- Jean-Marie Le Pen
name = Jean-Marie Le Pen
Member of the European Parliament
term_start2 = 1984
April 10, 2003
June 10, 2004
birth_date = birth date and age|1928|06|20|mf=y
La Trinité-sur-Mer, Brittany, France
party = National Front
spouse = Jeanne-Marie Paschos
children = Three daughters, including
Marine Le Pen
Jean-Marie Le Pen (born
June 20, 1928, La Trinité-sur-Mer, Brittany, France) is a French far-right nationalist politician, founder and president of the Front National (National Front) party. Le Pen has run for the French presidency five times, including in 2002, when in a surprise upset he came second, polling more votes in the first round than the main left candidate, Lionel Jospin, and a large number of the French population started rioting; burning cars, etc. Le Pen lost in the second round to Jacques Chirac. Le Pen again ran in the 2007 French presidential election and finished fourth. His 2007 campaign, at the age of 78, makes him the oldest candidate for presidential office in France.
Le Pen focuses on immigration to France, the
European Union, traditional culture, law and order and France's high rate of unemployment. He advocates immigrationrestrictions, the death penalty, raising incentives for homemakers [cite news | title = Le Pen and his feminine side | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/2011370.stm | date = 2002-05-28| publisher = BBC News | accessdate = 2007-02-07 | first = Clare | last = Murphy ] , and euroscepticism.
Personal life and early career
Le Pen was born in a small seaside village in
Brittany, the son of a fisherman but then orphaned as an adolescent ("pupille de la nation", brought up by the state), when his father's boat was blown up by a mine in 1942. He was raised as a Roman Catholic and studied at the Jesuithigh school François Xavier in Vannes, then in the " lycée" of Lorient.
Aged 16, he was turned down (because of his age) by Colonel Henri de La Vaissière (then representant of the Communist Youth) when he attempted, in November 1944, to join the
French Forces of the Interior(FFI). [ [http://www.lexpress.fr/info/france/elysee_2007/actu.asp?id=10247 Quand Le Pen voulait rejoindre les FFI] , " L'Express", 28 March 2007 fr icon] He then entered the faculty of law in Paris, and started to sell in the street the monarchist " Action française" 's newspaper, "Aspects de la France" [ [http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/histoire/biographies/IVRepublique/le-pen-jean-marie-20061928.asp Assemblée nationale - Les députés de la IVe République : Jean-Marie LE PEN ] ] . He was repeatedly convicted of assault("coups et blessures"). He became president of the "Association corporative des étudiants en droit", an association of law students whose main occupation was to engage in street brawls against the "Cocos" (communists). He was excluded from this organisation in 1951.
After receiving his law diploma, he enlisted in the Army in the Foreign Legion in Indochina, where he arrived after the 1954
Dien Bien Phu Battle(lost by France, and which prompted the President of the Council Pierre Mendès Franceto put an end to the war at the Geneva Conference). He was then sent to Suez (1956), but arrived only after the cease-fire. He was then sent to Algeria (1957) as an intelligence officer. He has been accused of having engaged in torture, but he denied it, although he admitted knowing of its use. After his time in the military, he studied political scienceand lawat Paris II. His graduate thesis, submitted in 1971 by Jean-Marie Le Pen and Jean-Loup Vincent, was titled "Le courant anarchiste en France depuis 1945" or " The anarchist movement in France since 1945".
His marriage (June 29, 1960 - March 18, 1987) to
Pierrette Lalanneresulted in three daughters; their daughters have given him nine granddaughters. Their break-up was somewhat dramatic, with his ex-wife posing nude in the French edition of " Playboy" to ridicule him. Marie-Caroline, another of his daughters, would also break with Le Pen, following her husband to join Bruno Mégret, who split from the FN to found "MNR", the rival "Mouvement National Républicain" (National Republican Movement). The youngest of Le Pen's daughters, Marine Le Pen, is a senior member of the Front National.
In 1977 Le Pen inherited a fortune from Hubert Lambert, son of the
cementindustrialist of the same name. Hubert Lambert was a political supporter of Le Pen, as well as being a monarchist, an alcoholic, and in poor health. Lambert's will provided 30 million francs (approximatively 5 million euros) to LePen, as well as his castle in Montretout, Saint-Cloud(the same castle had been owned by Madame de Pompadouruntil 1748). [http://www.rfi.fr/francais/actu/articles/081/article_45894.asp Le Pen, son univers impitoyable] , " Radio France Internationale", September 1, 2006 fr icon ] .
In the early 1980s, Le Pen's personal security was assured by KO International Company, a subsidiary of VHP Security, a private security firm, and an alleged front organisation for "SAC", the "
Service d'Action Civique" (Civic Action Service), a Gaullist organisation. SAC allegedly employed figures with organized crime backgrounds and from the far-right movement. [http://www.rfi.fr/actufr/articles/072/article_40330.asp Le général croate Gotovina arrêté en Espagne] , RFI, 8 December 2005 fr icon ] [http://www.humanite.fr/journal/2005-12-10/2005-12-10-819689 Le chauffeur de l’homme de la Question] , " L'Humanité", 10 December 2005 fr icon ]
May 31, 1991, Jean-Marie Le Pen married Jeanne-Marie Paschos ("Jany"), of Greek descent. Born in 1933, Paschos was previously married to Belgian businessman Jean Garnier.
Le Pen started his political career as the head of the student union in
Toulouse. In 1953, a year before the beginning of the Algerian War, he contacted President Vincent Auriol, who approved Le Pen's proposed volunteer disaster relief project after a flood in the Netherlands. Within two days, there were 40 volunteers from his university, a group that would later help victims of an earthquake in Italy. In Parisin 1956, he was elected to the National Assembly as a member of Pierre Poujade's UDCA populist party. Le Pen, 28 years old, was the youngest member of the Assembly.
In 1957, he became the General Secretary of the Front National des Combattants (National Front of Combatants), a veteran's organization, as well as the first French politician to nominate a
Muslimcandidate, Ahmed Djebbour, an Algerian, who was elected in 1957 as deputy of Paris. The next year, following his break with Poujade, Le Pen was re-elected to the National Assembly as a member of the Centre National des Indépendants et Paysans (CNIP) party, led by Antoine Pinay. Le Pen claimed that he had lost his left eye when he was savagely beaten during the 1958 election campaign. Testimonies suggest however that he was only wounded in the right eye and did not lose it. He lost the sight in his left eye years later, due to an illness (popular belief that he wears a glass eyeis untrue). During the 1950s, Le Pen took a close interest in the Algerian war(1954-62) and the French defense budget.
Le Pen then directed the 1965 presidential campaign of far-right candidate
Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour, who obtained 5.19% of the votes. He insisted on the rehabilitation of the Collaborationists, declaring that:
"Was General de Gaulle more brave than the Marshall Pétain in the occupied zone? This isn't sure. It was much easier to resist in London than to resist in France."
In 1962, he lost his seat at the Assembly. He created the Serp ("Société d’études et de relations publiques") firm, a company involved in the
music industry, which produced both chorals of the CGTtrade-union or songs of the Popular Front and Nazi marches. The firm was condemned in 1968 for "praise of war crimeand complicity" after the diffusion of songs from the Third Reich.
In 1972, Le Pen founded the Front National (FN) party, along with former OAS member
Jacques Bompard, former Collaborationist Roland Gaucherand others nostalgics of Vichy France, neo-nazi pagans, Catholic fundamentalists, etc. Le Pen presented himself for the first time in the 1974 presidential election, obtaining 0.74%. In 1976, his Parisian flat (he lived at that time in his castle of Montretout in Saint-Cloud) was dynamited. The affair never was elucidated. Le Pen then didn't manage to obtain the 500 signatures from "grand electors" ("grands électeurs", mayors, etc.) necessary to present himself to the 1981 presidential election, won by the candidate of the Socialist Party (PS), François Mitterrand.
Criticizing immigration and taking advantage of the economic crisis striking France, and the world, since the
1973 oil crisis, Le Pen's party managed to increase its votes in the 1980s, starting in the municipal elections of 1983. His popularity has been greatest in the south of France. The FN obtained 10 percent at the 1984 European elections. 34 FN deputies entered the Assembly after the 1986 elections, which were won by the right wing, bringing Jacques Chiracto Matignon in the first cohabitation (that is, of the combination of a right-wing Prime minister, Chirac, with a socialist President, Mitterrand).
In 1984 and 1999, Le Pen won a seat in the
European Parliament. In 1988 he lost a reelection bid for the Parliament of Francein the 8th District of Bouches-du-Rhône. He was defeated in the second round by Socialist Marius Masse [http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/11/tribun/fiches_id/2110.asp] . In 1992 and 1998 he was elected to the regional council of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur.
Le Pen ran in the French presidential elections in 1974, 1988, 1995, 2002 and 2007. He did not run for office in 1981, having failed to gather the necessary 500 signatures of elected officials. In the presidential elections of 2002, Le Pen obtained 16.86 percent of the votes in the first round of voting. This was enough to qualify him for the second round, as a result of the poor showing by the
Socialistcandidate and incumbent prime-minister Lionel Jospinand the scattering of votes among 15 other candidates. This was a major political event, both nationally and internationally, as it was the first time someone with such extremist views had qualified for the second round of the French presidential elections. There was a widespread stirring of national public opinion, and more than one million people in France took part in street rallies; slogans such as "vote for the crook, not the fascist" were heard in an expression of fierce opposition to Le Pen's ideas. Le Pen was then soundly defeated in the second round, when incumbent president Jacques Chirac obtained 82 percent of the votes, thus securing the biggest majority in the history of the Fifth Republic.
In the 2004 regional elections, Le Pen intended to run for office in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region but was prevented from doing so because he did not meet the conditions for being a voter in that region: he neither lived there, nor was registered as a taxpayer there. Le Pen complained of a government plot to prevent him from running. Some argue that this event was merely a scheme of Le Pen's to avoid defeat in the election.Fact|date=November 2007
In recent years, Le Pen has tried to soften his image, with mixed success. He has maneuvered his daughter Marine into a prominent position, a move that angered many inside the National Front, who worry about the emergence of a possible Le Pen family dynasty.
:"See also National Front for a summary of Le Pen's manifesto."
Le Pen remains a polarizing figure in France and opinions regarding him tend to be quite strong. A 2002
IPSOSpoll showed that while 22 percent of the electorate have a good or very good opinion of Le Pen, and 13 percent an unfavorable opinion, 61 percent have a very unfavorable opinion. [ [http://www.ipsos.fr/CanalIpsos/poll/7542.asp Ipsos.fr - LE BAROMETRE DE L'ACTION POLITIQUE - Première partie - suite ] ]
Le Pen and the National Front are described by much of the media and nearly all commentators as
far right. Le Pen himself and the rest of his party disagree with this label; Earlier on in his political career, Le Pen described his position as "Neither left nor right, but French" ("Ni droite, ni gauche, français"). He later described his position as right-wing and opposed to the "socialo- communists" and other right-wing parties, which he deems are not real right-wing parties. At other times, for example during the 2002 election campaign, he declared himself "economically right-wing, socially left-wing, and nationally French". He further contends that most of the French political and media class are corrupt and out of touch with the real needs of the common people, and conspire to exclude Le Pen and his party from mainstream politics. Le Pen criticizes the other political parties as the "establishment" and lumped all major parties (PC, PS, UDF, RPR) into the "Gang of Four" ("la bande des quatre" – an allusion to the Gang of Fourduring China's Cultural Revolution).
The international media often cites Le Pen as a symbol of French
xenophobia. He is also occasionally criticized in French and foreign pop songs. Le Pen has drawn many comparisons to Adolf Hitler's early political career in the international media.
Anti-Semitism, xenophobia and controversial statements
Le Pen has been accused both at home and abroad of xenophobia and
anti-Semitism. These openly verbal criticisms are considered to be unfounded by his supporters, but at several times Le Pen has been convicted for such remarks. when
* Le Pen once made the infamous pun "Durafour-crématoire" ("four crématoire" meaning "crematory oven") about then minister
Michel Durafour, who had said in public a few days before "One must "exterminate" the National Front". [ [http://libresechanges.humanite.fr/article.php3?id_article=326 L'Humanité - Libres Échanges] retrieved May 30 2008] The corpses of the Nazi victims were incinerated in such ovens. [cite news | title = 'The veil? It protects us from ugly women' | url = http://www.guardian.co.uk/france/story/0,11882,690114,00.html | publisher = The Guardian | date = 2002-04-25| accessdate = 2007-02-07 ]
June 21, 1995, he attacked singer Patrick Bruelon his policy of no longer singing in the city of Toulonbecause the city had just elected a mayor from the National Front. Le Pen said "the city of Toulon will then have to get along without the vocalisations of singer Benguigui". Benguigui, a Jewish name, is Bruel's name at birth.
* In 2005, he claimed that the occupation of France by
Nazi Germany"was not particularly inhumane". [ [http://www.lemonde.fr/web/recherche_resumedoc/1,13-0,37-887101,0.html?message=redirection_article Le Monde.fr : Page non trouvée ] ] .
*In June 2006, he claimed that the French World Cup squad contained too many non-white players, and was not an accurate reflection of French society. He went on to scold players for not singing
La Marseillaise, saying they were not 'French'. [cite news | url = http://football.guardian.co.uk/worldcup2006/story/0,,1809453,00.html | title = We are Frenchmen says Thuram, as Le Pen bemoans number of black players | first = Dominic | last = Fifield | date = 2006-06-30| publisher = The Guardian | accessdate = 2007-02-07 [http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,2073351,00.html]
* In the 2007 election campaign, he referred to fellow candidate
Nicolas Sarkozyas 'foreign' or 'the foreigner' due to Sarkozy's Hungarian heritage. [ [http://www.economist.com/blogs/certainideasofeurope/2007/04/le_pen_rides_to_sarkozys_rescu.cfm Le Pen rides to Sarkozy's rescue? | Certain ideas of Europe | Economist.com ] ]
His supporters stressed on the other hand that his close team includes people of various ethnic or religious origins, Jews like Jean-Pierre Cohen, of North African origin as Farid Smahi, or Caribbean as Huguette Fatna. They also argue that part of the Jewish community in France would come close to its ideas, feeling a pressure of anti-Semitism in France whose responsibility would mostly attributed to Muslim immigration as Jean-Marie Le Pen considers responsible for many problems in France and in Europe. In fact, Jean-Marie Le Pen would have gradually lost his left eye following a traumatic cataract, resulting from a fight during an election on March 28, 1958, where he defended Djebbour Ahmed, a French Algerian.
Prosecution concerning historical revisionism & Holocaust denial
Le Pen has made several provocative statements concerning the Holocaust, which amount to historical revisionism. Thus, on
September 13, 1987he said: "I ask myself several questions. I'm not saying the gas chambers didn't exist. I haven't seen them myself. I haven't particularly studied the question. But I believe it's just a detail in the history of World War II." He was condemned to pay 1.2 million Francs (183,200 Euros). [cite news| title = Jean-Marie Le Pen renvoyé devant la justice pour ses propos sur l'Occupation | publisher = Le Monde| url = http://www.lemonde.fr/web/article/0,1-0@2-3224,36-794895@51-776560,0.html/ | date = 2006-07-13] In 1997, the European Parliament, of which Le Pen was then a member, removed his parliamentary immunityso that Le Pen could be tried by a German court for comments he made at a December 1996 press conference before the German Republikaner party. Le Pen stated there that: "If you take a 1,000-page book on World War II, the concentration camps take up only two pages and the gas chambers 10 to 15 lines. This is what one calls a detail." Le Pen had made a similar statement in France in 1987, which also caused him to be condemned in virtue of the Gayssot Acton negationism. In June 1999, a Munichcourt found this statement to be "minimizing the Holocaust, which caused the deaths of six million Jews," and convicted and fined Le Pen for his remarks. [ name = "LePen-fine"] [ name = "LePen-gas"]
Prosecution, allegations of torture and association with militarists
In April 2000 Le Pen was suspended from the
European Parliamentfollowing prosecution for the physical assaultof Socialist candidate Annette Peulvast-Bergeal during the 1997 general election. This ultimately led to him losing his seat in the European parliament in 2003.
Le Pen allegedly practiced
tortureduring the Algerian War(1954-62), when he was a lieutenant in the French Army. Although he denied it, he lost a trial when he attacked " Le Monde" newspaper on charges of defamation, following accusations by the newspaper that he had used torture. "Le Monde" has produced in May 2003 the daggerhe allegedly used to commit war crimes as court evidence. [ [http://www.lemonde.fr/cgi-bin/ACHATS/acheter.cgi?offre=ARCHIVES&type_item=ART_ARCH_30J&objet_id=804499 L'affaire du poignard du lieutenant Le Pen en Algérie] , " Le Monde", May 17, 2003 fr icon ]
Although war crimes committed during the Algerian War are amnestied in France, this was publicised by the
newspapers " Le Canard Enchaîné" and " Libération", "Le Monde" and by Michel Rocard(ex-Prime Minister) on TV ( TF11993). Le Pen sued the papers and Michel Rocard. This affair ended in 2000 when the "Cour de cassation" (French supreme jurisdiction) concluded that it was legitimate to publish these assertions. However, because of the amnesty and the statute of limitations, there can be no criminal proceedings against Le Pen for the crimes he is alleged to have committed in Algeria. In 1995, Le Pen unsuccessfully sued Jean Dufour, regional counselor of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur( French Communist Party) for the same reason. [ [http://www.algeria-watch.org/fr/article/hist/1954-1962/lepen_torture.htm Le Pen et la torture, l'enquete du "Monde" validée par le tribunal] , " Le Monde", June 28, 2003] [ [http://www.lemonde.fr/cgi-bin/ACHATS/acheter.cgi?offre=ARCHIVES&type_item=ART_ARCH_30J&objet_id=758856 "J'ai croisé Le Pen à la villa Sésini" (I crossed Le Pen in the Sesini Villa)] , interview with Paul Aussaresses(whom had argued in favor of the use of torture in Algeria), "Le Monde", June 4, 2002] [ [http://www.lemonde.fr/cgi-bin/ACHATS/acheter.cgi?offre=ARCHIVES&type_item=ART_ARCH_30J&objet_id=754007 "Un lourd silence"] , "Le Monde", May 5, 2002] [ [http://www.humanite.fr/journal/2002-05-02/2002-05-02-33187 "Quand Le Pen travaillait 20 heures par jour"] in " L'Humanité" (freely accessible), May 2, 2002] [ [http://www.humanite.fr/journal/2002-06-04/2002-06-04-34925 "New Revelations on Le Pen, tortionary"] in " L'Humanité", June 4, 2002] [ [http://www.humanite.fr/journal/1995-04-04/1995-04-04-722345 "Le Pen attaque un élu du PCF en justice"] , in " L'Humanité", April 4, 1995] [ [http://www.humanite.fr/journal/1995-07-26/1995-07-26-730510 Jean Dufour: "Le Pen vient d'être débouté"] , in " L'Humanité", July 26, 1995] [ [http://www.humanite.fr/journal/2003-06-27/2003-06-27-374693 "Torture: Le Pen perd son procès en diffamation contre Le Monde"] , in " L'Humanité", June 27, 2003]
Le Pen has also been criticized for ties to suspect individuals, such as:
Roger Holeindre, a member of the political bureau of the Front Nationaland a former member of the " Organisation armée secrète" (OAS), a movement against Algerian independence. However, Holeindre was also an anti-Nazi resister during the Second World War [René Monzat, "Enquêtes sur la droite extrême", 1992 [http://books.google.fr/books?id=vPUqAAAAIAAJ&q=%22Roger+Holeindre%22+r%C3%A9sistant&dq=%22Roger+Holeindre%22+r%C3%A9sistant&pgis=1] .] Verify credibility|date=September 2007
Roland Gaucher, a co-founder of the National Front in 1972 who was also a former RNP member.
Comments on the Right
Some of Le Pen's statements led other far-right groups, such as the
Austrian Freedom Party, [ Bruce Crumleyin " Time International" magazine, (6/5/02) writes: "Denunciations of Jean-Marie Le Pen and his xenophobic National Front (FN) as racist, anti-Semitic and hostile to minorities and foreigners aren't exactly new. More novel, however, are such condemnations coming from far-right movements like the Austrian Freedom Party(FPO), which itself won international opprobrium in 1999 after entering government on a populist platform similar to Le Pen's."] and some National Front supporters to distance themselves from him. Bruno Mégretleft the National Front to found his own party (the National Republican Movement, MNR), claiming that Le Pen kept the Front away from the possibility of gaining power. Mégret wanted to emulate Gianfranco Fini's success in Italy by making it possible for right-wing parties to ally themselves with the Front, but claimed that Le Pen's attitude and outrageous speech prevented this. Le Pen's daughter Marine leads an internal movement of the Front that wants to "normalize" the National Front, "de- enclave" it, have a "culture of government" etc.; however, relations with Le Pen and other supporters of the hard line are complex. [ "( Le Canard Enchaîné, March 9, 2005" ] Over the years, Le Pen gained widespread popularity among neo-Nazisand white nationaliststhroughout Europeand North America.
As Le Pen, like many other European nationalists in recent years, has made statements highly critical of American foreign policy and culture, he has received notice from American conservatives. Controversial author
Ann Coultercalled him an anti-American adulterer but said his anti-immigration, anti-Muslim message "finally hit a nerve with voters" after years of irrelevance. [cite news | url = http://www.jewishworldreview.com/cols/coulter050202.asp | title = French voters tentatively reject dynamiting Notre Dame | author = Coulter, Ann | publisher = Jewish World Review| date = 2002-05-02| accessdate = 2007-02-07 ] Paleoconservativecommentator Pat Buchanancontends that even though Le Pen "made radical and foolish statements," the EU violated his right to freedom of speech.cite news | title = True Fascists of the New Europe | url = http://www.theamericancause.org/pattruefascists.htm | author = Buchanan, Pat | publisher = The American Cause| date = 2002-04-30| accessdate = 2007-02-07 ] He wrote:
As it is often the criminal himself who is first to cry, "Thief!" so it is usually those who scream, "Fascist!" loudest who are the quickest to resort to anti-democratic tactics. Today, the greatest threat to the freedom and independence of the nations of Europe comes not from Le Pen and that 17% of French men and women who voted for him. It comes from an intolerant European Establishment that will accept no rollback of its powers or privileges, nor any reversal of policies it deems "progressive".He has also been fiercely criticized by the far-right Jewish group
Jewish Task Force. [ [http://www.jtf.org/america/america.french.nazis.htm Jewish Task Force (JTF.ORG): French Nazis Vs. French Right-Wingers ] ]
European Reform Treaty
Le Pen has been a vocal critic of the European Reform Treaty (formally known as the
Treaty of Lisbon) which is due to be ratified by EU member states before January 1st, 2009. In October 2007, Le Pen has suggested that he will personally visit the Republic of Ireland to assist the "No" campaign but finally changed his mind fearing that his presence would be used against the supporters of the NO vote. Ireland finally refused to ratify the treaty. Ireland is the only EU country which had a citizen referendum whereas all other EU states ratified the treaty by parliament, including France despite a previous citizen referendum where french voters clearly showed they were against the content of the European Reform Treaty by over 55%.
After the Irish "No" vote, Le Pen addressed French President Nicolas Sarkozy, accusing him of furthering the agenda of a cabal of international finance and "free market fanatics."
Politics of France
History of far right movements in France
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K7qTyvYNe8k Le Pen on Al Jazeera English's Riz Khan show]
* [http://www.lepen2007.fr Official 2007 Campaign site]
* [http://www.fyifrance.com/fnind.htm FYI France, "The Front National" (extensive bibliography, works in English & French & other)]
* [http://www.ldainfos.com/politique/presidentielle_2002/le_pen.htm Jean-Marie Le Pen, biography and the French election in 2002 in French]
* [http://www.lepenblog.com Jean Marie Le Pen] - Blog
* [http://www.fpp.co.uk/online/02/04/Haaretz_LePen.html 2002 interview with Le Pen]
* [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/841445.html Jews for Le Pen]
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