Open-mid central rounded vowel


Open-mid central rounded vowel
Open-mid central rounded vowel
ɞ
IPA number 395
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɞ
Unicode (hex) U+025E
X-SAMPA 3\
Kirshenbaum O"
Sound

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The open-mid central rounded vowel, or low-mid central rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɞ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is 3\. The symbol is called closed reversed epsilon.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low", and these are the only terms found in introductory textbooks on phonetics such as those by Peter Ladefoged.

Due to either typographic or design error, IPA charts were published with this vowel transcribed as a closed epsilon, ⟨ʚ⟩, and this graphic variant made its way into Unicode as U+029A ʚ latin small letter closed open e. The form ⟨ɞ⟩ (U+025E ɞ latin small letter closed reversed open e) is considered correct.

Contents

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ä
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view
  • Its vowel height is open-mid, also known as low-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between an open vowel (a low vowel) and a mid vowel.
  • Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
  • Its vowel roundedness is rounded, which means that the lips are rounded rather than relaxed or spread.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Irish tomhail [tɞ̜ːlʲ] 'consume!' See Irish phonology
English[citation needed] some Southern American dialects good [ɡɞd] 'good' Corresponds to /ʊ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Kashubian ptôch [ptɞx] 'bird'
Navajo[1] tsosts’id [tsʰɞstsʼɪt] 'seven' See Navajo phonology
Somali keenaysaa [keːnɞjsɑː] 3rd.fsg.PROG-bring See Somali phonology

Notes

  1. ^ McDonough, Ladefoged & George (1993). Note that the authors gave a narrow transcription of [ɵ], though at the time the IPA had only this one symbol for a mid central rounded vowel, and it is clear from the discussion and formant charts that this vowel a centralized open mid vowel.

Bibliography

  • McDonough, Joyce; Ladefoged, Peter; George, Helen (1993), "Navajo Vowels and Phonetic Universal Tendencies", UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, Fieldwork Studies of Targeted Languages 84: 143–150 

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