Near-open central vowel


Near-open central vowel
Near-open central vowel
ɐ
IPA number 324
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɐ
Unicode (hex) U+0250
X-SAMPA 6
Kirshenbaum &"

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The near-open central vowel, or near-low central vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɐ, a rotated lowercase letter ⟨a⟩.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low", and these are the only terms found in introductory textbooks on phonetics such as those by Peter Ladefoged.

Contents

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
ɐ
aɶ
ä
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view
  • Its vowel height is near-open, also known as near-low, which means the tongue is positioned similarly to an open vowel, but is slightly more constricted – that is, the tongue is positioned similarly to a low vowel, but slightly higher.
  • Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
  • Its vowel roundedness may be rounded or unrounded. If precision is desired, the symbol for the open-mid central unrounded vowel may be used with a lowering diacritic, for the unrounded near-open central vowel, [ɜ̞], and the symbol for the open-mid central rounded vowel with a lowering diacritic may be used for the rounded near-open central vowel, [ɞ̞].

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Standard[1] قطة [qitˤːɐ] 'cat' Allophone of long and short /a/ before a word boundary. See Arabic phonology
Bulgarian ъгъл [ˈɤɡɐɫ] 'angle' See Bulgarian language
Chinese Cantonese /sam1 [sɐm˥] 'heart' See Cantonese phonology
Danish spiser [ˈsb̥iˀsɐ] 'eat(s)' (present) See Danish phonology
English California[2] nut [nɐt] 'nut' ⟨ʌ⟩ may be used to transcribe this vowel as it corresponds to /ʌ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
RP[3]
Inland North America bet [bɐt] 'bet' Variation of /ɛ/ used in some places whose accents have undergone the Northern cities vowel shift.
German Ober [ˈoːbɐ] 'waiter' Reduced vowel. See German phonology
Korean [pɐl] 'foot' ⟨a⟩ may be used to transcribe this vowel. See Korean phonology
Portuguese Brazilian[4] fama [ˈfəmɐ] 'fame' Stressed vowel and reduced vowel. In European Portuguese it may be closer to a mid vowel.[5] See Portuguese phonology
Russian[6] голова [ɡəɫɐˈva] 'head' Occurs mostly immediately before stressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Tadaksahak [nɐ] 'to give'
Vietnamese ăn [ɐn] 'to eat' See Vietnamese phonology

See also

Notes

References


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