:"For the "Lost" character, please see
Sayid Jarrah" Sayyid ( _ar. سيد) (plural Saadah) is an honorifictitle that is given to males accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammadthrough his grandsons, Hasan ibn Aliand Husayn ibn Ali, who were the sons of his daughter Fatima Zahraand son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib.
Daughters of male sayyids are given the titles Sayyida, Alawiyah, Syarifah or Sharifah. Children of a Sayyida mother but a non-Sayyid father cannot be attributed the title of Sayyid, however they may claim maternal descent and are called
Mirza. Both Shiitesand Sunnis that claim descent from Muhammad, do so through at least one of the Shiite Imams.
In Islamic mysticism or
Sufism, only a sayyid can initiate a Sufiorder or tariqah.
The word literally means "master" ; the closest English equivalent would be "
sir" or " lord". In the Arab worlditself, the word is still used as a substitute for "Mister", as in "Sayyid John Smith". The same concept is expressed by the word " sidi" (from the Arabic word 'sayyidi') in the Moroccan dialect of Arabic. Some Muslims also use the term "sayyid" for the descendants of Abu Talib, uncle of Muhammad), by his other sons: Jafar, Abbas, Aqeel and Talib. Alevis use seyyid (Turkish) as an honorific before the names of their saints. Dawoodi Bohras use the title "syyedina" for their " Da'i al-Mutlaq" (spiritual leader of the Bohra community) although they are not the descendants of Fatima. El Cid, the name given to a famous Spanish knight of the 11th century C.E., is derived from Al-Sayyid ("as-sayyid"), meaning lord.
NOTE: (For non-Arabic speakers) When transliterating Arabic words into English there are two approaches.
*1. The user may transliterate the word letter for letter, e.g. "الزيدي" becomes "a-l-z-ai-d-i".
*2. The user transliterate the pronunciation of the word, e.g. "الزيدي" becomes "a-zz-ai-d-i". This is because in Arabic grammar, some consonants ("n, r, s, sh, t" and "z") cancel the "l" (ل) from the word "the" "al" (ال) . When the user sees the prefixes "an", "ar", "as", "ash", "at", "az", etc... this means the word is the transliteration of the pronunciation.
*An "i", "wi" (Arabic), or "vi" (Persian) ending could perhaps be translated by the English suffixes "ite" or "ian". The suffix transforms a personal name, or a place name, into the name of a group of people connected by lineage or place of birth. Hence "Ahmad al-Hashimi" could be translated as "Ahmad of the lineage of Hassan" and "Ahmad al-Harrani" as "Ahmad from the city of Harran". For further explanation, see
1Also, El-Husseini, Al-Husseini, Husseini, and Hussaini.
2Those who use the term "sayyid" for all descendants of
Ali ibn Abi Talibregard Allawis or Alavis as sayyids. However Allawis are not descendants of Muhammad, as they are descended from the children of Ali and the women he married after the death of Fatima Zahra, such as Umm al Baneen/ Fatima bint Hizam. Those who limit the term "sayyid" to descendants of Muhammad through Fatima Zahra, will not consider Allawis/Alavis to be sayyids.
3This transliteration is usually reserved for
False claimant to Sayyid status are called mutasayyid or müteseyyid [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bpl/muwo/2006/00000096/00000001/art00002 See Sayyids and Sharīfs in the Ottoman State: On the Borders of the True and the False]
Ibn Battutahon the usage of 'Sayyid' in India
Ibn Battutah had the following to say on the usage of "sayyid" in India: cquote | Then one of the officers said to me in Arabic, "What do you say, "ya sayyidi"?" (The people of that country never address an Arab except by the title of "sayyid," and it is by this title that the Sultan himself addresses, out of respect for the Arabs.)Ibn Battutah, "The Travels of Ibn Battutah," ed. Tim Mackintosh-Smith (London: Picador, 2002), p. 189.]
"Sayyid" was also used as a term of respect by some Indian Muslims. Therefore, someone with the name "sayyid" in the Indian subcontinent is not necessarily of "sayyid" extraction. "Sayyid" families originate from particular villages or towns. If the person called "sayyid" can prove his family originated from an authentic "sayyid" town, that establishes his pedigree. In the modern era, "sayyid" is used only by descendants of the Prophet, and the title is no longer applied to non-"sayyid"s as a mark of respect.
ayyids in Indian Sub-continent
See|History of Arabs in Afghanistan|Sayyid dynasty, [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Masanian_sharif&oldid=234086331 GILANI Sayyids of Masanian Sharif]
Some Sayyid families in Indian sub-continent claim direct relationship with the Prophet of Islam through his daughter Fâtimah and son-in-law Ali. Their ancestors migrated from different parts of Iran, during the invasion of
Halakuand other periods of turmoil. They migrated through Herat (then part of Iran) in Afghanistan to different parts of India. These migrations occurred during the periods of Mahmud Ghaznavi, Delhi Sultanateand Mughalsand continued till late into 19th century. Most sufisaints whose lineage could also be traced to Prophet Muhammad also migrated during the early periods of Delhi Sultanate and Mughals. Some of the early migrant Sayyids moved deep to the peninsular part of India, in the region of Deccan plateauin the reign of Bahmani Sultanate/Bahmani kings and later Qutb Shahikings of Golconda, Nizam Shahi of Ahmadnagar, and other kingdoms of Bijapur, Bidarand Berar.
The history of Sayyids or Syeds in India dates back to more than 1000 years. Several Syeds visited India as merchants along with the general Arab traders. They also ruled over India (Delhi Sultanate) during the period 1414-1451. Except for this brief period of Indian history, Syeds or Sayyids were mostly connected to religious, spiriutal and educational activities.The notable Syeds of India include
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Akbar Allahabadi, the Shahi Imamsof Delhi and Syed Shahbuddin.
ayyids in Punjab
"Sherazi/Shirazi"kazmi/mosviJaffery sadat family in Sargodha descendant of Shah Shams Sherazi who was the descendant of Shitte Imam
Jafar as-Sadiq. He was the son of Sher Ali, whose mausoleum is in Delhi. Sher Ali had come to India with the Mughal Emperor Humayun. In fact, Humayunmoved to Iran seeking help to regain his empire when he was overthrown by Farid Khan, popularly known as Sher Shah Suri. After a special prayer for his success, Sher Ali and his two sons, Shah Shams and Jalal Shah, were asked to accompany Humayun to Delhi. On their way, they were informed that Sher Shah Suri died. Without any bloodshed in the battleground, Humayun took over and regained the power. He gifted a piece of land to Sher Ali and offered his son, Shah Shams, the marriage proposal of a girl from the Mughal family. Shah Shams accepted the proposal. In later years, the couple was blessed with five sons. Shah Shams and his family left Delhi and crossed the Jhelum Riverto settle in Rampur (presently known as Shahpur (Punjab)currently in Sargodha District. While his brother Jalal Shah moved to a deserted area in Afghanistan and lived there. Jalalabad, now a city in Afghanistan, was named after him. Shah Badar Diwan It is also narrated that "sayyid"s cannot accept Zakaat (Islamic charity) whereas non-"sayyid"s can. Thus, a "sayyid" must be given the money with the intention of a gift and not as charity.
It is reported that [the Imam] Hasan once took a date from those that were an offering ("sadaqa") and placed it in his mouth. At this the Prophet said: "Kakh!Kakh! Throw it out! Don't you know that we do not eat charity?" [Sahih al-Bukhari, Hadith Nos. [http://www.sunnipath.com/library/Hadith/H0002P0029.aspx#1420 1420] and [http://www.sunnipath.com/library/Hadith/H0002P0061.aspx 2907] ; also in Sahih Muslim, Hadith No. 1069, [http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/muslim/005.smt.html#005.2339 though in the on-line version it is 2339.] ]Twelver Shiites have "khums" (one-fifth), the rules for which differ from Sunni practice. Today, Twelvers divide the total amount of "khums" into two equal parts, disbursed as under: share of the descendants of the Prophet ("sahm al-sadat") and the Imam's share ("sahm al-Imam"), which is given to the "mujtahid" that the payer of "khums" follows, or can be distributed or utilized by his permission. Further details are found in books of jurisprudence.
Sayyid scholars wear green or black turbans, whereas non-"sayyid" scholars (referred to as "shaykh") wear white turbans.
Idrisid dynasty, a Sayyid dynasty
History of Arabs in Afghanistan
* Shaikh Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani
* [http://www.gilani.com.pk/sufies/badar.htm GILANI Sayyads of Masanian Sharif]
* [http://www.baalawi.com Ba`alawi.com] Ba'alawi.com | The definitive resource for Islam and the Alawi Ancestry.
* [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~naqobatulasyrof/page6.html The BaAlawi Genealogy]
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sayyid — Muslim title of honor, applied to descendants of Hussein, Muhammad s grandson, 1788, from Arabic sayyid, lit. lord, chief … Etymology dictionary
sayyid — or sayid [sä′yid] n. [Ar sayyid] a Muslim title of respect, specif. for certain descendants of Mohammed … English World dictionary
Sayyid — El texto que sigue es una traducción defectuosa o incompleta. Si quieres colaborar con Wikipedia, busca el artículo original y mejora o finaliza esta traducción. Puedes dar aviso al autor principal del artículo pegando el siguiente código en su… … Wikipedia Español
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sayyid — noun Etymology: Arabic Date: 1788 1. an Islamic chief or leader 2. lord, sir used as a courtesy title for a Muslim of rank or lineage … New Collegiate Dictionary