Spain Mother Maria Luisa of Parma Born 25 April 1775
Royal Palace of Aranjuez, Kingdom of Spain
Died 7 January 1830(aged 54)
Queluz National Palace, Kingdom of Portugal
Burial Monastery of São Vicente de Fora, Lisbon
Charlotte of Spain (Carlota Joaquina Teresa Caetana; 25 April 1775 – 7 January 1830) was a Queen consort of Portugal as wife of John VI. She was the eldest daughter of King Charles IV of Spain and his wife Maria Luisa of Parma.
She was born in Aranjuez. She was the eldest surviving child born to her parents. She was born during the reign of her paternal grand father, Charles III of Spain (1716–1788). Her father was the second son of Charles III and his Saxon wife Maria Amalia; her mother, Maria Luisa of Parma was a granddaughter of Louis XV of France through her mother Princess Louise Élisabeth of France, Louis XV's favourite daughter. Louise Élisabeth's husband Philip, Duke of Parma, was a younger brother of Charles III. Charlotte's future husband was a grandson of Mariana Victoria of Spain, sister of Charles III and the Duke of Parma.
The subject of her marriage was arranged by Mariana and Charles III in the late 1770s when Mariana went to Spain to encourage diplomatic relations between the estranged countries. Charlotte was to marry the Prince of Brazil and Charlotte's uncle Infante Gabriel would marry Infanta Mariana Vitória of Portugal, another grand child of Mariana Victoria of Spain.
On 8 May 1785 she was officially married (consummated on 9 January 1790 in Lisbon) to the future John VI, King of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, the second son of Queen Maria I of Portugal and the late King Peter III of Portugal.
In 1788, when his eldest brother Joseph, Prince of Brazil, died, John became the first in line to his mother's throne. Soon he received the titles Prince of Brazil and 17th Duke of Braganza. Between 1788 and 1816, Charlotte was known as Princess of Brazil. John, her husband, was good-natured, indolent, corpulent and almost as ugly as was she. His religious observances bored her and they were quite incompatible. Nevertheless they produced nine children and, because they were all handsome, it was rumoured that especially the younger ones had a different father. After the birth of the ninth child they began to live separate lives, he at Mafra and she at Queluz. Here it was rumoured that she had bought a retreat where she indulged in sexual orgies.
In 1807, the Portuguese royal family left Portugal for Brazil because of the Napoleonic invasion.
While in Brazil, Charlotte made attempts to obtain the administration of the Spanish dominions in Latin America, a project known as Carlotism. Spain itself was under Napoleon and its kings, her father and brother Ferdinand, were held by Napoleon in France. She regarded herself as the heiress of her captured family. Allegedly among her plans was to send armies to occupy Buenos Aires and northern Argentina to style herself as Queen of La Plata. The Portuguese-Brazilian forces, however, only managed to annex the eastern banks of the river as Cisplatina, which were kept in the Empire after 1822 and seceded in 1828 as the Republic of Uruguay.
When the Portuguese Royal Family returned to Portugal in 1821 after an absence of 14 years, Charlotte met a country that had changed much since their departure. In 1807, Portugal had lived stably under absolutism. Napoleonic troops and the developments in her native Spain had brought revolutionary ideas. In 1820, a liberal revolution commenced in Oporto. A constitutional Cortes Gerais had been promulgated, and in 1821 it gave Portugal its first constitution. The queen had arch-conservative positions and wanted a reactionary development in Portugal. Her husband did not want to renege his vows to uphold the constitution. Charlotte made an alliance with her youngest son Miguel, who shared his mother's conservative views. In 1824, using Miguel's position as army commander, they took power and held the king a virtual prisoner in the palace, where the queen tried to make him to abdicate in favor of Miguel. However, the king received British help and regained power, finally compelling his son to leave the country. The queen had also to go briefly into exile.
King John VI lived in the Palace of Bemposta and Queen Charlotte in Queluz. Though she lived there quietly, she became decidedly eccentric in dress and behaviour. However, their eldest son, Pedro, left behind as regent in Brazil, was proclaimed and crowned on 1 December 1822 as its independent Emperor. John VI refused to accept this until, in August 1825, he was persuaded by the British to do so. In March 1826, prematurely aged, he died. Claiming ill-health, Charlotte refused to attend his deathbed and started the rumour that her husband had been poisoned by the Freemasons.
The Emperor of Brazil now became King of Portugal as well; but knowing this to be impossible, Peter abdicated in Portugal and made his eldest daughter Queen as well as betrothing her to Miguel, his younger brother. In the meantime Infanta Isabel Maria, Charlotte's daughter, was to be the regent in Portugal. About two years later the little queen set out, only to find upon arrival at Gibraltar that her uncle and fiancé had not only removed the regent but declared himself King of Portugal.
Queen Charlotte died or killed herself at Queluz Palace.
- Maria Teresa Francisca de Assis Antónia Carlota Joana Josefa Xavier de Paula Micaela Rafaela Isabel Gonzaga of Portugal (1793–1874), m. Pedro Carlos of Spain and Portugal (they had one child, Sebastian of Spain). m2. Infante Carlos of Spain, pretender of Spain, widower of her younger sister
- António (Francisco António) (1795–1801), 4th prince of Beira
- Maria Isabel Francisca of Portugal (1797–1818), m. Ferdinand VII of Spain, her uncle
- Pedro de Alcântara Francisco Antônio João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim of Portugal (1798–1834), prince of Beira, then Duke of Braganza and Prince of Brazil himself, later Emperor of Brazil
- Maria Francisca de Assis da Maternidade Xavier de Paula de Alcântara Antónia Joaquina Gonzaga Carlota Mónica Senhorinha Soter e Caia of Portugal (1800–1834), m. Infante Carlos of Spain, future pretender to the Spanish throne, her uncle
- Isabel Maria da Conceição Joana Gualberta Ana Francisca de Assis de Paula de Alcântara Antónia Rafaela Micaela Gabriela Joaquina Gonzaga of Portugal (1801–1876), Regent of Portugal in 1826
- Miguel Maria do Patrocínio João Carlos Francisco de Assis Xavier de Paula Pedro de Alcântara António Rafael Gabriel Joaquim José Gonzaga Evaristo of Portugal (1802–1866) later King of Portugal
- Maria da Asuncao Ana Joana Josefa Luiza Gonzaga Francisca de Assis Xavier de Paula Joaquina Antonia de Santiago of Portugal (1805–1834)
- Ana de Jesus Maria Luís Gonzaga Joaquina Micaela Rafaela Francisca Xavier de Paula of Portugal (1806–1857), m. 1827 Nuno José Severo de Mendoça Rolim de Moura Barreto, 1st Duke of Loulé
Carlota in film and television
- Carlota Joaquina - Princesa do Brazil (1994) – Directed by Carla Camurati. Cast: Marco Nanini, Marieta Severo, Vera Holtz, Ney Latorraca and Marcos Palmeira. Tells a summarized tale, mixing history with legend, of the Princess's life, from her childhood until her (mythical) suicide.
- O Quinto dos Infernos (2003) – Directed by Wolf Maya. Cast: André Mattos, Betty Lago, Eva Wilma, Marcos Pasquim and Humberto Martins. A television miniseries produced by Rede Globo which tells the tale of the Portuguese Royal Family during their stay in Brazil.
Ancestors of Charlotte of Spain 16. Louis, Grand Dauphin 8. Philip V of Spain 17. Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria 4. Charles III of Spain 18. Odoardo Farnese, Hereditary Prince of Parma 9. Elisabeth Farnese 19. Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg 2. Charles IV of Spain 20. Augustus II of Poland 10. Augustus III of Poland 21. Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth 5. Maria Amalia of Saxony 22. Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor 11. Maria Josepha of Austria 23. Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick 1. Charlotte of Spain 24. Louis, Grand Dauphin (= 16) 12. Philip V of Spain (= 8) 25. Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria (= 17) 6. Philip, Duke of Parma 26. Odoardo Farnese, Hereditary Prince of Parma (= 18) 13. Elisabeth Farnese (= 9) 27. Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg (= 19) 3. Maria Luisa of Parma 28. Louis of France, Duke of Burgundy 14. Louis XV of France 29. Princess Maria Adelaide of Savoy 7. Princess Louise Élisabeth of France 30. Stanisław Leszczyński 15. Marie Leszczyńska 31. Catherine Opalińska
Charlotte of SpainCadet branch of the Capetian dynastyBorn: 25 April 1775 Died: 7 January 1830
- Azevedo, Francisca Nogueira de. Carlota Joaquina na Corte do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2003.
- Azevedo, Francisca Nogueira de. Carlota Joaquina: cartas inéditas. Rio de Janeiro, Casa da Palavra, 2007.
- Cassotti, Marsilio. Carlota Joaquina - o Pecado Espanhol. Lisboa, A Esfera dos Livros, 2009.
- Cheke, Marcus. Carlota Joaquina: Queen of Portugal. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1947
- (Portuguese) Carlota Joaquina, a Rainha Intrigante; tradução de Gulnara Lobato de Morais Pereira. Rio de Janeiro: José Olympio, 1949.
- Lima, Oliveira. D. João VI no Brasil. Topbooks.
- Pereira, Sara Marques (1999), D. Carlota Joaquina e os Espelhos de Clio: Actuação Política e Figurações Historiográficas, Livros Horizonte, Lisboa, 1999.
- Pereira, Sara Marques (2008), D. Carlota Joaquina Rainha de Portugal, Livros Horizonte, Lisboa, 2008.
Portuguese royalty VacantTitle last held byMariana Victoria of Spain Queen consort of the United Kingdom of
Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
20 March 1816 – 7 September 1822
Maria Leopoldina of Austria
Brazil secedes to found
the Empire of Brazil
Queen consort of Portugal and the Algarves
7 September 1822 – 10 March 1826The generations indicate descent form Charles I, under whom the crowns of Castile and Aragon were united, forming the Kingdom of Spain. Previously, the title Infanta had been largely use in the different realms.
1st GenerationMaria, Holy Roman Empress · Joan, Princess of Portugal 2nd Generation 3rd Generation 4th Generation 5th Generationnone 6th Generationnone 7th Generation 8th GenerationInfanta Maria Isabel · Infanta Maria Josefa · Infanta María Isabel Ana · Infanta Maria Josepha · Maria Luisa, Holy Roman Empress · Infanta Maria Teresa · Infanta Maria Ana 9th Generation 10th Generation 11th GenerationIsabella, Princess of Asturias · Infanta Maria Cristina · Maria de la Concepcio · Maria de Pilar · Maria de la Paz, Princess Louis Ferdinand of Bavaria · Eulalia, Duchess of Galliera · Maria Isabella, Countess of Paris* · Infanta Amalia of Orléans* · Infanta Cristina d'Orléans* · Infanta Maria de la Regla of Orléans* · Mercedes, Queen of Spain* 12th GenerationMercedes, Princess of Asturias · Maria Teresa, Princess Ferdinand of Bavaria 13th Generation 14th Generation 15th Generation 16th Generation*title granted by Royal Decree 1st Generation 2nd GenerationInfanta Urraca of Castile • Aurembiaix, Countess of Urgell • Jeanne, Countess of Flanders 3rd GenerationMatilda II, Countess of Boulogne • Sancha Fernández de Lara 4th GenerationInfanta Violante Manuel of Castile 5th GenerationInfanta Beatrice of Castile 6th Generation 7th GenerationMaria Teles de Menezes • Constance de Trastámara, Lady of Alba de Tormes • Juana de Trastámara, Lady of Cifuentes 8th GenerationInfanta Eleanor of Aragon • Infanta Isabella of Aragon • Isabella of Braganza 9th GenerationCharlotte, Queen of Cyprus • Infanta Beatriz of Portugal* 10th GenerationInfanta Leonor of Portugal* • Isabella, Princess of Asturias 11th GenerationIsabella, Princess of Asturias • Guiomar de Coutinho • Isabella of Braganza 12th Generation 13th GenerationCountess Emilia of Nassau^ • Luísa Osório^ 14th Generation 15th Generation 16th Generationnone 17th Generation 18th Generationnone 19th GenerationInfanta Benedita of Portugal* • Infanta Carlota of Spain 20th Generation 21st GenerationPrincess Elisabeth of Thurn and Taxis • Princess Maria Theresa of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg • Princess Maria Amalia of the Two Sicilies** • Infanta Maria Cristina of Spain** 22nd GenerationAnita Stewart Morris • Princess Francisca of Orléans and Braganza 23rd Generation 24th GenerationPrincess Augusta Victoria of Hohenzollern*also an Infanta of Portugal by birth, **also an infanta of Spain, ^position as infanta not accepted
- held the title in her own right
Portuguese royal consortsMaud of Savoy (1146-1157) · Dulce of Aragon (1185-1198) · Urraca of Castile (1211-1220) · Mécia Lopes de Haro (1246–1248) · Matilda of Boulogne (1248–1253) · Beatrice of Castile (1253-1279) · Elizabeth of Aragon (1282-1325) · Beatrice of Castile (1225-1257) · Inês de Castro (1360) · Leonor Telles de Menezes (1372-1383) · Philippa of Lancaster (1387-1415) · Eleanor of Aragon (1433-1438) · Isabella of Coimbra (1447-1455) · Joanna of Castile (1475–1479) · Eleanor of Viseu (1481-1495) · Isabella of Aragon (1497-1498) · Maria of Aragon (1500 -1517) · Archduchess Eleanor of Austria (1518-1521) · Archduchess Catherine of Austria (1525-1557) · Archduchess Anna of Austria (1580) · Archduchess Margaret of Austria (1598–1611) · Princess Élisabeth of France (1621-1640) · Luisa of Guzman (1640-1656) · Princess Marie Françoise of Savoy (1666-1668) & (1683) · Countess Palatine Maria Sophia of Neuburg (1687-1699) · Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (1708-1750) · Infanta Mariana Victoria of Spain (1750-1777) · Infanta Carlota of Spain (1816-1826) · Archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria (1826) · Auguste de Beauharnais (1835) · Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1836-1837) · Princess Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1858-1859) · Princess Maria Pia of Savoy (1862-1889) · Princess Amélie of Orléans (1889-1908)
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