- Panait Istrati
Panait (sometimes rendered as Panaït) Istrati (
August 10 1884— April 18 1935) was a Romanian writer of French and Romanian expression, nicknamed "The Maxim Gorkyof the Balkans". Istrati was first noted for the depiction of one homosexual character in his work.
Brăila, Istrati was the son of the laundress Joiţa Istrate and of a Greek smuggler(Panait never met him).
He studied in primary school for six years in
Baldovineşti, after being held back twice. He then earned his living as an apprenticeto a tavern-keeper, then as a pastry cook and peddler. In the meantime, he was a prolific reader.
His first attempts at writing date from around 1907, when he started sending pieces to the socialist periodicals in Romania - debuting with the article "Hotel Regina" in "
România Muncitoare". Here, he later published his very first short stories - "Mântuitorul" ("The Redeemer"), "Calul lui Bălan" ("Bălan's Horse"), "Familia noastră" ("Our Family"), "1 Mai" (" May Day"). He also contributed pieces to other leftist newspapers such as " Dimineaţa", " Adevărul", and "Viaţa Socială".
In 1910, he was involved in organizing a
strike actionin Brăila. He went to Bucharest, Istanbul, Cairo, Naples, Paris(1913-1914), and Switzerland(were he settled for a while, trying to cure his tuberculosis); Istrati's travels were marked by two successive unhappy marriages, a brief return to Romania in 1915, when he tried to earn his living as a hog farmer, and long periods of vagabondage.
While in the
sanatorium, Istrati met Russian Jewish-Swiss Zionist writer Josué Jéhouda, who became his friend and French language tutor.
Living in misery, ill and depressed, he attempted
suicidein 1921 on his way to Nice, but his life was rescued in time. Shortly before the attempt, he had written to the French writer he admired most, Romain Rolland, with whom he had tried to get in touch for long. Rolland received the letter through the Police, and immediately replied to this letter. In 1923 Istrati's story "Kyra Kyralina" (or "Chira Chiralina") was published (with a prefaceby Rolland). It became the first in his "Adrien Zograffi" literary cycle. Rolland was fascinated with Istrati's adventurous life, urging him to write more, and publishing part of his works in the magazinehe and Henri Barbusseowned, "Clarté". The next major work by Istrati was his "Codine" novel.
Istrati and Communism
Istrati shared the leftist ideals of Rolland, and, as much as his
mentor, placed his hopes in the Bolshevikvision. In 1927 he visited the Soviet Unionon the anniversary of the October Revolution, accompanied by Christian Rakovskyduring the first stage of the journey (Rakovsky was Soviet ambassadorto Paris, and by then already falling out of favor with Joseph Stalin). He travelled through large sections of the European part, witnessing celebrations in Moscowand Kyiv. He was joined in Moscow by his future close friend, Nikos Kazantzakis; while in the city, Panait Istrati met Victor Sergeand expressed his wish to become a citizen of the Soviet Union. He and Kazantzakis wrote Stalin a congratulatory letter that remained unanswered.
In 1928-29, after a tumultuous stay in
Greece(were he was engaged in fights with the police and invited to leave the country), he went again to the Soviet Union. Through extended visits in more remote places such as the Moldavian ASSR(were he got in touch with his friend Ecaterina Arbore), Nizhny Novgorod, Bakuand Batumi, Istrati learned the full truth of Joseph Stalin's communist dictatorship, out of which experience he wrote his famous book, "The Confession of a Loser", the first in the succession of disenchantments expressed by intellectuals such as Arthur Koestler, André Gideand George Orwell. Istrati dealt with the mounting persecution of Old Bolsheviksand the gradual victimization of whole population groups. His views were also harshly made clear in a two letters he sent to the GPU leadership in December 1928.
Thereafter, he suffered a crisis of conscience mainly due to being branded a "
Trotskyist" or even a " Fascist" by his former communist friends, the most violent of which proved to be Henri Barbusse. Rolland had praised Istrati's letters to the GPU, but he nonetheless chose to stay clear of the controversy. Istrati came back to Romania ill and demoralised, was treated for tuberculosis in Nice, then returned to Bucharest.
In fact, the political opinions Istrati expressed after his split with Bolshevism are rather ambiguous. He was still closely watched by the Romanian
secret police(" Siguranţa Statului"), and he had written an article (dated April 8 1933) in the French magazine "Les Nouvelles Littéraires", aptly titled "L'homme qui n'adhère à rien" ("The man who will adhere to nothing").
At the same time, Istrati started publishing in "
Cruciada Românismului" ("The Crusadeof Romanianism"), the voice of a left-leaning splinter group of the ultra- nationalist Iron Guard. As such, Istrati became associated with the group's leader Mihai Stelescu, who had been elected as a member of Parliament for the Iron Guard in 1933 and whose dissidencewas the reason for his brutal assassinationby the Decemviri later in the same year; Istrati was himself assaulted several times by the Guard's squads.
Isolated and unprotected, Panait Istrati died at Filaret Sanatorium in Bucharest. He was buried in
"Adrien Zograffi's Accounts"
*"Kyra Kyralina" (or "Chira Chiralina"; also translated under the title "Kyra My Sister")
*"The Haiduks" (or "The Bandits")
*"Presentation of the Haiduks" (or "Presentation of the Bandits")
*"Domnitza de Snagov"
"Adrien Zograffi's Childhood"
*"Codine" (or "Codin", "Kodin")
*"Michael" (or "Mikhaïl")
"Adrien Zograffi's Life"
*"The Thüringer House"
*"Le Bureau de Placement"
*"The Perlmutter Family"
*"Nerantula" (or "Neranţula", "Nerantsoula", "Nerrantsoula")
*"The Thistles of the Bărăgan" (or "Ciulinii Bărăganului")
*"To the Other Flame" and "The Confession of a Loser" (published also as "Russia unveiled: 1927-1930")
While in the Soviet Union, Istrati wrote a
screenplaybased on his own work - "The Bandits", a project that was never completed.
"Kira Kiralina" was filmed in 1927 as a Soviet
silent film. The novel was filmed for a second time in 1993, as a Romanian-Hungarian production directed by Gyula Maár. There is also a 1958 Franco-Romanian film, " Ciulinii Bărăganului", and "Codine" ("Codin"), a Franco-Romanian co-production of 1962.
:"All right, I can see the broken eggs. Where's this
omeletteof yours?" - When he asked about the brutal outcome of social experiments in the Soviet Union, he was told that "in order to make an omelette, you must break some eggs".
:"I would still tie my faith to the faith of the Jewish people, I would still make its struggle for justice my own, for this is the struggle of all those who are persecuted across this Earth...":"Because the kindness of a single human is more powerful than the meanness of a thousand; the evil extinguishes together with the one who provoked it; the good continues to beam after the disappearance of the just." (in "Kyra Kyralina")
:"Trotsky" [...] "is the gold reserve of the Russian revolution. Without this reserve, I really cannot tell how there will be any revolutionary progress throughout Russia and the world. That would already be the trampling, the sinking..." (in an interview)
:"A flame, just like a thousand others, has now been extinguished, in a vast land rich in hopes. Nothing is to be found in that land," [sic] "but the chilling wind of egotism," [sic] "that freezes life.":"But it is still the land which gives birth to the most beautiful of flames that warm mankind. Through this, it is sacred and with a long future ahead of it.":"Let us help it open its generous inner parts to our souls thirsty for the good and the beautiful.": "LET US HEAD FOR THAT OTHER FLAME." (in "To the Other Flame")
:"And while I am watching, out here on the confines of
bourgeoisEurope, the spectacle of workers who are fleeing workers' Russia, and who are machine-gunned down, followed all the way in front of the Romanian border patrols, finished on the spot and sometimes recaptured by GPU “proletarians” and forcedly brought back to the “worker's motherland”, while I am watching, I say, this system of “organizing” the new world, allow me to love and hate people in a way that is different from yours.":"Also, allow me to linger in my “personal resentments” and continue to “narrate” them to the world, fighting alone, under the standard of “the man who will adhere to nothing”. These are, you say, “old trifles (for they are old, old!)” you add in brackets.":"Yes, “old, old...” and forever true! Unfortunately." (in "L'homme qui n'adhère à rien")
Critical works on Istrati
*Roger Dadoun, "Panait Istrati", L'Arc, Aix-en-Provence, 1983.
*Elisabeth Geblesco, "Panaït Istrati et la métaphore paternelle", Anthropos, Paris, 1989, ISBN 2-7178-1665-8
*Mircea Iorgulescu, "Panaït Istrati", Oxus Éditions, collection "Les Roumains de Paris", Paris, 2004, ISBN 2-8489-8037-0
*Monique Jutrin-Klener, "Panaït Istrati: un chardon déraciné: écrivain français, conteur roumain", Éditeur F. Maspero, Paris, 1970
*Monique Jutrin-Klener, Hélène Lenz, Daniel Lérault, Martha Popovici, Élisabeth Rossi, Catherine Rossi, Jeanne-Marie Santraud, "Les haïdoucs dans l'œuvre de Panaït Istrati : l'insoumission des vaincus",
L'Harmattan, collection "Critiques Littéraires", Paris, 2002, ISBN 2-7475-3199-6
*Édouard Raydon, "Panaït Istrati, vagabond de génie", Les Éditions Municipales, Paris, 1968
*David Seidmann, "L'existence juive dans l'œuvre de Panaït Istrati", Éditions Nizet, Paris, 1984, ISBN 2-7078-1040-1
*imdb name|id=0411588|name=Panait Istrati
*ro icon [http://www.ici.ro/romania/en/cultura/l_istrate.html Short biography]
*it icon [http://www.ecn.org/balkan/0009marxismorakovsky.html Istrati on Christian Rakovsky]
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Panait Istrati — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Panait Istrati Panait Istrati (Brăila, 10 de agosto de 1884 Bucarest, 18 de abril de 1935) fue un escritor rumano que utilizó en su obra principalmente la lengua franc … Wikipedia Español
Panaït Istrati — Panaït Istrati, né à Brăila le 11 août 1884 et mort à Bucarest le 16 avril 1935, est un écrivain roumain de langue française, surnommé le « Gorki des Balkans » … Wikipédia en Français
Panait Istrati — Panaït Istrati Panaït Istrati Panaït Istrati (10 août 1884, Brăila 18 avril 1935, Bucarest) est un écrivain roumain de langue française, surnommé le Gorki des Balkans. S … Wikipédia en Français
Panaït Istrati — Panait Istrati Panait Istrati (* 22. August 1884 in Brăila, Rumänien; † 16. April 1935 in Bukarest) war ein französischsprachiger Schriftsteller rumänischer Herkunft. Seine Mutter war die Wäscherin Joiţa Istrate, sein Vater ein griechischer… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Panait Istrati — (* 22. August 1884 in Brăila, Rumänien; † 16. April 1935 in Bukarest) war ein französischsprachiger Schriftsteller rumänischer Herkunft. Seine Mutter war die Wäscherin Joița Istrate, sein Vater ein griechischer Schmuggler. Er wuchs in dem … Deutsch Wikipedia
Istrati — ist der Familienname von: Alexandre Istrati (1915–1991), rumänisch französischer Maler und Vertreter des Informel Panait Istrati (1884–1935), französischsprachiger Schriftsteller rumänischer Herkunft Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsk … Deutsch Wikipedia
Istrati — [französisch istra ti, rumänisch is trati], 1) Alexandre, französischer Maler rumänischer Herkunft, * Dorohoi 9. 3. 1915, ✝ Paris 28. 10. 1991; lebte seit 1947 in Paris, wo er sich im Umkreis der École de Paris der abstrakten Malerei… … Universal-Lexikon
Istrati — (Panait) (1884 1935) écrivain roumain d expression française. C est à une tradition orientale du récit que se rattache son art de conteur, dépourvu d artifices: la Vie d Adrien Zograffi (cycle romanesque, 1924 1933), Vers l autre flamme… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Ιστράτι, Παναΐτ — (Panait Istrati, Βράιλα 1884 – Βουκουρέστι 1935). Ρουμάνος συγγραφέας ελληνικής καταγωγής, που αναφέρεται και με το ελληνικό του όνομα Γεράσιμος Βαλσάμης. Ο πατέρας του ήταν ο Γεώργιος Βαλσάμης από την Κεφαλονιά και η μητέρα του η Ζωίτσα Ιστράτι… … Dictionary of Greek
Истрати, Панаит — Панаит Истрати, 1927 Панаит Истрати (рум. Panaït Istrati, 10 августа 1884, Браилов … Википедия