Gilgal


Gilgal
This article is about the Biblical place. For the kibbutz and Israeli settlement, see Gilgal, Bik'at HaYarden. For the ancient village and Neolithic archaeological site see Gilgal I.

Gilgal is a place name mentioned by the Hebrew Bible. It is a matter of debate how many of the places named Gilgal are identical.

Contents

The Gilgal associated peacefully with Joshua

The main mention of Gilgal is when the Book of Joshua states that the Israelites first encamped there after having crossed the Jordan River. In the narrative, after setting up camp, Joshua orders the Israelites to take twelve stones from the river, one for each tribe, and place them there in memory. Some modern scholars have argued that this is an aetiological myth created by the author of Joshua to explain away what is in reality a neolithic stone circle.[1]

According to the biblical narrative, Joshua then orders the Israelites who had been born during the exodus to be circumcised. The Bible refers to the location this occurred as Gibeath Haaraloth; some English translations of the Bible identify Gibeath Haaraloth as the name of the place. However, since the place is elsewhere identified as still being Gilgal, and since Gibeath Haaraloth means hill of foreskins, some scholars now think this is simply a description, and some modern translations follow their lead.

The narrative continues by stating that the place was named Gilgal in memory of the reproach of Egypt being removed by this act of mass circumcision. Although Gilgal is phonetically similar to gallothi, meaning I have removed in Hebrew, some believe that it is more likely that Gilgal means circle of standing stones, and refers to the stone circle that was there.

Some textual scholars see the circumcision explanation, and the 12 stones explanation, as having come from different source texts; the circumcision explanation being a way to explain how the location was regarded as religiously important in local culture, without mentioning the presence of a religious monument (the stone circle) whose existence might have offended the author's religious sensibilities. It is considered by some that this stone circle was the (unnamed) religious sanctuary that was severely condemned by the Book of Amos (Amos 4:4, 5:5) and Book of Hosea (Hosea 4:15)[2]

This Gilgal is said to have been on the eastern border of Jericho (Joshua 4:19). It has been identified with Khirbet en-Nitleh, but today scholars regard Khirbet El Mafjir as the more probable identification. Khirbet El Mafjir is located 2 km northeast of ancient Jericho.

The Gilgal associated violently with Joshua

A Gilgal is also mentioned in a list of conquests under the leadership of Joshua (Joshua 12:7). There are scholars who believe that this is not the same location as the one where the Israelites had encamped. Some scholars believe that this may be the result of a scribal error, and instead should really refer to Galilee. It may also have been the place marked by the modern village Jiljulieh, southwest of Antipatris, and northeast of Joppa. But another Gilgal, under the slightly different form of Kilkilieh, lies about two miles east of Antipatris.

The Gilgal associated with Elijah and Elisha

In the Books of Kings, a Gilgal is mentioned that was said to have been home to a group of prophets. The text states that Elijah and Elisha came from here when they went down to Bethel from Gilgal (2 Kings 2:1-2); suggesting that the place was in the vicinity of Bethel, and hence in a mountainous region, which is somewhat different from the place associated with Joshua. Since Gilgal literally means circle of standing stones, it is quite plausible for there to have been more than one place named Gilgal, and although there are dissenting opinions, it is commonly held to be a different place to the one involved with Joshua; it has been identified with the village Jiljilia, about 11 km north of Bethel. It is significant that the Books of Kings treat it as a place of holiness, suggesting that stone circles still had a positive religious value at the time the source text of the passages in question was written, rather than having been condemned as heathen by religious reforms.

It is not different than Joshua, he locates it near Bethel as does Chronicles.

The Gilgal mentioned by Deuteronomy

It may have been the Gilgal of Elijah and Elisha, or yet another Gilgal, that is mentioned in Deuteronomy 11:29-30 as having Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal in front of it. Its location is significant since it helps fix the position of these religiously significant hills.

The Gilgal associated with Samuel

A place named Gilgal is mentioned by the Books of Samuel as having been included in Samuel's annual circuit, and as the location where he offered sacrifices after Saul was anointed as king, and where he renewed Saul's kingship together with the people (1 Samuel chapters 7 and 11). Again it is possible for this to simply be yet another circle of standing stones (or the same one as mentioned in relation to Elijah and Elisha, as Bethel is on the circuit with Gilgal, and other assumed locations show Gilgal to be far further away than the other two locations), and significant that it is treated as a holy place by the biblical text, rather than as a heathen one.

It is also the place where Samuel hewed King Agag in pieces as Saul refused to obey the Word of the Lord and utterly destroy the Amalekites (1 Samuel 15: 32, 33)

Haman, spoken of in Esther chapter 3 verse 1, is a descendant (son of Hammedatha the Agagite) of the king Samuel hewed in pieces, hence his antisemitism.

The Gilgal associated with Heaven

The place of Gilgal is a figurative location given to the place of rest to all of Israel, which can include both physical and spiritual Israel. As mentioned in Joshua 10:43, this text is analogous to the 144,000 from the twelve tribes of Israel. These are they that fight along with the Lord upon his return. After slaying all of sinful humanity in the last battle, all of God's remaining children return to Gilgal for eternal rest.

Notes

  1. ^ Israel Finkelstein, The Bible Unearthed
  2. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia, Book of Joshua; Gilgal

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • GILGAL — (Heb. גִּלְגָּל), name indicating an ancient sacred site on which a circle of large stones was erected. Gilgalim ( circles ) were constructed in Canaan from very early times; the Bible mentions several places called Gilgal which were named after… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • GILGAL — Sanctuaire israélite que les traditions bibliques situent à l’est de Jéricho, dans la vallée du Jourdain. Les traditions du livre de Josué rattachent le Gilgal au passage du Jourdain et à l’entrée des Israélites en Canaan (Jos., IV et V); ce lieu …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Gilgal — bezeichnet: Gilgal (Bibel), mehrere Orte in der Bibel Gilgal I, ein archäologischer Fundplatz im Jordantal Gilgal (Westjordanland), eine israelische Siedlung im Westjordanland Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Gilgal — (a. Geogr.), 1) Ort in Kanaan, zwischen [355] Jordan u. Jericho, dabei der erste Lagerplatz der Israeliten nach ihrem Einrücken; es gehörte später zum Stamm Benjamin; hier stand Anfangs die Stiftshütte u. hier wurde Saul zum König gesalbt; später …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Gilgal — (»Kreis«, »Steinkreis«), Ort in Palästina, zwischen dem Jordan und Jericho, war der erste Lagerplatz der einrückenden Israeliten; wahrscheinlich auch der Ort, wo Saul zum König gesalbt wurde. Heute heißt es Tell Dscheldschul …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Gilgal —    Rolling.    1) From the solemn transaction of the reading of the law in the valley of Shechem between Ebal and Gerizim the Israelites moved forward to Gilgal, and there made a permanent camp (Josh. 9:6; 10:6). It was beside the oaks of Moreh,… …   Easton's Bible Dictionary

  • Gilgal — /gil gal/, n. the name of several places in ancient Palestine, esp. a site near Jericho where the Israelites encamped after crossing the Jordan. Josh. 4:19 24. * * * …   Universalium

  • Gilgal — noun Site of Joshuas encampment before the siege of Jericho …   Wiktionary

  • Gilgal — Gịlgal   [hebräisch »Kreis«],    1) ursprünglich wohl Bezeichnung für vorgeschichtliche, kultischen Zwecken dienende Steinkreise in Palästina.    2) in der Vulgata Gạlgala, altisraelitisches Heiligtum nordöstlich von Jericho und Mittelpunkt des …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Gilgal — The site of the Israelite headquarters as they entered Canaan (Josh. 4:19) and later a centre of syncretistic [[➝ syncretism]] worship condemned by Amos (4:4; 5:5) and Hosea (4:15) …   Dictionary of the Bible


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