- 45th parallel north
The 45th parallel north is a
circle of latitudethat is 45 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. The 45th parallel north is often called the halfway point between the Equatorand the North Pole, but the true halfway point is actually 16.2 kilometers (10.1 miles) north of the 45th parallel because the Earthis oblate, that is, it bulges at the equator and is flattened at the poles. [http://web.archive.org/web/20060502045609/http://www.go.ednet.ns.ca/~mag/files/midway.htm]
Starting at the
Prime Meridianand heading eastwards, the parallel 45° north passes through:
North America, the 45th parallel roughly marks the border between the United Statesand Canadabetween the St. Lawrence and Connecticut rivers (the northern borders of the U.S. states of New Yorkand Vermontwith the Canadian provinceof Quebec), where the parallel is sometimes called the "Canada line". The actual boundary of Vermont lies approximately 1 km (5/8 mi) north of the parallel due to a cartographic error. The boundary here intersects Lake Champlain, which is shared by the two nations, with most of the lake lying in the United States.
The 45th parallel makes up most of the boundary between
Montanaand Wyoming. It also passes through the U.S. states of Oregon, Idaho, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Vermont, New Hampshireand Maineand through the Canadian provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswickand Nova Scotia.
Michigan, the Old Mission Peninsulain Grand Traverse Bayends just shy of the 45th parallel. Many guidebooks and signs at the Mission Point Lighthousedescribe it as being halfway between the equator and north pole. When the Grand Traverse Bayrecedes below normal level, it is possible to walk out to the exact line.
Farther west, the line roughly bisects the
metropolitan areaof Minneapolis-St. Paul. In St. Paul, Larpenteur (which is the word in French meaning "surveyor") Avenue runs along the 45th parallel from the city's eastern to western edge. The center line of east-west Broadway Avenue in Northeast Minneapoliswas deliberately laid out by city planners to be coterminous to the 45th parallel (i.e., if you are standing in the middle of the street, you are literally standing on the parallel line). In the Western United States, the parallel passes through the Great Plainsand Rocky Mountains, intersecting the Pacific coast in Oregon. Throughout the United States the parallel is marked in many places on highways by a sign proclaiming that the location is halfway between the North Pole and the equator.
Cities and communities
The parallel intersects or slightly bypasses:
Gaylord, Michigan, United States
Leland, Michigan, United States
Lincoln City, Oregon, United States
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, and several of its adjacent cities
Salem, Oregon, United States
Keizer, Oregon, United States
*Winchester, Ontario, Canada
Bracebridge, Muskoka, the home of Santa's Village, Ontario, Canada
*Every town along the northern border of
Continuing west, the parallel passes over vast stretches of the North Pacific Ocean before passing through
Rishiri-Rebun-Sarobetsu National Parkon the northern tip of Hokkaidō, the northernmost of Japan's main islands. It continues through the northern part of the Sea of Japan, entering the Asian mainland on the coast of Primorsky Kraiin Russia, north of Vladivostok.
Khanka Lakeit enters northeastern China, passing just south of the city of Harbinin Heilongjiangand continuing through part of Jilinand eastern Inner Mongolia. Transecting southern Mongoliait passes through the provinces of Sükhbaatar, Dornogovi (and its capital Sainshand), Dundgovi, Övörkhangai, Bayankhongor, Govi-Altai, and Khovd. In northwestern China it passes through the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecturein Xinjiangand its oil city of Karamay.
The parallel passes through southern
Kazakhstan, intersecting the city of Burylbaytalat the southern tip of Lake Balkhashand the city of Qyzylordafurther west. At the border with Uzbekistanit bisects the Aral Seaand its toxic Vozrozhdeniya Islandpeninsula, site of an abandoned Soviet bioweaponslaboratory. It skirts the northern edge of the Ustyurt Plateau, entering back into Kazakhstan before cutting across the northern tip of the Caspian Seaand into Europeand Russia.
Europethe 45th parallel stretches between the Caspian Sea coast of the Russian Caucasus in the east and Bay of Biscaycoast of Francein the west. In Russia it runs from the west coast of the Caspian Sea to the east coast of the Black Sea, through the Republic of Kalmykia, Stavropol Kraiand its capital Stavropol, and Krasnodar Kraiand its capital Krasnodar. In Ukraineis crosses the Crimeaand its capital Simferopol.
Further west is passes through the
Balkans: Romania(just north of Ploieşti, and through Târgu Jiu), the Serbian autonomous province of Vojvodina, the eastern tip of Croatia, the northern edge of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and a section of Adriatic Croatia.
Italyit parallels the Po River, passing just south of Turinbefore passing into Francein the Cottian Alps.
In southern France, it crosses the
Rhone Riverjust north of Valence, Drôme. On the A7 autoroute du Soleil it is marked by a Motorway service area named "Aire de Pont de l'Isere/Latitude 45'". It then continues across the Massif Centraland into the Aquitaineregion. The city of Bordeauxis just south of the parallel.
45th parallel south
* [http://www.mnmuseumofthems.org/45th/ The 45th Parallel] at the [http://www.mnmuseumofthems.org/index.html Minnesota Museum of the Mississippi and Other Natural Wonders]
*From the [http://www.go.ednet.ns.ca/~mag/ Minas Astronomy Group] : [http://www.go.ednet.ns.ca/~mag/files/midway.htm Midway from the Equator to the North Pole] dead link|date=January 2008 |url=http://www.go.ednet.ns.ca/~mag/files/midway.htm
* [http://www.confluence.org/ Degree Confluence Project]
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