Maria Mitchell


Maria Mitchell
Maria Mitchell

Maria Mitchell, painting by H. Dasell, 1851
Born August 1, 1818(1818-08-01)
Nantucket, Massachusetts
Died June 28, 1889(1889-06-28) (aged 70)
Lynn, Massachusetts
Nationality United States
Fields Astronomy
Known for First American woman to work as a professional astronomer.

Maria Mitchell (August 1, 1818 – June 28, 1889) was an American astronomer, who in 1847, by using a telescope, discovered a comet which as a result became known as the "Miss Mitchell's Comet". She won a gold medal prize for her discovery which was presented to her by King Frederick VII of Denmark. The medal said “Not in vain do we watch the setting and rising of the stars”. Mitchell was the first American woman to work as a professional astronomer.

One of ten children, she was raised in the Quaker religion.

Contents

Early years

Maria Mitchell was born on August 1, 1818, in Nantucket, Massachusetts, and was a first cousin of four removed of Benjamin Franklin. She had nine brothers and sisters. Her parents, William Mitchell and Lydia Coleman Mitchell, were Quakers. Maria Mitchell was born into a community unusual for its time in regard to equality for women. Her parents, like other Quakers, valued education and insisted on giving her the same quality of education that boys received. The Quaker religion taught, among other things, intellectual equality between the sexes. Additionally, Nantucket's importance as a whaling port meant that wives of sailors were left for months and sometimes years to manage affairs while their husbands were at sea, thus fostering an atmosphere of relative independence and equality for the women who called the island home. In spite of this, the women of Nantucket still lacked the right to own property or to vote, among other things.

After attending Elizabeth Gardener's small school in her earliest childhood years, Maria attended the North Grammar school, where William Mitchell was the first principal. Two years following the founding of that school, when Maria was eleven, her father built his own school on Howard Street. There, she was a student and also a teaching assistant to her father.[1] At home, Maria's father taught her astronomy using his personal telescope.[2] At age twelve and a half, she aided her father in calculating the exact moment of annular eclipse.[3] Her father's school closed, and afterwards she attended Unitarian minister Cyrus Peirce's school for young ladies. Later she worked for Peirce as his teaching assistant before she opened her own school in 1835. One year later, she was offered a job as the first librarian of the Nantucket Atheneum where she worked for eighteen years.

Comet discovery

Maria Mitchell (seated).

Using a telescope, she discovered the "Miss Mitchell's Comet" (Comet 1847 VI, modern designation is C/1847 T1) in the autumn of 1847. Some years previously, King Frederick VI of Denmark had established gold medal prizes to each discoverer of a "telescopic comet" (too faint to be seen with the naked eye). The prize was to be awarded to the "first discoverer" of each such comet (note that comets are often independently discovered by more than one person). She duly won one of these prizes, and this gave her worldwide fame, since the only previous woman to discover a comet had been Caroline Herschel.

There was a temporary question of priority because Francesco de Vico had independently discovered the same comet two days later, but had reported it first; however, this was resolved in Mitchell's favor. The prize was awarded in 1848 by the new king Frederick VII.

Career

She became the first woman member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1848 and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1850. She later worked at the U.S. Nautical Almanac Office, calculating tables of positions of Venus, and traveled in Europe with Nathaniel Hawthorne and his family.

She became professor of astronomy at Vassar College in 1865, the first person (male or female) appointed to the faculty. She was also named as Director of the Vassar College Observatory. After teaching there for some time, she learned that despite her reputation and experience, her salary was less than that of many younger male professors. She insisted on a salary increase, and got it.

Efforts

In 1842, she left the Quaker faith and followed Unitarian principles. In protest against slavery, she stopped wearing clothes made of cotton. She was friends with various suffragists such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton and co-founded the American Association for the Advancement of Women. She was the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and as one of the first women elected to the American Philosophical Society (1869, at this identical meeting Mary Fairfax Somerville and Elizabeth Cabot Carey Agassiz were also elected)[4].

Legacy

Maria Mitchell's telescope, on display in the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History.

She died on June 28, 1889, at the age of 70, in Lynn, Massachusetts. She was buried in Lot 411, Prospect Hill Cemetery, Nantucket.[5] The Maria Mitchell Observatory in Nantucket is named in her honor. The Observatory is part of the Maria Mitchell Association in Nantucket, which aims to preserve the sciences on the Island. It operates a Natural History Museum, Maria Mitchell's Home Museum, and the Science Library as well as the Observatory. She was also posthumously inducted into the U.S. National Women's Hall of Fame. She was the namesake of a World War II Liberty ship, the SS Maria Mitchell. The crater Mitchell on the Moon is named after her. In 1902, the Maria Mitchell Association was founded in her memory.[6] She is also known for her famous quote, "We have a hunger of the mind. We ask for all of the knowledge around us and the more we get, the more we desire."[citation needed]

In 1905, Mitchell was inducted into the Hall of Fame for Great Americans in the Bronx, New York.

References

Maria Mitchell.
  1. ^ Among The Stars: The Life of Maria Mitchell. Mill Hill Press, Nantucket, MA. 2007
  2. ^ Maria Mitchell
  3. ^ Gormley, Beatrice. Maria Mitchell: The Soul of an Astronomer. Eerdmans Publishing Co, MI. 1995.
  4. ^ member of the American Philosophical Society 30.05.2011
  5. ^ Explore the historic past of beautiful Nantucket Island at this tranquil cemetery
  6. ^ MMA

Online sources

Book sources

  • Kendall, Phebe Mitchell. Maria Mitchell: Life, Letters, and Journals. Boston: Lee & Shepard, 1896. (out of print; compiled by her sister)
  • M. W. Whitney, In Memoriam, (Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 1889)
  • M. K. Babbitt, Maria Mitchell as her students Knew her, (Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 1912)
  • Albers, Henry editor "Maria Mitchell, A Life in Journals and Letters" College Avenue Press, Clinton Corners, NY, 2001. (Henry Albers was the Fifth Maria Mitchell Professor of Astronomy at Vassar College.)
  • Torjesen, Elizabeth Fraser, Comet Over Nantucket: Maria Mitchell and Her Island: The Story of America's First Woman Astronomer, (Richmond, IN: Friends United Press, 1984)
  • Renée Bergland, Maria Mitchell and the Sexing of Science: An Astronomer Among the American Romantics, Beacon Press, Boston, 2008.
  • Wright, Helen, Sweeper in the Skies: The Life of Maria Mitchell, (College Avenue Press, Clinton Corners,NY,1997.ISBN 1-883551-70-6. (Commemorative Edition of 1949 edition. Wright was born in Washington,DC and served as assistant in Astronomy Dept. at Vassar and later US Naval Observatory and Mt. Wilson Observatory.Wrote bios of Geo. Hale and Palomar Observatory & w. Harold Shapley co-ed of Treasury of Science)

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Maria Mitchell — (* 1. August 1818 in Nantucket, Massachusetts; † 28. Juni 1889 in Lynn, Massachusetts) war eine US amerikanische Astronomin und Vorkämpferin für die Frauenrechte …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Maria Mitchell — Maria Mitchell. Maria Mitchell (1 de agosto de 1818 – 28 de junio de 1889) fue una astrónoma estadounidense, la primera mujer en descubrir un cometa. Contenido …   Wikipedia Español

  • Maria Mitchell — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Mitchell. Maria Mitchell Maria Mitchell (née le 1er août 1818 sur l …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Maria Mitchell — noun United States astronomer who studied sunspots and nebulae (1818 1889) • Syn: ↑Mitchell • Instance Hypernyms: ↑astronomer, ↑uranologist, ↑stargazer …   Useful english dictionary

  • Maria Mitchell Association — Loines Observatory of the Maria Mitchell Association The Maria Mitchell Association is a private non profit organization on the island of Nantucket off the coast of Massachusetts. The association owns the Maria Mitchell Observatory, a second… …   Wikipedia

  • Maria Mitchell Observatory — Loines Observatory of the Maria Mitchell Association The Maria Mitchell Observatory in Nantucket, Massachusetts, USA, was founded in 1908 and named in honor of American astronomer Maria Mitchell. It is a major component of the Maria Mitchell… …   Wikipedia

  • Mitchell (crater) — Location of the lunar crater Mitchell. Coordinates …   Wikipedia

  • Mitchell (Familienname) — Mitchell ist ein Familienname. Bekannte Namensträger Inhaltsverzeichnis A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mitchell (homonymie) — Mitchell Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Sommaire 1 Patronyme 2 Prénom 3 Toponymes …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mitchell (surname) — Mitchell Family name Meaning 1. form of Michael 2. big 3. equ. of Mulvihill Region of origin England[1] Related names …   Wikipedia


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