- Quarry Bank Mill
Quarry Bank Mill is an historic
factoryin Cheshire, England, one of the best preserved of the Industrial Revolutionand is now a museum of the cottonindustry. It is a Grade II* listed building. [http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/search/details.aspx?pid=1&id=414953 Images of England] , accessed 17 July 2007]
The mill was founded by
Samuel Gregin 1784 cite web|url=http://www.spinningtheweb.org.uk/m_display.php?irn=35&sub=rural&theme=places&crumb=Quarry+Bank+Mill| title=Quarry Bank Mill history|accessdate=2007-09-25 ] in the village of Styalon the River Bollin. Its original iron water wheelwas designed by Thomas Hewes and built between 1816 and 1820.
The Hewes wheel finally broke in 1904. After that the
River Bollincontinued to power the mill, through two water turbines. Today the Mill is home to the most powerful working waterwheel in Europe, an iron water wheelwhich was originally at Glasshouses Mill at Patley Bridge. This wheel was designed by Sir William Fairbairn, the Scottish engineer who had been an apprentice of Thomas Hewes.
The estate surrounding the mill, also developed by Greg, is the most complete and least altered factory colony of the Industrial Revolution. The estate and mill were donated to the National Trust in 1939 by Alexander Carlton Greg and are open to the public. The mill continued in commercial production until 1959.
at the mill.
Originally Samuel Greg converted farm buildings in the nearby village of Styal to house the workers for the mill. As the mill increased in size, purpose-built housing in Styal was constructed for the workers cite web|url=http://www.manchester2002-uk.com/history/victorian/quarrybankmill.html|title=Styal Village|accessdate=2007-09-25 ] . The village is still a thriving community.Quarry Bank Mill is notable for its use of unpaid child apprentices, a system that continued until 1847, with the last child to be indentured starting work in 1841. Greg employed Peter Holland, father of the Royal Physician
Sir Henry Holland, 1st Baronetand uncle of Elizabeth Gaskell, as mill doctor. Holland was responsible for the health of the children and other workers, and was the first doctor to be employed in such a capacity. The children lived in a separate building near the factory called the Apprentice House. Most children came from workhouses. They would work long days with schoolwork and gardening after coming back from the mill. The work could sometimes be dangerous with fingers being lost occasionally. However, most children were happy to work in the mill because life at a workhouse would be worse. Today the Apprentice House is open to the public with timed tours being conducted by costumed interpreters.
workers at the mill later sought a place of worship, and the Gregs converted a grain store in Styal village into a Chapel for their use.
* [http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/w-vh/w-visits/w-findaplace/w-quarrybankmillandstyalestate.htm Quarry Bank Mill and Styal Estate information at the National Trust]
* [http://www.quarrybankmill.org.uk/ Quarry Bank Mill and Styal Estate]
* [http://owl.me.uk/pics/quarry_bank/ Quarry Bank Mill pictures.]
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