Close back unrounded vowel


Close back unrounded vowel
Close back unrounded vowel
ɯ
IPA number 316
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɯ
Unicode (hex) U+026F
X-SAMPA M
Kirshenbaum u-
Sound

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The close back unrounded vowel, or high back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɯ. Typographically a turned letter m, given its relation to the sound represented by the letter u it can be considered a u with an extra "bowl". The sound is sometimes referred to as "unrounded u".

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low", and these are the only terms found in introductory textbooks on phonetics such as those by Peter Ladefoged.

Contents

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ä
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view
  • Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel roundedness is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Alekano hanuva [hɑnɯβɑ] 'nothing'
Azeri qırx [ɡɯrx] 'forty'
Bashkir ҡыҙ [qɯð] 'girl'
Chinese Wu [vɯ] 'father'
Min Nan [tɯ] 'pig'
Crimean Tatar canım [dʒanɯm] 'please'
Irish Ulster caol [kʰɯːl̪ˠ] 'narrow' See Irish phonology
Korean[1] () / geum [kɯm] 'gold' See Korean phonology
Kyrgyz кыз [qɯz] 'girl'
Ongota [kuˈbuːɯ] 'dry'
Portuguese[2] European pegar [pɯ̟ˈɣaɾ] 'to take' Occurs in unstressed syllables. More commonly transcribed as /ɨ/. See Portuguese phonology
Sakha тыл [tɯl] 'tongue'
Scottish Gaelic caol [kʰɯːl̪ˠ] 'thin' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Sundanese meunang [mɯnaŋ] 'get'
Thai[3] ขึ้น[4] [kʰɯn˥˩] 'to go up'
Turkish ılık [ɯˈɫɯk] 'warm' See Turkish phonology
Vietnamese tư [tɯ] 'fourth' See Vietnamese phonology

The symbol ⟨ɯ⟩ is sometimes used for Japanese /u/, but that sound is rounded, albeit with labial compression rather than protrusion. It is more accurately described as an exolabial close back vowel.

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association:A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–123, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Tingsabadh, M.R. Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993), "Thai", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (1): 24–26, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746 

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