Ye Jianying

Ye Jianying

Infobox President
name = Ye Jianying

imagesize = 200px
caption =

order1 = Head of State of the People's Republic of China
term_start1 = March 5, 1978
term_end1 = June 18, 1983
predecessor1 = Zhu De
vacant (1976)
Song Qingling
successor1 = Li Xiannian

order2 = 3rd Chairman of the NPCSC
term_start2 = March 5, 1978
term_end2 = June 18, 1983
predecessor2 = Zhu De
vacant (1976)
successor2 = Peng Zhen

birth_date = birth date and age|1897|4|28
birth_place =
death_date = death date and age|1986|10|22|1897|4|28|df=y
death_place =
party = Communist Party of China
spouse =
relations =
alma_mater =
religion =

Ye Jianying (zh-stpw|s=叶剑英|t=葉劍英|p=Yè Jiànyīng|w=Yeh Chien-ying; Jyutping: Yip Gim-ying) (April 28, 1897-October 22, 1986) was a Chinese Communist general and the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress from 1978 to 1983.


Born Ye Yiwei (葉宜偉) into a wealthy merchant family in Mei County, Guangdong, his courtesy name was Cangbai (滄白). He belonged to the Hakka minority. After graduation from the Yunnan Military Academy in 1919, he joined Sun Yat-sen and the Kuomintang (KMT). He taught at the Whampoa Military Academy and joined the communist party in 1927.

In 1927, he participated in the failed Nanchang Uprising and was forced to flee to Hong Kong with another two communist leaders of the uprising, Zhou Enlai and Ye Ting (not related to Ye Jianying), with two handguns among them. Although strongly opposed the Guangzhou Uprising with other military commanders such as Ye Ting in the same year, they nonetheless faithfully carried out their assigned duties in the uprising, which of course ended in disaster again, and once again, Ye was forced to flee to Hong Kong, like other communist leaders such as Ye Ting and Nie Rongzhen. However, Ye Jianying was far more fortunate than Ye Ting who was made a scapegoat of the failure of the Comintern policy and forced into exile, Ye Jianying was not blamed and subsequently studied military science in Moscow.

After returning to China in 1932 he joined the Jiangxi Soviet. He served as Chief of Staff of Zhang Guotao's Fourth Front Army. However, after the Zhang's force met with Mao Zedong's force during the Long March, Comintern's plan of letting him help Zhang Guotao was dashed when Mao Zedong and Zhang Guotao disagreed on the next move of the Chinese Red Army. Zhang insisted on turning southward to establish a new base in the regions inhabited by Tibetan and Qiang minorities, which later proved to be a disaster, causing Zhang to lose over 75% of his force and eventually forced him to return to the communist base in Shaanxi, as Mao correctly pointed out the way it should. As chief of staff of Zhang Guotao, Ye Jianying realized Mao was right but could not convice Zhang to go with Mao's plan, and instead of supporting Zhang unconditionally like he did during the Guangzhou Uprising, Ye Jianying sided with Mao Zedong by escaping to Mao's headquarter from Zhang's headquarter, taking all the codes books and maps with him. As a result, Zhang's communication with Comintern was cut while Mao established the radio link with the Comintern, which was forced to accept Mao's leadership in the Communist Party of China. Mao would never forget the contribution of Ye and in his own words, "Ye Jianying saved the (Chinese Communist) Party, the (Chinese) red army, and the (Chinese) revolution".

During the Long March, Ye Jianying assisted Liu Bocheng in directing the crossing of the Yangtze River at Anshunchang and Luding Bridge, and became director of the offices that liaised with the KMT after 1936, first in Xi'an, then in Nanjing and finally in Chongqing. He worked together with Zhou Enlai in this capacity.

After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, Ye was put in charge of Guangdong (Canton, China), which cost him his political career under Mao's reign. Ye understood that the economic condition in Canton was very different from the rest of China in that most Cantonese landlords were peasants themselves who participated in production and were not exploiting other tenant peasants, so they were not struggled, and their properties including business and land were protected. However, Ye's practice contradicted the general policy of the communist land reform in China, which emphasized on class struggle, and Ye's policy was deemed too soft. As a result, Ye and his local cadres were soon replaced by Lin Biao's, and a much harsher policy like in the rest of China was implemented, and Ye's political career under Mao was effectively over.

However, Mao did not forget what Ye had done for him during the Long March and thus only removed him from political posts while at the same time, retained his military post. As a result, until 1968, Ye would be active in various military functions, including Defense Minister, having been made a marshal in 1955. Ye Jianying was clever in using his military influence and power to provide some limited support and protection for some of the reformers such as Zhao Ziyang, and he was responsible for spoiling assassination attempts on Deng Xiaoping's life during the Cultural Revolution.

He led the conspiracy of generals and Party elders that overthrew Jiang Qing and the Gang of Four, and during the initial discussion of the planning at his residence with Li Xiannian, both communicated by writing even though they sit right next to each other because the possible threat of bugging. He retired as vice-chairman of the Party when the position was abolished in 1982, and left the Politburo in September 1985. He died at 89 in Beijing.

ee also

*List of officers of the People's Liberation Army

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jianying Jinian Bridge — (zh cp|剑英纪念大桥|Jiànyīng Jìniàn Dàqiáo) is a bridge over the Meijiang River in Meizhou prefecture in Guangdong province in southern China …   Wikipedia

  • YE JIANYING — [YE KIEN YING] (1898 1986) C’est à Meixian, un district hakka du Guangdong, que naît Ye Jianying, dans une famille de commerçants; après une instruction scolaire classique, il s’expatrie en Malaisie où il se prépare à une carrière dans les… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Ye Jianying — (1955) Ye Jianying (chinesisch 葉劍英 / 叶剑英 Yè Jiànyīng, W. G. Yeh Chien ying; * 28. April 1897 in Kreis Meixian, Provinz Guangdong; † 22. Oktober 1986 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Lu Jianying — (Chinese: 陸建瀛; Pinyin: ; Wade Giles: ; 1776 ndash; 1853) was the Governor General Viceroy of Liangjiang from early 1849 until early 1853, When the Taiping Rebellion army occupied Nanjing in 19 March, Lu Jianying was killed by Taiping army, Lu was …   Wikipedia

  • Ye Jianying — /yu jyahn ying / 1898 1986, Chinese marshal and Communist leader: defense minister 1971 78. Also, Wade Giles, Yeh Chien ying /yu jyun ying /. * * * ▪ Chinese politician Wade Giles romanization  Yeh Chien ying , original name  Ye Yiwei  born April …   Universalium

  • Ye Jianying — /yu jyahn ying / 1898 1986, Chinese marshal and Communist leader: defense minister 1971 78. Also, Wade Giles, Yeh Chien ying /yu jyun ying / …   Useful english dictionary

  • Mei River — Jianying Jinian Bridge over the river at night The Mei River (Chinese: 梅江; Pinyin: Méi Jiāng) is a river in Meizhou prefecture in the eastern part of the Guangdong province …   Wikipedia

  • Soong Ching-ling — This is a Chinese name; the family name is Soong. Soong Ching ling 宋庆龄 宋慶齡 Head of State of the People s Republic of China In office …   Wikipedia

  • Zhu De — Marshal Zhu De Marshal Zhu De 2nd Chairman of the Standing Committee of the NPC In office April 1959 – July 1976 …   Wikipedia

  • Leadership of the People's Republic of China — The political leadership of the People s Republic of China was in the hands of several offices. Contents 1 CPC Leaders after PRC established 1.1 Chairman of the Central Committee (1945 1982) 1.2 General Secretary of the Central Committee (1982 ) …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.