- Thomas Andrews (scientist)
name = Thomas Andrews
birth_date = birth date|1813|12|19|mf=y
death_date = death date and age|1885|11|26|1813|12|19|mf=y
occupation = chemist and physicist
He was born in
Belfast, Northern Irelandwhere his father was a linen merchant. He attended the Belfast Academyand the Royal Belfast Academical Institution. In 1828 he went to the University of Glasgowto study chemistryunder Professor Thomas Thomson, then studied at Trinity College, Dublin, where he gained distinction in classicsas well as in science. Finally, at University of Edinburghin 1835 he was awarded a doctorate in medicine.
Andrews began a successful medical practice in his native Belfast in 1835, also giving instruction in chemistry at the Academical Institution. In 1845 he was appointed vice-president of the newly established
Queen's University of Belfast, and professor of chemistry there. He held these two offices until his retirement in 1879 at age 66.
Andrews first became known as a scientific investigator with his work on the heat developed in chemical actions, for which the
Royal Societyawarded him a Royal Medalin 1844. Another important investigation, undertaken in collaboration with Peter Guthrie Tait, was devoted to ozone.
The work on which his reputation mainly rests, and which best displayed his experimental skill and resourcefulness, was concerned with the
liquefactionof gases. In the 1860s he carried out a very complete inquiry into the gas lawsexpressing the relations of pressure, temperatureand volumein carbon dioxide. In particular he established the concepts of critical temperatureand critical pressure, showing that the gas passes from the gaseousto the liquid state without any breach of continuity.
In Andrews' experiments on phase transitions, he showed that carbon dioxide may be carried from any of the states which we usually call liquid to any of those which we usually call gas, without losing its homogeneity. These results were cited by the mathematical physicist
Willard Gibbsin support of the Gibbs free energyequation. They also set off a race among researchers to liquify various other gases. In 1877-78 Louis Paul Cailletetwas the first to liquefy oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen.
His scientific papers were published in a collected form in 1889, with a memoir by Professors Tait and Crum Brown.
*Thomas Andrews, "The Bakerian Lecture: On the Continuity of the Gaseous and Liquid States of Matter", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. 159 (1869), pp. 575-590.
* cite encyclopedia
last = Scott
first = E.L.
title = Andrews, Thomas
Dictionary of Scientific Biography
volume = 1
pages = 160-161
publisher = Charles Scribner's Sons
location = New York
year = 1970
isbn = 0684101149
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