Naqshbandi


Naqshbandi

Naqshbandi (an-Naqshbandiyyah, Nakşibendi, Naksbendi, Naksbandi) is one of the major Sufi spiritual orders (tariqa) of Sufi Islam. It is considered to be a "Potent" order.[1]

The Naqshbandi order is over 1,300 years old, and is active today. It is the only Sufi order that claims to trace its direct spiritual lineage/chain (silsilah) to the Islamic prophet Muhammad, through Abu Bakr, the first caliph and Muhammad's companion. This lineage also indirectly connects to Ali,[2] Muhammad's cousin, son-in-law and the Fourth Caliph, via Jafar as-Sadiq. In contrast, most other Sufi orders (turuq) trace their lineage through Ali.[3][4]

It is considered that the transmission of spiritual lineage or silsilah, is directly from one Sheikh to another, at or after the time of death or burial. It is not tied to a country, family or political appointment, but is a direct heart to heart transmission. It is also considered that the appointed Sheikh will be in some communication with past Sheikhs. At any one time, there will of course be many other Sheikhs, who will all naturally owe their bay'ah "spiritual allegiance" to the current master of the silsilah.

The Naqshbandi order owes many insights to Abu Ya'qub Yusuf al-Hamadani and Abd al-Khaliq al-Ghujdawani, who is regarded as the organizer of the practices and is responsible for placing stress upon the purely mental dhikr.[5] It was later associated with Muhammad Baha ad-din an-Naqshabandi, hence the name of the order. Some interpret the name translation as "the engravers (of the heart)", "related to the image-maker", "pattern maker", "image maker", "reformer of patterns", "way of the chain" and "golden chain."

The name has changed over the years. Originally called "as-Siddiqiyya", around the times of Bayazid al-Bistami to Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani it was called at-Tayfuriyya, and from the times of 'Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujdawani to Shah Naqshband it was called the "Khwajagan" or "Hodja". From the time of Shah Naqshband it has been called Naqshbandiyya.

Contents

Criteria of a Sufi Naqshbandi Sheikh

The following would always apply to genuine Sufi Naqshbandi teachers or Sheikhs:

  • They comply with Sharia. They must be a Aalim. There is no sufism without Ilm.
  • They regularly acknowledge the silsilah to which they give allegiance.
  • They openly and regularly defer to the current leader of the silsilah.
  • Bay'ah is given to the leader of the silsilah, not the local teacher or Sheikh.
  • They accept interaction with other murids of the order.
  • They don't accept ijazah from dead persons, or in dreams, or through special spiritual experience (rawhani). There are exceptions to this rule according to the Uwaisiya concept of transmission where someone who lived before can train and initiate and transmit knowledge to someone who came later.
  • They accept mostly written ijazah in live, in presence of witnesses.

Spiritual Lineage of the Tariqa

In Sufism, as in any serious Islamic discipline such as jurisprudence fiqh, Quranic recital tajwid, and hadith, a disciple must have a master or ‘sheikh’ from whom to take the knowledge, one who has himself taken it from a master, and so on, in a continuous chain of masters back to Muhammad. In Sufi tradition, this means not only that the present sheikh has met and taken the way from a master, but that the master during his life­time has explicitly and verifiably invested the disciple — whether in writing or in front of a number of witnesses — to teach the spiritual path as a fully authorized master (murshid ma’dhun) to succeeding generations of disciples.

Such transmission silsila from an unbroken line of masters is one criterion that distinguishes a true or ‘con­nected’ Sufi path (tariqa muttasila), from an inauthentic or ‘dissevered’ path, (tariqa munqati‘a). The leader of a dissevered path may claim to be a sheikh on the basis of an authorization given by a master in private or other unverifi­able circumstance, or by a figure already passed from this world, such as one of the righteous person or Muhammad, or in a dream, or so on. These practices only “warm the heart” (yusta’nasu biha) but none meets Sufism’s condition that a sheikh must have a clear authorization connecting him with Muhammad, one that is verified by others than himself. Many lies are told by people, and without publicly verifiable authorizations, the tariqa would be com­promised by them.

In talking about the spiritual lineage, it is of the utmost importance to see how the transmissions took place. In Sheikh Hisham Kabbani's great book on the Grandsheikhs of the most Distinguised Naqshbandi tariqa, he gives the biography of each Grandsheikh, and also more importantly how the transmission passed from one Grandsheikh to another. This is a very detailed book and entitled "The Naqshbandi Sufi Way History and Guidebook of the Saints of the Golden Chain". This book is published (citation) by KAZI PUBLICATIONS INC and also distributed by Amazon.com where it can be purchased online too. This book, in the most likelihood, contains some of the most authentic biographies to be found on the Naqshbandi Grandsheikhs today.

Sheikhs of the Tariqa

Sultan ul Awliya Moulana Sheikh Nazim http://sheiknazim.ws

Moulana Sheikh Nazim was born in Larnaka, Nothern Cyprus in the year 1922 on the 21st day of April. He was the mureed and follower of the Great Sultan ul Awliya Sheikh Abdullah Faiz Daghistani who was also the Khatm ul Awliya or the Seal of Saints. After the passing away of Sheikh Abdullah in the year 1972 Moulana Sheikh Nazim became the Grandsheikh of the Naqshabandi Tariqa. He is now living in Nothern Cyprus in Lefke and he is 90 years old. He is the last Grandsheikh of the Most Distinguished Naqshabandi Tariqa. He is a Seyyadi, which means that he is from the bloodline of the Muhammad, both from Hassani and Hussaini. On his father's side his great ancestor was Sheikh Muhiyyudin Abdul Quadir Jailani and from his mother's side his great ancestor was Moulana Jalaludin Rumi.

As the Grandmaster of Sufism and as the Grandsheikh of the Naqshabandi Tariqa, Moulana Sheikh Nazim initiates his followers into the Most Distinguished Naqshabandi Sufi Order. This is what is meant by taking Bayyath. When the follower takes Bayyath, he has then begun his journey to the Divine Presence. Moulana Sheikh Nazim will then be with him always and will gradually guide that follower to the Divine Presence. According to the capacity and apptitude of the follower Moulana Sheikh Nazim will give him Spiritual Advancement, Spiritual Ranks and Spiritual Stations.

When the Eye of the Heart is opened up and Spiritual Unveiling takes place, the follower will experience so many different Spiritual States.

The goal of the follower in following Moulana Sheikh Nazim is to enter into the Unity Oceans of Allah Almighty. Like a drop of water that loses its identity when it falls into the Ocean, and becomes the Ocean itself, the follower shall be made by Moulana Sheikh Nazim to reach to the Unity Oceans of Allah Almighty.

Naqshbandi Golden Chains

Nazim Haqqani Naqshabandi Golden Chain

1. Muhammad Mustafa (sal)

2. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq

3. Salman al Farsi

4. Al-Imam Qasim bin Muhammad bin Abu Bakr as-Siddiq

5. Al-Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq

6 Abu Yazid al Bistami

7. Abul Hasan al Kharqani

8. Abu Ali al Farmadi

9. Yusuf al Hamdani

10. Abul Abbas (Khidr, upon whom be peace)

11. Abdul Khaliq al-Ghujadawani

12. Arif Righwari

13. Mahmud al Faghnawi

14. Ali Ramitani

15. Muhammad Baba Sammasi

16. Seyyid Amir Kullal

17. Qutub at Tariqah Shah Bahauddin Naqshband al Uwaysi al Bukhari

18. Alauddin Muhammad al Attar

19. Ya'qub al Charkhy

20. Ubeydullah al Ahrar as-Samarqandi

21. Muhammad az Zahid

22. Dervish Muhammad al Bukhari

23. Hajegi Emkeneki as Samarqandi

24. Muhammad al Baqibillah as Samarqandi

25. Mujaddid al Alf ath Thani Imam Rabbani Ahmad Faruq as Sirhindi

26. Urwat ul Wuthqa Muhammad Ma'sum ar Rabbani

27. Haji Sayfuddin ar Rabbani

28. Nur Muhammad al Badwani

29. Habibullah Mizra Jan i Janan al Mazhar

30. Ghulam Ali Abdullah ad Dehlawi

31. Ziyauddin Abu Naasan Muhammad Khalid al Baghidadi ash Shami

32. Sheikh Ismail an Narani

33. Khas Muhammad Shirwani

34. Sheikh Muhammad Yaraghi

35. Sayyid Jamaluddin al Ghumuqi al-Husseini

36. Abu Ahmed as Sughuri

37. Abu Muhammad al Madani

38. Sayyid Sharafuddin ad Daghistani

39. Sheik Abdullah Faiz ad Daghistani

40. Sheikh Muhammad Nazim Adil al Haqqani al Qubrusi

This is also called the Naqshabandi - Haqanni Sufi order and is the most flourishing Naqshabandi order counting millions of followers. The leader of this order is Sultan ul Awliya Moulana Sheikh Nazim al Qibrusi, who lives at present in Northern Cyprus. This is undoubtedly the most active of all Naqshbandi orders with followers in every corner of the World. There are Murids (followers) in the United Kingdom, Germany, France, and almost all of Europe, United States of America, Middle East, in Africa, in Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Malaysia,Indonesia, China, Japan, Australia , New Zealand, in Latin America, etc. In actual fact all over the World. According to some estimates this Sufi Order has over Sixty Million Mureeds.In almost every country in the world there are centres of this sufi Order. This order also has the largest Internet Presence. See http://sheiknazim.ws and http://naqshbandi.org, which are just two of the hundreds of websites of this order.There are also live transmissions made by Sultan ul Awliya Moulana Sheikh Nazim, the world leader of the most distinguished Naqshabandi Tariqa, which is broadcast all over the world by both http://Sufilive.com and http://www.saltanat.org.

Owaisiah Golden Chain

The Naqshbandia Owaisiah Order has a unique spiritual lineage following Abu Bakr. Uwais al-Qarni was a hidden companion of Muhammad, who gave him his own vest, just before he died.

Naqshbandiyyah al-Mujaddidi Golden Chain

This is most significant golden chain of Naqshbandi order found today. This comprises the main order, offshoots of which later spread throughout the world. It is named after Ahmad Sirhindi, who was "the Mujaddid or Reformer of the next 1000 years". The Mujaddidi Naqshbandis practice dhikr khafi (silent) and have strong emphasis on following the Sunnah. The Naqshbandi Golden Chain or silsilah include (in date order):

Naqshbandia Mujaddadia Sirajia Golden Chain

The Naqshbandia Mujaddadia Sirajia Golden Chain is based in Pakistan. The Naqshbandi Mjadadi Sirajia silsila is based in Pakistan in Kundia Shareef District Mianwali Punjab. Hazrat Khawaja Khalil ahmad is the current Sheikh of this silsila.

The Chain of the Honorable Mashaikh Naqshband Excerpted from the "Shajarah Tayyibah" Below is the silsilah of the tariqah Naqshbandia Mujaddidia Sirajia for Hazrat Khawajah Khalil Ahmad (damat barakatuhum)

1. Muhammad [City of Madinah Munawwarah].

2. Sayyedina Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq [City of Madinah Munawwarah].

3. Hazrat Salman Farsi [City of Madinah Munawwarah].

4. Hazrat Qasim bin Muhammad bin Abi Bakr [City of Madinah Munawwarah].

5. Hazrat Imam Jafar Sadiq [City of Madinah Munawwarah].

6. Hazrat Khuwaja Bayazeed Bustami [Bastam].

7. Hazrat Khuwaja Abul Hasan Kharkani [Kharkhan].

8. Hazrat Khuwaja Abul Qasim Gorgani [Jarjan].

9. Hazrat Khuwaja Abu Ali Farmadi [Mashad].

10. Hazrat Khuwaja Yusuf Hamdani [Turkistan].

11. Hazrat Khuwaja Abdul Khaliq Gajadwani [Bukhara].

12. Hazrat Khuwaja Muhammad Arif Riogri [Tajikistan].

13. Hazrat Khuwaja Mehmood Injir Faghnavi [Bukhara].

14. Hazrat Khuwaja Azizane Ali Raamitni [Bukhara].

15. Hazrat Khuwaja Muhammad Baba Samasi [Bukhara].

16. Hazrat Khuwaja Sayyed Amir Kalal [Bukhara].

17. Hazrat Khuwaja Bahauddin Naqshband Bukhari [Bukhara].

18. Hazrat Khuwaja Ala'uddin Attar [Hassar].

19. Hazrat Khuwaja Yaqoob Charkhi [Dushanbe].

20. Hazrat Khuwaja Ubaidullah Ahrar [Samarqand].

21. Hazrat Khuwaja Maulana Muhammad Zahid [Hassar].

22. Hazrat Khuwaja Darvish Muhammad [Sher Sabz].

23. Hazrat Khuwaja Muhammad Amkangi [Bukhara].

24. Hazrat Khuwaja Muhammad Baqibillah [Delhi]

25. Hazrat Khuwaja Mujaddid Alf-Thani [Sirhind Sharif].

26. Hazrat Khuwaja Muhammad Masoom [Sirhind Sharif].

27. Hazrat Khuwaja Saifuddin [Sirhind Sharif].

28. Hazrat Khuwaja Hafiz Muhammad Muhsin [Delhi].

29. Hazrat Khuwaja Sayed Nur Muhammad Badaiooni [Delhi].

30. Hazrat Mirza Mazhar Janejana [Delhi].

31. Hazrat Shah Ghulam Ali Mujaddidi [Delhi].

32. Hazrat Khuwaja Shah Abu Sa'eed [Delhi].

33. Hazrat Khuwaja Shah Ahmed Sa'eed Dehlvi [City of Madinah Munawwarah].

34. Hazrat Haji Dost Muhammad Kandhari [Musazai Sharif].

35. Hazrat Khuwaja Muhammad Usman Damani [Musazai Sharif].

36. Hazrat Khuwaja Sirajuddin [Musazai Sharif].

37. Hazrat Khuwaja Abu Sa'ad Ahmed Khan [Kundia Sharif]

38. Hazrat Khuwaja Muhammad Abdullah [Kundia Sharif]

39. Hazrat Khuwaja Khan Muhammad [Kundia Sharif]

40. Hadrat Khuwaja Khalil ahmad [Kundia Sharif]

Naqshbandi Mujadadi Ghafori Golden chain

The Naqshbandi Mujadadi Ghafori Golden Chain or silsilah

Naqshbandi Mujadadi Saifi Golden chain

This Mujaddadi chain continues through Muhammad al-Masum to Akhundzada Pir Saif-ur-Rahman Mubarak through various Naqshbandi shuyukh mainly in Afghan and surrounding regions.

Naqshbandi Tahiri Golden Chain

Based in Pakistan, and previously known as Fazali and Ghaffari (after Allah Bakhsh) branch, the Naqshbandi Tahiri order belongs to a Sheikh of Pakistan, Muhammad Tahir, better known as Mahboob Sajjan Saeen. The headquarters of this branch is at the Dargah in Allahabad, near Kandiaro, in the province of Sindh. And the Great Naqshbandi Sufi named Hadhrat Khawajah Mohammed Sardar Ahmad Ghaffariis the one who is alive is the Khalifa of Khawajah Abdul Ghaffar Fazli.His Golden chain is named as Shajra Shareef Naqshbandia Mujadadia Sardaria

Naqshbandi Mujadadi Makaan Shareefi Golden Chain

Currently based in Pakistan Naqshbandi Mujadadi Chain belongs to Syed Imam Ali Shah Naqshbandi Mujadadi. It is named after his birth place Makaan Shareef.

Naqshbandia Qasimiya Golden Chain

The Qasimiya is based in the village of Mohra Sharif located in the Murree hills of Punjab, outside the Pakistani capital of Islamabad. It became a spiritual center under Baba Ji Muhammad Qasim Sadiq (b. 1263 AH, 1847 CE).

Naqshbandia Mujaddidia Khalidia Mahmudia Golden Chain in Dagestan

Naqshbandi silsilah beginning from Muhammad is passed in chain till Ismail Kurdumeri (who is No31 in chain). After Ismail Kurdumeri the chain has split in two as he had two Ma'zuns, i.e. Muhammad Salih Shirwani (No32) and Khas Muhammad Shirwani. From Khas Muhammad Shirwani the chain goes to Muhammad Yaraghi ad-Daghestani, from him to Jamaluddin Kumuki ad-Daghestani, who had three Ma'zuns, i.e. Mamadibir ar-Rochi ad-Daghestani, Imam Shamil ad-Daghestani (both had no Ma'zun), and `Abdurrahman as-Sughuri ad-Daghestani. According to Shuaib Afandi Bagini ad-Daghestani, `Abdurrahman as-Sughuri had two ma'zuns, i.e. Muhammad Haji `Obodi ad-Daghestani and Ilyas Tsudakhari ad-Daghestani (d1312 AH). Both had no ma'zuns, and thus the split chain coming from Khas Muhammad Shirwani has ended here. However, there were and still are many people including Sharafuddin ad-Daghestani, Abdullah Fa'izi ad-Daghestani and others claiming that they somehow received Naqshbandi permission in their dream, or by special spiritual experience (rawhani) etc. All these claims and questionable permissions are not recognized and rejected in Daghestan, as permission cannot be given by individuals who themselves had no permission, in dreams or by rawhani or without witnesses. There are strict requirements as to who gives the permission, how it is given and received. The chain from Muhammad Salih Shirwani (No32) on the other hand, is continuous and goes all the way to Mahmud Afandi, Hasan Hilmi Afandi and the rest of the Daghestani Ma'zuns (see Naqshbandi_Golden_Chain#Naqshbandia_Mujaddidia_Khalidia_Mahmudia_Golden_Chain_in_Dagestan).

Although false claims are being made in the above paragraph that Sheikh Sharafudin and Sheikh Abdullah are claiming to have received the secret through visions and dreams, we have conclusive proof that it was transmitted physically by Sheikh Abu Ahmad as Sughuri to Sheikh Mohamad al Madani and then to Sheikh Sharaffudin and thereafter to Sheikh Abdullah and now it is with Moulana Sheikh Nazim al Haqanni. We give the chain of transmission below :-

Shaykh Khalid al-Baghdadi, (q) Shaykh Ismail Muhammad ash-Shirwani, (q) Shaykh Khas Muhammad Shirwani, (q) Shaykh Muhammad Effendi al-Yaraghi, (q) Sayyid Jamaluddin al-Ghumuqi al-Husayni, (q) Shaykh Abu Ahmad as-Sughuri, (q) Shaykh Abu Muhammad al-Madani, (q) Shaykh Sharafuddin Daghestani, (q) Shaykh Abdullah al-Fa'iz ad-Daghestani, (q) Mawlana Sheikh Nazim Al-Haqqani (q)

In proof of the above we are citing from Sheikh Hisham Kabbanis book "The Naqshbandi Sufi Way History and Guidebook of the Saints of the Golden Chain"."The Naqshbandi Sufi Way History and Guidebook of the Saints of the Golden Chain" kazi publication inc 1995. In this book it is clearly stated under each of the Grandsheikhs as to how the Golden Chain continued. As regards to the contention above the above quoted book says the following :-[6]

"He ( Sheikh Abu Ahmad as Sughuri) died in Sughur on the 17th of Rabi'ul-Awwal in the year 1299/1882 CE. at the age of 93.

Many years after he had passed away his daughter saw him in a dream. He told her, "O my daughter, the stone of my grave has fallen down and is laying on my chest, pressing on me and hurting me." The next day his daughter went to the Shaykhs of the city and told them that dream. She told the dream to everyone she met. The people believed the dream and went quickly to open up the grave. They found that the stone which covered his body had fallen down, and the walls of the grave had tumbled in around him. They found his body clean and unchanged. His shroud was still white, as if he had just been buried that same day.

They removed his body, redug the grave and replaced his body. Everyone was surprised and astonished at how he had come to her in the dream and told her about the situation in the grave. More surprising though, was the perfect condition of his body. After seeing this, they all took baycah with his successor, Sayyidina Abu Muhammad al-Madani.

Sayyidina Abu Ahmad as-Sughuri had two khalifs: Abu Muhammad al-Madani and Shaykh Sharafuddin ad-Daghestani. The secret of the Golden Chain was passed to the first, and upon his death, to the second."

We also give as proof of what we saying to be found in the following link in the Naqshbandi.org website. We give link to same http://www.naqshbandi.org/chain/names.htm

For further proof of what we are saying, in late October 2011 that a delegation from Dagestan visited Moulana Sheikh Nazim the present leader of the Naqshabandi Haqqani order and even took bayyath from him. In proof of which we are giving the following link to the video to be found in the Sultanate Website. The link is http://www.saltanat.org/SaltanatTV/tabid/210/Default.aspx and see speech by Sheikh Nazim Haqanni entitled “Dagestan” dated 29 October 2011

Sub-orders

Various semi-autonomous sub-orders include the Churahiya, Sardaria, Aslamiya, Hijazi, Tahiri.

Naqshbandi Churahiya Branch (Churah Sharif)

This branch belongs to Qayyum e Zaman Baba jee Syed Noor Muhammad Terahi Churahi, Naqshbandi, also known among his chain as Prof Syed Manzoor Asif Tahir, who is based in Sheikhpura also known as Mujjaddid-al-asar is participating his role in revival of islamic thought based on true love of Muhammad and true love of Allah. He insists on making "rizqe Halal", then speaking truth and then for good deeds. Its silsilah follows the Naqshbandi Mujaddidi Golden Chain until Nur Muhammad (No 30), after which it is claimed that a known family link to Muhammad is sufficient.

Practices

11 principal teachings

The first eight were formulated by Ghujdawani, and the last three were added by Baha ad- din.[5]

  • Remembrance (Yad kard): Always orally and mentally repeating the dhikr.
  • Restraint (Baz gasht): Engaging in the heart repetition of the phrase "Al-kalimat at-tayyiba."
  • Watchfulness (Nigah dasht): Being conscientious over wandering thoughts while repeating the phrase "Al-kalimat at-tayyiba."
  • Recollection (Yad dasht): Concentration upon the Divine presence in a condition of dhawq, foretaste, intuitive anticipation or perceptiveness, not using external aids.
  • Awareness while breathing (Hosh dar dam): Controlling one's breathing by not exhaling or inhaling in the forgetfullness of the Divine.
  • Journeying in one's homeland (Safar dar watan): An internal journey that moves the person from having blameworthy to praiseworthy properties. This is also referred to as the vision or revelation of the hidden side of the shahada.
  • Watching one's step (Nazar bar qadam): Do not be distracted from purpose of the ultimate journey.
  • Solitude in a crowd (Khalwat dar anjuman): Although journey is outwardly in this world, it is inwardly with God.
  • Temporal pause (Wuquf-I zamani): Keeping account of how one spends his or her time. If time is spent rightfully give thanks and time is spent incorrectly ask for forgiveness.
  • Numerical pause (Wuquf-I adadi): Checking that the heart-dhikr has been repeated the requisite number of times, taking into account one's wandering thoughts.
  • Heart pause (Wuquf-I qalbi): Forming a mental picture of one's heart with the name of God engraved to emphasize that the heart has no consciousness or goal other than God.

Types of concentration

Muraqaba

Muraqaba is known as spiritual communion. In this practice one tries to unveil the mystery of life by losing oneself in it. This is achieve through the method of picturing Muhammad or a saint or his murshid. One method seeks union with the sheikh; when the sheikh dies, it is frequently done at his tomb. The Sufi does not suppose that the spirit of the saint is in the tomb but finds this course an aid to contemplation. To attain union with the sheikh, he must visualize interiorly the image of his sheikh. He imagines the sheikh's image as though on his right shoulder, then pictures a line from the right shoulder to his heart that acts as a passage whereby the spirit of the sheikh can take possession of that organ. By continuing this process he will ensure that he has attained absorption in the sheikh. For the murid this is more beneficial than dhikr since the sheikh is the medium by which the murid can attain the supreme reality. In fact, the more connected the murid is to the sheikh the more the emanations from his inner being increase and the sooner he is able to attain his goal. In other words, the murid must first lose himself in the sheikh and then he may attain fana in God.[5]

Tawajjuh

Tawajjuh is a formation from wajh (face) and means confrontation. It is employed in relation to the act of facing the qibla during ritual prayer. The direction of the qibla is the murshid who is the gateway to God. Often the sheikh is made the qibla. The worshipper cleanses his clouded heart so that is pure enough that his God may be reflected in it.[5]

Subtle substances

The 7 substances of ‘Ala al-Dawla were employed by the Kubrawi school of Sufism. They were used to aid in meditation and dhikr. The substances were linked to a part of the body, a prophet, and a color. The Naqshbandi school created a scheme employing 6 of those substances and linking them to certain subtle energy centers on the body. The qalb (heart) is located two fingers below the left breast and its color is red. The ruh (spirit) is located two fingers below the right breast and its color is white. The nafs (soul) is beneath the naval and its color is yellow. The sirr (conscience) is at the center of the breast with the color green. The khafi (mystery) is above the eyebrow with the color blue. The akhafa (arcanum) is at the top of the brain and its color is black.[7]

Spreading of the Order

Europe, United States Of America, South America, Asia, Australia, Middle East, Africa, China, Malaysia, Indonesia

The Naqshabandi - Haqanni Sufi order is the most flourishing Naqshabandi order counting millions of followers. The leader of this order is Sultan ul Awliya Moulana Sheikh Nazim al Qibrusi, who lives at present in Northern Cyprus. This is undoubtedly the most active of all Naqshbandi orders with followers in every corner of the World. There are Murids (followers) in the United Kingdom, Germany, France, and almost all of Europe, United States of America, Middle East, in Africa, in Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Malaysia,Indonesia, China, Japan, Australia , New Zealand, in Latin America, etc. In actual fact all over the World. According to some estimates this Sufi Order has over Sixty Million Mureeds.In almost every country in the world there are centres of this sufi Order. This order also has the largest Internet Presence. See http://sheiknazim.ws and http://naqshbandi.org, which are just two of the hundreds of websites of this order.There are also live transmissions made by Sultan ul Awliya Moulana Sheikh Nazim, the world leader of the most distinguished Naqshabandi Tariqa, which is broadcast all over the world by both http://Sufilive.com and http://www.saltanat.org.

China

Ma Laichi brought the Naqshbandi order to China, creating the Khufiyya Hua Si Sufi menhuan. Ma Mingxin, also brought the Naqshbandi order, creating the Jahriyya menhuan. These two menhuan were rivals, and fought against each other. These Menhuan played major roles in the Dungan revolt, and Dungan Revolt (1895).

All the Chinese Muslim Generals of the Ma Clique belonged to Naqshbandi Sufi menhuan. Prominent Generals included Ma Zhan'ao, Ma Anliang, Ma Fulu, Ma Fuxiang, Ma Hongkui, Ma Hongbin, Ma Qi, Ma Bufang, and Ma Buqing. Ma Shaowu, and Ma Yuanzhang were other prominent leaders from the Jahriyya Naqshbandi menhuan.

Today you may find many Murids of the Naqshbandi- Haqqani order in China.

Egypt

During the middle of the 19th century Egypt was inhabited and controlled by Naqshbandis. A major Naqshbandi takiya was constructed in 1851 by Abbas I, who did this as a favor to Naqshbandi sheikh Ahmad Ashiq. Ahmad Ashiq headed the takiya till his death in 1883. Ahmad Ashiq's was a practicer of the Diya'iyya branch of the Khalidiyya. In 1876 sheikh Juda Ibrahim amended the original Diya’iyya, which became known as al-Judiyya, and gained a following in al-Sharqiyya province in the eastern Nile Delta.[8]

During the last two decades of the 19th century two other versions of Naqshbandiyya spread in Egypt. One of these was introduced by a Sudanese, alSharif Isma'il al-Sinnari. Al-Sinnari had been initiated into the Khalidiyya and Mujaddidiyya by various sheikhs during his time in Mecca and Medina. Initially, he tried to obtain a following in Cairo but was not able to, therefore he resorted going to Sudan. It is from there that the order spread into Upper Egypt from 1870 onward under Musa Mu’awwad, who was al-Sinnari's successor. Muhaamad al-Laythi, son of al-Sinnari, was the successor after Mu’awwad's death.[8]

The Judiyya and the Khalidiyya branches spread in the last decades of the 19th century and continued to grow and are still active today. Khalidiyya of Muhammad Amin al-Kurdi is headed by his son Najm a-Din. The Judiyya split into three main branches:one led by the founder's son Isa, another led by Iliwa Atiyya in Cairo, and another led by Judah Muhammad Abu’l-Yazid al-Hahdi in Tanta.[8]

Unfortunately, none of the early takiyas survived far into the 20th century. The longest living group of takiya based Naqshbandis lived in the takiya of sheikh Ahmad Ashiq, which closed in 1954. This is when all the takiyas in Egypt were closed and the awqaf supporting these establishments were taken over by the Ministry of Awqaf. The buildings were either assigned a different function or demolished as part of urban renovation programs.[8]

Syria and Palestine

The Naqshbandiyya was introduced into Syria at the end of the 17th century by Murad Ali al-Bukhari, who was initiated in India. Later, he established himself in Damascus, but traveled throughout Arabia. His branch became known as the Muradiyya. After his death in 1720, his descendents formed the Muradi family of scholars and sheikhs who continued to head the Muradiyya. In 1820 and onward, Khalid Shahrazuri rose as the prominent Naqshbandi leader in the Ottoman world. After the death of Khalid in 1827, his takiya became known as the Khalidiyya, which continued to spread for at least two decades. Later a strife between Khalid's khalifas led to disruption of the takiya, causing it to divide.[8]

The only Naqshbandi branch to have survived till recently is the one based in the zawiya al-Uzbakiyya in Jerusalem. The number of members of this branch increased at the end of the 19th century. When political leader Musa Bukhar died in 1973, the pre-Mujaddidi line of the Naqshbandiyya in Greater Syria came to an end. In Syria and Lebanon, the leaders of every active Naqshbandiyya group has a silsila going back to sheikh Khalid of the Khalidiyya. The Khalidiyya is a Naqshbandi order found in Syria and Lebanon having continued from the days of Khalid. This branch has also retained the original Naqshbandiyya way. The Farmadiyya branch, which practices silent and vocal dhikr, is another still present in Lebanon and is named after Ali-Farmadi.[8]

We shall speak about the Great Grandsheikh Abdullah Dagestani,(Haqqani-Naqshbandi order) and quote a small passage from his Biography written by Sheikh Hisham Kabbani :-

"Sheikh Abdullah moved to oms, where he visited the mosque and tomb of the Companion of the Prophet , Khalid ibn al-Walid. He stayed briefly in oms. He moved to Damascus, in the Midan District, near the tomb of Sa`d ad-Din Jibawi, a saint from the family of the Prophet . There he established the first zawiya for the branch of the Naqshbandi Order which had gone to Daghestan. With him the Golden Chain of the Naqshbandi Order which had gone from Damascus to India, Baghdad, and Daghestan, now returned to Damascus.

His two daughters were married, Rabiha had four children, three girls and one boy. Madiha was married to Shaykh Tawfiq al-Hibri, one of the great Islamic scholars of Lebanon.

Soon people began to crowd into his zawiya. They arrived there from all over the city: Sufis, government people, businessmen, and common people. Murids were coming every day to sit at the door of his khaniqah. Daily they served food to hundreds, many of whom also slept there.

Then he received a spiritual order to move to the Mountain of Qasyun. It is the highest point in Damascus, from whose vantage the entire city can be viewed. With the help of his two senior murids, Shaykh Muhammad Nazim `Adil and Shaykh Husayn `Ali, he built a house. This house and the mosque next to it still stand, and the mosque is the site of his maqam (tomb). He saw in a vision, while he was building the mosque, that the Prophet , with Shah Naqshband and Sayyidina Ahmad al-Faruqi, came and put posts to mark the shape and location of the walls of the mosque. As soon as the vision ended, the markers were visible, and everyone present saw them. At that mosque, over the years, hundreds of thousands of visitors were received: for healing, for prayers, for training, for all kinds of external and internal knowledge."

It was in Damascus, Syria, that Grandsheikh Abdullah Dagestani, preached from, and also passed away. His blessed tomb is to be found in Damascus. It is estimated that a massive crowd of about 400,000 people attended his funeral ( see Sheikh Hisham kabbani's book on the Forty Grandsheikhs of the Naqshbandi Tariqa.) The Naqshbandi- Haqqani branch to which Sheikh Abdullah belongs is today lead by his successor Sultan ul awliya Moulana Sheikh Nazim and is very active in Syria.

Dagestan, Russia

Naqshbandi silsilah beginning from Muhammad is passed in chain till Ismail Kurdumeri (who is No31 in chain). After Ismail Kurdumeri the chain has split in two as he had two Ma'zuns, i.e. Muhammad Salih Shirwani (No32) and Khas Muhammad Shirwani. From Khas Muhammad Shirwani the chain goes to Muhammad Yaraghi ad-Daghestani, from him to Jamaluddin Kumuki ad-Daghestani, who had three Ma'zuns, i.e. Mamadibir ar-Rochi ad-Daghestani, Imam Shamil ad-Daghestani (both had no Ma'zun), and `Abdurrahman as-Sughuri ad-Daghestani. According to Shuaib Afandi Bagini ad-Daghestani, `Abdurrahman as-Sughuri had two ma'zuns, i.e. Muhammad Haji `Obodi ad-Daghestani and Ilyas Tsudakhari ad-Daghestani (d1312 AH). Both had no ma'zuns, and thus the split chain coming from Khas Muhammad Shirwani has ended here. However, there were and still are many people including Sharafuddin ad-Daghestani, Abdullah al-Fa'iz ad-Daghestani Abdullah Fa'izi ad-Daghestani and others claiming that they somehow received Naqshbandi permission in their dream, or by special spiritual experience (rawhani) etc. All these claims and questionable permissions are not recognized and rejected in Daghestan, as permission cannot be given by individuals who themselves had no permission, in dreams or by rawhani or without witnesses. There are strict requirements as to who gives the permission, how it is given and received. The chain from Muhammad Salih Shirwani (No32) on the other hand, is continuous and goes all the way to Mahmud Afandi, Hasan Hilmi Afandi and the rest of the Daghestani Ma'zuns (see Naqshbandi_Golden_Chain#Naqshbandia_Mujaddidia_Khalidia_Mahmudia_Golden_Chain_in_Dagestan).

Although false claims are being made in the above paragraph that Sheikh Sharafudin and Sheikh Abdullah are claiming to have received the secret through visions and dreams, we have conclusive proof that it was transmitted physically by ( Sheikh Abu Ahmad as Sughuri to Sheikh Mohamad al Madani and then to Sheikh Sharaffudin and thereafter to Sheikh Abdullah and now it is with Moulana Sheikh Nazim al Haqanni. We give the chain of transmission below :-

Shaykh Khalid al-Baghdadi, (q) Shaykh Ismail Muhammad ash-Shirwani, (q) Shaykh Khas Muhammad Shirwani, (q) Shaykh Muhammad Effendi al-Yaraghi, (q) Sayyid Jamaluddin al-Ghumuqi al-Husayni, (q) Shaykh Abu Ahmad as-Sughuri, (q) Shaykh Abu Muhammad al-Madani, (q) Shaykh Sharafuddin Daghestani, (q) Shaykh Abdullah al-Fa'iz ad-Daghestani, (q) Mawlana Sheikh Nazim Al-Haqqani (q)

In proof of the above we are citing from Sheikh Hisham Kabbanis book "The Naqshbandi Sufi Way History and Guidebook of the Saints of the Golden Chain". In this book it is clearly stated under each of the Grandsheikhs as to how the Golden Chain continued. As regards to the contention above the above quoted book says the following :-

"He ( Sheikh Abu Ahmad as Sughuri) died in Sughur on the 17th of Rabi'ul-Awwal in the year 1299/1882 CE. at the age of 93.

Many years after he had passed away his daughter saw him in a dream. He told her, "O my daughter, the stone of my grave has fallen down and is laying on my chest, pressing on me and hurting me." The next day his daughter went to the Shaykhs of the city and told them that dream. She told the dream to everyone she met. The people believed the dream and went quickly to open up the grave. They found that the stone which covered his body had fallen down, and the walls of the grave had tumbled in around him. They found his body clean and unchanged. His shroud was still white, as if he had just been buried that same day.

They removed his body, redug the grave and replaced his body. Everyone was surprised and astonished at how he had come to her in the dream and told her about the situation in the grave. More surprising though, was the perfect condition of his body. After seeing this, they all took baycah with his successor, Sayyidina Abu Muhammad al-Madani.

Sayyidina Abu Ahmad as-Sughuri had two khalifs: Abu Muhammad al-Madani and Shaykh Sharafuddin ad-Daghestani. The secret of the Golden Chain was passed to the first, and upon his death, to the second."

We also give as proof of what we saying to be found in the following link in the Naqshbandi.org website. We give link to same http://www.naqshbandi.org/chain/names.htm

For further proof of what we are saying, in late October 2011 that a delegation from Dagestan visited Moulana Sheikh Nazim the present leader of the Naqshabandi Haqqani order and even took bayyath from him. In proof of which we are giving the following link to the video to be found in the Sultanate Website. The link is http://www.saltanat.org/SaltanatTV/tabid/210/Default.aspx and see speech by Sheikh Nazim Haqanni entitled “Dagestan” dated 29 October 2011.This proves that there are many murids in Dagestani who have given allegiance to the Haqqani-naqshabandiya order.

South Asia

The Naqshbandiyya order became an influential factor in Indo-Muslim life and for two centuries it was the principal spiritual order in India. Baqi Billah Berang (No 24 in the Naqshbandi Golden Chain) is credited for bringing the order to India. He was born in India and brought up and educated in Kabul and Samarqand, where he came in contact with the Naqshbandiyya order. When he returned to India he tried to spread his knowledge about the order during the end of the 16th century, but died only three years later.[9]

Among his disciples were Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi (No 25 in the Naqshbandi Golden Chain) and Sheikh Abdul Haq of Dihli. After his death, his student, Sheikh Ahmad primarily took over. Sheikh Ahmad was born in 1561 and his father Makhdum Abdul Ahmad was from a high sufi order. He completed his religious and secular studies at the age of 17. Later he became known as Mujaddad-i-Alf-i-Thani. It was through him that the order gained popularity within a short period of time.[9]

Sheikh Ahmad broke away from earlier mystic traditions and propounded his theory of the unity of the phenomenal world. In particular, he spoke out against innovations introduced by sufis. For instance, he opposed Emperor Akbar's views on Hindu and Muslim marriages. He stated, "Muslims should follow their religion, and non-Muslims their ways, as the Qur'an enjoins 'for you yours and for me my religion'". Also he did not believe in keeping the state and ruler separate and worked hard to change the outlook of the ruling class. After his death, his work was continued by his sons and descendants.[10]

During the 19th century two Naqshbandiyya saints made significant contributions to the silsila by restating some of its basic ideological postures. Shah Wali Allah played an important role in the religious sciences, particularly the hadith and translated the Qur'an into Persian. He also looked at a fresh interpretation of Islamic teachings in the light of the new issues. Furthermore, he played a significant role in the political developments of the period.

Today, in Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Brunei etc , there are found many murids who follow the Haqqani-Naqshbandiya Sufi order. The King of Brunei and the Prince of Malaysia, Raja Asman are murids who follow this order. This order is extemely active in the countries mentioned.


Prediction about the Worldwide Spreading of the Naqshabandi Order

Grandshaykh Abdullah Dagestani's Predictions - Quoted in his book about the Biographies of the Forty Grandsheikhs of the Naqshbandi Tariqa ( "The Naqshbandi Sufi Way History and Guidebook of the Saints of the Golden Chain") by Sheikh Hisham Kabbani:-

Grandshaykh Abdullah, before he passed away said in his will, "By the Order of the Prophet (s), I have trained and lifted up my successor, Nazim Effendi, and put him through many seclusions and trained him in severe training and I am assigning him to be my successor. I am seeing that in the future he will spread this Order through East and West. Allah will make all kinds of people, rich and poor, scholars and politicians, come to him, learn from him and take the Naqshbandi Order, at the end of the 20th Century and the beginning of the 21st Century. It will spread all over the world, such that not one continent will be devoid of its sweet scent."

"I see him establishing and founding huge headquarters in London through which he will spread this tariqat to Europe, the Far East, and America. He will spread sincerity, love, piety, harmony, and happiness among people, and all shall leave behind ugliness, terrorism, and politics. He will spread the knowledge of peace within the heart, the knowledge of peace within communities, the knowledge of peace between nations, in order that wars and struggles will be taken away from this world and peace will become the dominating factor. I am seeing young people running to him from everywhere, asking for his barakah and blessings. He will show them the way to keep their obligations in the Islamic tradition, to be moderate, to live in peace with everyone of every religion, to leave hatred and enmity. Religion is for Allah and Allah is the judge of His servants."

That prediction has come to pass, just as Grandshaykh `Abdullah had described it. In the year after Grandshaykh (q) passed away in 1973, Mawlana Shaykh Nazim made his first return trip to Turkey, visiting Bursa. Then he went to London. Many young people, especially the followers of John Bennett, came to meet him. As many people began coming to hear him he established his first center there in 1974.

He followed his first visit with annual visits to England and the Continent during and after Ramadan. The Order spread quickly, penetrating all of Europe, together with the United States, Canada and South America. He opened three centers in London for training people in the ways of spirituality, removing their depression and lifting them to a state of peace in their hearts. His teachings continued to spread to all parts of Europe, North Africa, Southern Africa, the Gulf countries, America, North and South, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, Russia and parts of China, Australia and New Zealand.

You cannot find in the countries we have named and countries we have not named, a place where the touch of Shaykh Nazim is not felt. This is what differentiates him from all saints that are living now and all saints that came before. You find all languages are spoken in his presence. Every year, in the month of Ramadan, a huge conference is held in London, which more than 5,000 people attend from all over the world. As Allah said, "We made you nations and tribes that you might know one another" [49:13].

His followers come from all walks of life. You find the poor, the middle class, the wealthy, the businessman, the doctor, the lawyer, the psychiatrist, the astronomer, the plumber, the carpenter, Ministers of government, politicians, senators, parliament members, prime ministers, presidents, kings, sultans, and royalty of all kinds, everyone attracted to his simplicity, to his smile, to his light and to his spirituality. Thus he is known as the multicolored, Universal Shaykh.

His sayings and associations (sohbet) have been collected and published in many books that are available. These include the Mercy Oceans series, which number more than 35 books, thousands of feet of videotapes, and thousands and thousands of hours of audiotapes.

His life is always intensely active. He is a traveler in Allah's Way, never staying home, always moving from one place to another. One day he is in the East and the next he is in the West. One day he is in the North and the next he is in the South. You don't know where he will be from one day to the next. He is always meeting with officials to encourage reconciliation and peace and preservation of the natural world. He is always sowing the seeds of love and peace and harmony in the hearts of mankind. We hope that in the spirit of his teachings all religions will find paths to reconciliation and leave behind differences to live in peace and harmony."

See Link http://www.naqshbandi.org/chain/40.htm


See also

Notes

  1. ^ Singh, Nagendra Kr and Singh, Nagendra Kumar (2002). International Encyclopaedia of Islamic Dynasties. Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd. pp. 128. ISBN 8126104031.  See Google book search.
  2. ^ Anna Zelkina, "Quest for God and Freedom: Sufi Responses to the Russian Advance in the North Caucasus", NYU Press (1 October 2000) . pg 77, excerpt from note 11: "There are some Naqshbandi branches which trace their silsila through Ali ibn Abi Taleb, see Algar, 1972, pp. 191-3; al-Khani, 1308. pg 6
  3. ^ Kugle, Scott Alan (2007). Sufis & saints' bodies: Mysticism, Corporeality and Sacred Power in Islam. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 143. ISBN 0807857890.  See Google book search.
  4. ^ Kabbani, Muhammad Hisham (2004). Classical Islam and the Naqshbandi Sufi Tradition. Islamic Supreme Council of America. pp. 557. ISBN 1930409230. 
  5. ^ a b c d Trimingham, J. Spencer. "The Chief Tariqa Lines." The Sufi Orders in Islam,. Oxford: Clarendon, 1971. Print
  6. ^ The Naqshbandi Sufi Way, (History and Guidebook of the Saints of the Golden Chain) by Muhammad Hisham Kabbani. Kazi Publications, USA (1995) ISBN 0-934905-
  7. ^ Ernst, Carl W. "Names of God, Meditation, and Mystical Experience." The Shambhala Guide to Sufism. Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala, 1997. 107. Print.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Jong, Frederick De. Sufi Orders in Ottoman and Post-Ottoman Egypt and the Middle East: Collected Studies. Istanbul: Isis, 2000. Print.
  9. ^ a b Haq, Muhammad M. Some Aspects of the Principle Sufi Orders in India. Bangladesh: Islamic Foundation, 1985. Print.
  10. ^ Algar, Hamid; Algar, Hamid; Nizami, K.A. "Naḳshbandiyya." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2010. Brill Online. Augustana. 15 April 2010 <http://www.brillonline.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_COM-0843>

References

External links


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