International Peace Operations Association

International Peace Operations Association

The International Peace Operations Association (IPOA) is a non-governmental trade and lobbying association representing the "peace and stability industry," sometimes referred to as private military companies (PMCs) or by critics as mercenaries. The IPOA is located in Washington DC, USA, and was founded in April 2001 by Doug Brooks, [cite web|url=|title=International Peace Operations Association - History|accessdate=2006-08-13] who currently serves as the association's president. The IPOA currently represents 42 companies [ Blackwater's Man in Washington] ] which are required to pay dues and submit delegates to various committees within the IPOA. David Hammond, a lawyer who represents many PMCs in court, is the chairman of the general counsel committee. [cite web|url=|title=Private Military Contractors Count On Crowell Partner|author=Daphne Eviatar|date=2007-06-20|accessdate=2007-07-17] The IPOA also publishes "The Journal of International Peace Operations"

According to an article by Corpwatch, the IPOA's aim is to "reposition the industry as for-profit providers of armed men as peace keepers." [Phinney, David. [ From Mercenaries to Peacemakers?: Scandals Confront Military Security Industry] . "CorpWatch", November 29th, 2005] The association's stated mission is "to promote high operational and ethical standards of firms active in the Peace and Stability Industry; to engage in a constructive dialogue with policy-makers about the growing and positive contribution of these firms to the enhancement of international peace, development, and human security; and to inform the concerned public about the activities and role of the industry." [ International Peace Operations Association Mission Statement] ] The IPOA's Code of Conduct "seeks to ensure the ethical standards of International Peace Operations Association member companies operating in conflict and post-conflict environments so that they may contribute their valuable services for the benefit of international peace and human security." [cite web|url=|title=International Peace Operations Association Code of Conduct|accessdate=2007-09-25] .

Association president Doug Brooks has said that the IPOA was created "because of 'Western-less' peacekeeping...the reality was that the West wasn't going to support humanitarian operations in places they don't give a shit about," like Congo and Darfur. "What would have happened if they had used ArmourGroup in Rwanda?"

On July 3 2007, when the Washington Post estimated that the number of PMC fatalities had topped 1000, Brooks stated that "There are more applicants than there are jobs...that's been the case from the beginning and it is still true, even though pay has gone down because there is a lot of competition." [cite web|url=|title=In outsourced U.S. wars, contractor deaths top 1,000|author=Bernd Debusmann|date=2007-07-03|accessdate=2007-07-17]


International leaders who? questioned the IPOA's policy governing illegal acts after a September 16 , 2007 incident in which employees of member organization Blackwater USA allegedly murdered 11 Iraqi civilians. [] ] On October 5, 2007, the Washington Post reported that the U.S. military has faulted Blackwater for opening fire without provocation and using excessive force in the incident. [ Blackwater faulted by U.S. military: report] ]

Blackwater has also been accused of previously using "aggressive tactics without regard for the well-being of Iraqis," and the Iraqi government had planned to revoke Blackwater's license and bring the perpetrators to justice in Iraq. However, Blackwater was allowed to resume activity after only a brief suspension, under the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) Order No. 17, stating that private contractors "shall be immune from the Iraqi legal process." As a result, the issue of not holding Blackwater and other private security firms accountable for their actions has created the impression that Iraq's sovereignty is being undermined. [ Iraq: Blackwater Incident Could Further Undermine Premier] ] [ Blackwater Killings Expose Weaknesses in War Laws] ]

On October 9, 2007, IPOA member company Unity Resources Group was involved in an incident in Baghdad in which two Armenian Christian women, both civilians, were shot dead. [ [ 2 Women Killed in Security Shooting Are Buried in Iraq] by Andre E. Kramer and James Glanz, The New York Times, October 11, 2007.]

According to IPOA president Brooks, criminal action by a member company could result in expulsion from the IPOA, which would be a "commercial kiss of death" from the association. However Peter W. Singer, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution and prominent industry critic, criticized this policy: "Being kicked out of IPOA is not the proper punishment for a criminal action. It's great that an organization is willing to do that, but it's sort of like kicking O.J. out of the country club." As of 2007, the IPOA has never expelled an association member.

In mid-October 2007, Blackwater USA announced the company was taking a "hiatus" from membership in IPOA. [ [ Blackwater Quits Security Association] by August Cole, The Wall Street Journal, October 11, 2007.] [ [ IPOA Statement Regarding the Membership Status of Blackwater USA] ]

IPOA members

*Agility Logistics
*Ayr Aviation
*Blackwater USA (on hiatus from membership starting 10/07)
*Creative Associates International
*Demining Enterprises International Pty. Ltd.
*Dynsec Group AB
*EOD Technology, Inc.
*Erinys International
*Exploration Logistics Group
*Evergreen International Aviation
*Greystone Limited
*Hart Security
*INTAC Security Services
*MAC International
*Main Street Supply & Logistics
*Medical Support Solutions
*Military Professional Resources Inc.
*Olive Group
*OSSI-Safenet Security Services
*Pacific Architects & Engineers
*RA International
*Reed, Inc.
*Regis Trading
*Ronco Consulting
*Security Support Solutions - 3S
*Total Intelligence Solutions
*Track 24
*Unity Resources Group

ee also

*Private military company
*Arms trade
*UN Mercenary Convention
*Unlawful combatant#Mercenaries
*"" by Jeremy Scahill, Nation Books (2007)


External links

* [ Official International Peace Operations Association website]
* [ Description of IPOA on Conflict Resolution Information Source]
* [ Article on IPOA on Sourcewatch]
* [ Journal of International Peace Operations]
* [ The Journal of International Peace Operations]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • International Peace Operations Association — L International Peace Operations Association (IPOA) est une association professionnelle fondée en avril 2001 et basée à Washington, D.C, États Unis; elle se donne pour objectif de représenter l industrie naissante des sociétés militaires privées… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Peace Journalism — Peace Media , Conflict Resolving Media , Conflict Sensitive Journalism , Conflict Solution Journalism , Reporting the World , Constructive Conflict Coverage, and Peacebuilding Media redirect here. A comparison of peace journalism and war… …   Wikipedia

  • Peace Corps — logo (1961) Agency overview Formed March 21, 1961 Headquarters Washington, D.C …   Wikipedia

  • international relations — a branch of political science dealing with the relations between nations. [1970 75] * * * Study of the relations of states with each other and with international organizations and certain subnational entities (e.g., bureaucracies and political… …   Universalium

  • International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement — Red Cross redirects here. For other uses, see Red Cross (disambiguation). Ibrahim Foundation The Red Cross and Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the movement derives its name. Founded 1863 Location Gen …   Wikipedia

  • International Committee of the Red Cross — ICRC redirects here. For other uses, see ICRC (disambiguation). The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland. The community of states has given the ICRC a unique role,… …   Wikipedia

  • International Network to Promote the Rule of Law — The International Network to Promote the Rule of Law (INPROL) is an association of practitioners established in 2007 joined together to develop the human capacity and intellectual resources required to promote the rule of law in countries… …   Wikipedia

  • International reactions to the 2006 Lebanon War — Reactions by the UN and national representativesflag|United NationsThe top UN official in Lebanon said Hezbollah’s action escalates the already tense situation along the Blue Line and is an act of very dangerous proportions, in a statement. Kofi… …   Wikipedia

  • International Parliament for Safety and Peace — The International (States) Parliament for Safety and Peace (IPSP or ISPSP; Italian: Parlamento Mondiale (degli Stati) per la Sicurezza e la Pace), sometimes written along with the designation New Society of Nations, is a private organization… …   Wikipedia

  • International response to the War in Darfur — While there is a general consensus in the international community that ethnic groups have been targeted and that crimes against humanity have therefore occurred, there has been debate in some quarters about whether genocide has taken place. In… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.