Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick

Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick
Richard Neville
Richard Neville.jpg
Warwick, from the Rous Roll.
Born 22 November 1428(1428-11-22)
Died 14 April 1471(1471-04-14) (aged 42)
Barnet, Hertfordshire
Cause of death Slain in battle
Resting place Bisham, Berkshire
Title 16th Earl of Warwick
Tenure 1449–1471
Other titles 6th Earl of Salisbury
Other names Warwick the Kingmaker
Known for Party to the Wars of the Roses
Years active c. 1449–1471
Nationality English
Residence Middleham Castle, et al.
Locality Warwickshire, Yorkshire
Net worth c. £7,000 at death[1]
Wars and battles Wars of the Roses
• 1st Battle of St Albans
Battle of Blore Heath
Battle of Ludford Bridge
Battle of Northampton
Battle of Wakefield
Battle of Mortimer's Cross
• 2nd Battle of St Albans
Battle of Ferrybridge
Battle of Edgecote Moor
Battle of Towton
Battle of Barnet
Offices Captain of Calais
Admiral of England
Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster
Predecessor Anne de Beauchamp, 15th Countess of Warwick
Successor Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick
Spouse(s) Anne Neville, 16th Countess of Warwick
Issue Isabella, Duchess of Clarence
Anne, Queen of England
Parents Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury
Alice Montagu, 5th Countess of Salisbury
Signature of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick.jpg

Richard Neville KG, jure uxoris 16th Earl of Warwick and suo jure 6th Earl of Salisbury and 8th and 5th Baron Montacute[2] (22 November 1428 – 14 April 1471), known as Warwick the Kingmaker, was an English nobleman, administrator, and military commander. The son of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, Warwick was the wealthiest and most powerful English peer of his age, with political connections that went beyond the country's borders. One of the main protagonists in the Wars of the Roses, he was instrumental in the deposition of two kings, a fact which later earned him his epithet of "Kingmaker".

Through fortunes of marriage and inheritance, Warwick emerged in the 1450s at the centre of English politics. Originally a supporter of King Henry VI, a territorial dispute with the Duke of Somerset led him to collaborate with Richard, Duke of York in opposing the king. From this conflict he gained the strategically valuable post of Captain of Calais, a position that benefited him greatly in the years to come. The political conflict later turned into full-scale rebellion, and both York and Warwick's father, Salisbury, fell in battle. York's son, however, later triumphed with Warwick's assistance, and was crowned King Edward IV. Edward initially ruled with Warwick's support, but the two later fell out over foreign policy and the king's choice of partner in marriage. After a failed plot to crown Edward's brother, George, Duke of Clarence, Warwick instead restored Henry VI to the throne. The triumph was short-lived however: on 14 April 1471 Warwick was defeated by Edward at the Battle of Barnet, and killed.

Warwick had no sons. The eldest of his two daughters, Isabel, married George, Duke of Clarence. His younger daughter Anne, after a short-lived marriage to King Henry's son Edward, married King Edward's younger brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who later became King Richard III.

Warwick's historical legacy has been a matter of much dispute. Historical opinion has alternated between seeing him as self-centred and rash, and regarding him as a victim of the whims of an ungrateful king. It is generally agreed, however, that in his own time he enjoyed great popularity in all layers of society, and that he was skilled at appealing to popular sentiments for political support.[3]


Becoming Warwick

The Nevilles were an ancient Durham family who came to prominence in the fourteenth-century wars against the Scots. In 1397, Ralph Neville had been created Earl of Westmorland.[4] Ralph's son Richard, the later Earl of Warwick's father, was a younger son by a second marriage, and not heir to the earldom.[5] He received a favourable settlement, however, and became jure uxoris Earl of Salisbury through his marriage to Alice, daughter and heir of Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury.[6]

Salisbury's son Richard, the later Earl of Warwick, was born on 22 November 1428; little is known of his childhood.[7] At the age of six, Richard was betrothed to Anne Beauchamp, daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick and his wife Isabel Despenser. This made him heir not only to the earldom of Salisbury, but also to a substantial part of the Montague, Beauchamp, and Despenser inheritance.[8]

Circumstances were, however, to increase his fortune even further. Beauchamp's son Henry, who was married to Richard's sister Cecily, died in 1446. When Henry's daughter Anne died in 1449, Richard also found himself jure uxoris Earl of Warwick.[9] Richard's succession to the estates did not go undisputed, however. A protracted battle over parts of the inheritance ensued, particularly with Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, who was married to a daughter from Richard Beauchamp's first marriage.[8] The dispute was about land, not about the Warwick title, as Henry's half-sisters were excluded from the succession.[10]

By 1445 Richard had been knighted, probably at Margaret of Anjou's coronation on 22 April that year.[11] He is visible in the historical record of service of King Henry VI in 1449, when mention is made of his services in a grant.[11] He performed military service in the north with his father, and might have taken part in the war against Scotland in 1448–9.[12] When Richard, Duke of York, unsuccessfully rose up against the king in 1452, both Warwick and his father rallied to the side of the king.[13]

Civil War

As Henry VI's incompetence and intermittent madness became clear, many of the responsibilities of government fell on his queen, Margaret of Anjou.

In June 1453, Somerset was granted custody of the lordship of Glamorgan – part of the Despenser heritage held by Warwick until then – and open conflict broke out between the two men.[14] Then, in the summer of that year, King Henry fell ill.[15] Somerset was a favourite of the king and Queen Margaret, and with the king incapacitated he was virtually in complete control of government.[16] This put Warwick at a disadvantage in his dispute with Somerset, and drove him into collaboration with York.[17] The political climate, influenced by the military defeat in France, then started turning against Somerset. On 27 March 1454, a group of royal councillors appointed the Duke of York protector of the realm.[18] York could now count on the support not only of Warwick, but also of Warwick's father Salisbury, who had become more deeply involved in disputes with the Percys in the north of England.[19]

York's first protectorate did not last long. Early in 1455 the king rallied sufficiently to return to power, at least nominally, with Somerset again wielding real power.[20] Warwick returned to his estates, as did York and Salisbury, and the three started raising troops.[21] Marching towards London, they encountered the king at St Albans, where the two forces clashed. The battle was brief and not particularly bloody, but it was the first instance of armed hostilities between the forces of the Houses of York and Lancaster in the conflict known as the Wars of the Roses.[22] It was also significant because it resulted in the capture of the king, and the death of Somerset.[23]

York's second protectorate that followed was even shorter-lived than the first.[24] At the parliament of February 1456 the king – now under the influence of Queen Margaret – resumed personal government of the realm.[25] By this time Warwick had taken over Salisbury's role as York's main ally, even appearing at that same parliament to protect York from retributions.[26] This conflict was also a pivotal period in Warwick's career, as it was resolved by his appointment as Constable of Calais.[27] The post was to provide him with a vital power base in the following years of conflict. The continental town of Calais, conquered from France in 1347, was not only of vital strategic importance, it also held what was England's largest standing army.[28] There were some initial disputes, with the garrison and with the royal wool monopoly known as the staple, over payments in arrears, but in July Warwick finally took up his post.[29]

After the recent events, Queen Margaret still considered Warwick a threat to the throne, and cut off his supplies.[8] In August 1457, however, a French attack on the English sea port of Sandwich set off fears of a full-scale French invasion. Warwick was again funded to protect the garrison and patrol the English coast.[30] In disregard of royal authority, he then conducted highly successful acts of piracy, against the Castilian fleet in May 1458, and against the Hanseatic fleet a few weeks later.[31] He also used his time on the Continent to establish relations with Charles VII of France and Philip the Good of Burgundy.[32] Developing a solid military reputation and with good international connections, he then brought a part of his garrison to England, where he met up with his father and York in the summer of 1459.[33]

House of York triumphant

Middleham Castle was Warwick's favourite residence in England. In the late 1450s, however, business in Calais kept him away from Middleham for longer periods.

In September 1459 Warwick crossed over to England and made his way north to Ludlow to meet up with Salisbury, fresh from his victory over Lancastrians at the battle of Blore Heath, and York.[34] At nearby Ludford Bridge their forces were scattered by the king's army, partly because of the defection of Warwick's Calais contingent under the command of Andrew Trollope.[35] As it turned out, the majority of the soldiers were still reluctant to raise arms against the king.[35] Forced to flee the country, York left for Dublin, Ireland, while Warwick and Salisbury sailed to Calais, accompanied by the duke's son, Edward, Earl of March (the future King Edward IV).[36] Henry Beaufort, Duke of Somerset was appointed to replace Warwick as Captain of Calais, but the Yorkists managed to hold on to the garrison.[37]

In March 1460 Warwick visited York in Ireland to plan the way ahead, and returned to Calais.[38] Then, on 26 June, he landed at Sandwich with Salisbury and March, and from here the three earls rode north to London.[39] Salisbury was left in control of the Tower of London, while Warwick took March with him in pursuit of the king.[40] At Northampton, on 10 July, King Henry was taken captive, while the Duke of Buckingham and others were killed in battle.[41]

In September York arrived from Ireland, and at the parliament of October that year, the duke walked up to the throne and put his hand on it.[42] The act, signifying usurpation, left the assembly in shock.[43] It is unclear whether Warwick had prior knowledge of York's plans, though it is assumed that this had been agreed upon between the two in Ireland the previous March.[44] It soon became clear, however, that this regime change was unacceptable to the lords in parliament, and a compromise was agreed. The Act of Accord of 31 October 1460 stated that while Henry VI was allowed to stay on the throne for the remainder of his life, his son Edward, Prince of Wales, was to be disinherited. Instead, York would succeed the king, and act as protector.[45]

This solution was not ideal to either party, and further conflict was inevitable.[46] On 30 December, at the Battle of Wakefield, York was killed, as were York's second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, and Warwick's younger brother Thomas.[47] Salisbury was executed a day later. Warwick marched north to confront the enemy, but was defeated and forced to flee at the Second Battle of St Albans.[48] He then joined forces with Prince Edward of York, the new Yorkist claimant to the crown, who had just won an important victory at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross.[49]

While Queen Margaret was hesitating to make her next move, Warwick and Edward hastened to London.[50] The citizens of the capital were scared by the brutal conduct of the Lancastrian forces, and were sympathetic to the House of York. On 4 March the prince was proclaimed King Edward IV, by an assembly that gathered quickly.[51] The new king now headed north to consolidate his title, and met with the Lancastrian forces at Towton in Yorkshire. Warwick had suffered an injury to the leg the day before, in the Battle of Ferrybridge, and may have played only a minor part in the battle that followed.[52] The unusually bloody skirmish resulted in a complete victory for the Yorkist forces, and the death of many important men on the opposing side, such as Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland and Andrew Trollope.[53] Queen Margaret managed to escape to Scotland, with Henry and Prince Edward.[54] Edward IV returned to London for his coronation, while Warwick remained to pacify the north.[55]

Warwick's apex

"They have but two rulers, M de warwick and another whose name I have forgotten."

– The Governor of Abbeville in a letter to Louis XI[8][56]
Painting by Henry Tresham representing Warwick's alleged vow prior to the Battle of Towton

Warwick's position after the accession of Edward IV was stronger than ever.[57] He had now succeeded to his father's possessions, and in 1462 also inherited his mother's lands and the Salisbury title.[58] Altogether he had an annual income from his lands of over £7,000, far more than any other man in the realm but the king.[59] Edward confirmed Warwick's position as Captain of Calais, and made him Admiral of England and Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster, along with several other offices.[60] His brothers also benefited: John Neville, Lord Montagu, was made Warden of the East March in 1463, and the next year created Earl of Northumberland.[61] George Neville, Bishop of Exeter, was confirmed in his post as chancellor by King Edward, and in 1465 promoted to the archbishopric of York.[62]

By late 1461, risings in the north had been put down, and in the summer of 1462, Warwick negotiated a truce with Scotland.[8] In October the same year, Margaret of Anjou invaded England with troops from France, and managed to take the castles of Alnwick and Bamburgh.[63] Warwick had to organise the recapture of the castles, which was accomplished by January 1463. The leaders of the rebellion, including Ralph Percy, were pardoned and left in charge of the retaken castles.[64] At this point, Warwick felt secure enough to travel south; in February he buried the remains of his father and brother at Bisham Priory, and in March he attended parliament at Westminster.[65]

That same spring, however, the north rose up in rebellion once more, when Ralph Percy laid siege to Norham Castle.[66] Warwick returned to the north and rescued Norham, but the Lancastrians were left in possession of Northumberland, and the government decided on a diplomatic approach instead. Separate truces were negotiated with Scotland and France, which allowed Warwick to retake the Northumbrian castles held by the Lancastrian rebels.[67] This time no clemency was given, and around thirty of the rebel leaders were executed.[68]

Early tensions

Edward IV's secret marriage to Elizabeth Woodville contributed to the growing tensions between Warwick and the king.

At the negotiations with the French, Warwick had intimated that King Edward was interested in a marriage arrangement with the French crown, the intended bride being Louis XI's sister-in-law, Bona, daughter of Louis, Duke of Savoy.[69] This marriage was not to be, however, because in September 1464, Edward revealed that he was already married, to Elizabeth Woodville.[70] The marriage caused great offence to Warwick: not only due to the fact that his plans had been sabotaged, but also the secrecy with which the king had acted.[71] The marriage – contracted on 1 May of the same year – was not made public before Warwick pressed Edward on the issue at a council meeting, and in the meanwhile Warwick had been unknowingly deceiving the French into believing the king was serious about the marriage proposal.[70] For Edward the marriage may very well have been a love match, but in the long run he sought to build the Woodville family into a powerhouse independent of Warwick's influence.[72]

This was not enough to cause a complete fallout between the two men, though from this point on Warwick increasingly stayed away from court.[73] The promotion of Warwick's brother George to Archbishop of York shows that the earl was still in favour with the king. In July 1465, when Henry VI was once more captured, it was Warwick who escorted the fallen king to his captivity in the Tower.[74]

Then, in the spring of 1466, Warwick was sent to the continent to carry out negotiations with the French and Burgundians. The negotiations centred around a marriage proposal involving Edward's sister Margaret.[75] Warwick increasingly came to favour French diplomatic connections.[76] Meanwhile, Edward's father-in-law, Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers, who had been created treasurer, was in favour of a Burgundian alliance.[77] This set up internal conflict within the English court, which was not alleviated by the fact that Edward had signed a secret treaty in October with Burgundy, while Warwick was forced to carry on sham negotiations with the French.[78] Later, George Neville was dismissed as chancellor, while Edward refused to contemplate a marriage between Warwick's oldest daughter Isabel, and Edward's brother George, Duke of Clarence.[79] It became increasingly clear that Warwick's position of dominance at court had been taken over by Rivers.[80]

In the autumn of 1467, there were rumours that Warwick was now sympathetic to the Lancastrian cause, but even though he refused to come to court to answer the charges, the king accepted his denial in writing.[81] In July the same year, it was revealed that Warwick's deputy in Calais, John, Lord Wenlock, was involved in a Lancastrian conspiracy, and early in 1469 another Lancastrian plot was uncovered, involving John de Vere, Earl of Oxford.[82] It was becoming clear that the discontent with Edward's reign was widespread, a fact that Warwick could exploit.[83]

Rebellion and death

Warwick now orchestrated a rebellion in Yorkshire while he was away, led by a "Robin of Redesdale".[84] Part of Warwick's plan was winning over Edward's brother Clarence, possibly with the prospect of installing him on the throne.[85] The nineteen-year old Clarence had shown himself to share many of the abilities of his older brother, but was also jealous and overambitious.[86] In July the two sailed over to Calais where Clarence was married to Isabel.[87] From here they returned to England, where they gathered the men of Kent to join the rebellion in the north.[88] Meanwhile, the king's forces were defeated at Edgecote, where William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, was killed.[89] The other commander, Humphrey Stafford, Earl of Devon, was caught in flight and lynched by a mob.[90] Later, Earl Rivers and his son John were also apprehended and murdered.[91] With his army now defeated, the king was taken under arrest by Archbishop Neville.[92] He was imprisoned in Warwick, and in August taken north to Middleham Castle.[93] In the long run, however, it proved impossible to rule without the king, and continuing disorder forced Warwick to release Edward in September 1469.[85]

The Battle of Barnet, where Warwick was killed. Edward IV can be seen on the left, wearing a crown.

A modus vivendi had been achieved between Warwick and the king for some months, but the restoration of Henry Percy to Montagu's earldom of Northumberland prevented any chance of full reconciliation.[94] A trap was set for the king when disturbances in Lincolnshire led him north, where he could be confronted by Warwick's men.[95] Edward, however, discovered the plot when Richard, Lord Welles, was routed at Losecote Field, and gave away the plan.[96]

Warwick soon gave up, and once more fled the country with Clarence. Denied access to Calais, they sought refuge with King Louis XI of France.[97] Louis arranged a reconciliation between Warwick and Margaret of Anjou, and as part of the agreement, Margaret and Henry's son, Edward, Prince of Wales, would marry Warwick's daughter Anne.[98] The objective of the alliance was to restore Henry VI to the throne.[99] Again Warwick staged an uprising in the north, and with the king away, he and Clarence landed at Dartmouth and Plymouth on 13 September.[100] Among the many who flocked to Warwick's side was his brother Montagu, who had not taken part in the last rebellion, but was disappointed when his loyalty to the king had not been rewarded with the restoration of his earldom.[61] This time the trap set up for the king worked; as Edward hurried south, Montagu's forces approached from the north, and the king found himself surrounded.[101] On 2 October he fled to the Netherlands.[102] King Henry was now restored, with Warwick acting as the true ruler in his capacity as lieutenant.[103] At a parliament in November, Edward was attainted of his lands and titles, and Clarence was awarded the Duchy of York.[104]

At this point, international affairs intervened. Louis XI declared war on Burgundy, and Duke Charles responded by granting an expeditionary force to Edward IV, in order to reclaim his throne.[105] On 14 March Edward landed at Ravenspurn in Yorkshire, with the acquiescence of the Earl of Northumberland.[106] Warwick was still waiting for Queen Margaret and her son Edward, who were supposed to bring reinforcements from France, but were kept up on the continent by bad weather.[107] At this point Edward received the support of his brother Clarence, who realised that he had been disadvantaged by the new agreement with the Lancastrians.[108] Clarence's defection weakened Warwick, who nevertheless went in pursuit of Edward. On 14 April the two armies met at Barnet.[109] Fog and poor visibility on the field led to confusion, and the Lancastrian army ended up attacking its own men.[110] In the face of defeat Warwick attempted to escape the field, but was struck off his horse and killed.[111]


Warwick's body – along with that of his brother Montagu, who had also fallen at Barnet – was displayed in London's St Paul's Cathedral to quell any rumours of their survival.[111] Then they were handed over to Archbishop Neville, to be buried in the family vault at Bisham.[110] On 4 May of the same year, Edward IV defeated the remaining Lancastrian forces of Queen Margaret and Prince Edward at the Battle of Tewkesbury, where the prince was killed.[112] Soon afterwards, it was reported that King Henry VI had also died in the Tower.[113] With the direct Lancastrian line exterminated, Edward could reign safely until his death in 1483.[105]

Warwick's offices were divided between King Edward's brothers Clarence, and Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III. Clarence received the chamberlainship of England and the lieutenancy of Ireland, while Gloucester was made Admiral of England and Warden of the West March.[114] Clarence also received the earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury.[115] The earl's land had been forfeited and taken into the king's custody. When Gloucester married Warwick's younger daughter Anne in 1472, who had been recently widowed by the death of Prince Edward, a dispute broke out between the two princes over the Beauchamp and Despenser inheritances.[116] A compromise was eventually reached, whereby the land was divided, but Clarence was not pacified. In 1477 he once again plotted against his brother. This time the king could no longer act with lenience, and the next year the Duke of Clarence was executed.[117]

Historical assessment

"thou setter-up and plucker-down of kings"

William Shakespeare; Henry VI

Early sources on Richard Neville fall into two categories. The first are the sympathetic chronicles of the early Yorkist years, or works based on these, such as the Mirror for Magistrates (1559). The other category originates with chronicles commissioned by Edward IV after Warwick's fall, such as the Historie of the arrivall of Edward IV, and take a more negative view of the earl.[118] The Mirror portrayed Warwick as a great man: beloved by the people, and betrayed by the man he helped raise to the throne.[119] The other perspective can be found in Shakespeare's Henry VI trilogy: a man driven by pride and egotism, who created and deposed kings at will.[120]

In time, however, it is the latter view that dominated. The Enlightenment, or Whig historians of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, decried anyone who impeded the development towards a centralised, constitutional monarchy, the way Warwick did in his struggles with Edward.[121] David Hume called Warwick "the greatest, as well as the last, of those mighty barons who formerly overawed the crown, and rendered the people incapable of any regular system of civil government."[122] Later writers were split between admiration for some of Warwick's character traits, and condemnation of his political actions. The romantic novelist Lord Lytton picked up on Hume's theme in his The Last of the Barons.[123] Though Lytton portrayed Warwick as a tragic hero who embodied the ideals of chivalry, he was nevertheless one whose time was past.[121] The late-nineteenth century military historian Charles Oman acknowledged the earl's ability to appeal to popular sentiments, yet pointed out his deficiencies as a military commander.[124] Oman found Warwick a traditional strategist, "not attaining the heights of military genius displayed by his pupil Edward."[125] Paul Murray Kendall's popular biography from 1957 took a sympathetic view of Warwick, but concluded that he had ultimately fallen victim to his own overreaching ambition.[126]

More recent historians, such as Michael Hicks and A. J. Pollard, have tried to see Warwick in light of the standards of his own age, rather than holding him up to contemporary constitutional ideals. The insults Warwick suffered at the hands of King Edward – including Edward's secret marriage, and the refusal of the French diplomatic channel – were significant.[127] His claim to prominence in national affairs was not a product of illusions of grandeur; it was confirmed by the high standing he enjoyed among the princes on the continent.[128] Furthermore, Warwick's cause was not considered unjust by his contemporaries, which can be seen by the earl's popularity exceeding that of the king at the time of his first rebellion in 1469.[129] On the other hand, while Warwick could not easily suffer his treatment by the king, it was equally impossible for Edward to accept the earl's presence on the political scene. As long as Warwick remained as powerful and influential as he was, Edward could not fully assert his royal authority, and eventual confrontation became inevitable.[130]

Coat of Arms

Warwick's coat of arms

The coat of arms of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, pictured at right, uses almost all typical forms of heraldry in England: The first quarter consists of his father-in-law, Richard Beauchamp, who bore with an escutcheon of De Clare quartering Despenser, now shown in Neville's fourth quarter. The second quarter shows the arms of the Montacutes (Montagu). The third quarter shows the arms of Neville differenced by a label for Lancaster.[131]

Neville family tree

The chart below shows, in abbreviated form, the family background of Richard Neville and his family connections with the houses of York and Lancaster. Dashed lines denote marriage and solid lines children. Anne Neville is shown with her two husbands, in order from right to left.

Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick
Isabel Despenser
Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury
Alice Neville, 5th Countess of Salisbury (c. 1406–1462)
Anne Neville, 16th Countess of Warwick
Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick
John Neville, Lord Montagu
(c. 1431–1471)
George Neville
Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York
Cecily Neville
Isabel Neville
Anne Neville
Henry VI
Margaret of Anjou
Edward IV
Edmund, Earl of Rutland
George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence
(2.) Richard III
(1.) Edward, Prince of Wales


See also


  1. ^ Hicks (1991), pp. 339, 356–8
  2. ^ Warwick was jure uxoris ("by right of his wife") 16th Earl of Warwick from 1449 and suo jure ("in his own right") 6th Earl of Salisbury and 8th and 5th Baron Montacute from 1463
  3. ^ Pollard (2007), pp. 199–200.
  4. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 13.
  5. ^ This second marriage was to Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt; Pollard (2007), pp. 13–4.
  6. ^ He was created Earl of Salisbury 7 May 1429; Hicks (1998), p. 7.
  7. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 11.
  8. ^ a b c d e Pollard (2004).
  9. ^ Alice was also joint heir to the Abergavenny lordship; Hicks (1998), p. 38.
  10. ^ Hicks (1998), p. 39.
  11. ^ a b Hicks (1998), p. 29.
  12. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 12.
  13. ^ Keen (2003), p. 350.
  14. ^ Hicks (1998), pp. 84–5.
  15. ^ Wolff (2001), p. 271.
  16. ^ Richmond, Colin (2004). "Beaufort, Edmund, first Duke of Somerset (c.1406–1455)" (subscription required). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/1855. 
  17. ^ Carpenter (1992), p. 127.
  18. ^ Griffiths, R.A. (1984). "The King's Council and the First Protectorate for the Duke of York 1450-4" (subscription required). English Historical Review xcix: pp. 67–82. doi:10.1093/ehr/XCIX.CCCXC.67. JSTOR 567910. 
  19. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 24.
  20. ^ Hicks (1998), p. 112.
  21. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 30.
  22. ^ Carpenter (1997), pp. 135, 259.
  23. ^ Carpenter (1997), p. 135.
  24. ^ Lander, J.R. (1960). "Henry VI and the Duke of York's second protectorate, 1455-6". Bulletin of the John Rylands Library xliii: pp. 46–69. 
  25. ^ Jacob (1961), pp. 513–4.
  26. ^ Hicks (1998), p. 125.
  27. ^ Ross (1997), p. 19.
  28. ^ Keen (2003), p. 442.
  29. ^ Harriss, G. L. (1960). "The Struggle for Calais: An Aspect of the Rivalry between Lancaster and York" (subscription required). English Historical Review lxxv (294): pp. 30–53. doi:10.1093/ehr/LXXV.294.30. JSTOR 558799. 
  30. ^ Hicks (1998), p. 144.
  31. ^ Hicks (1998), p. 147.
  32. ^ Harriss (2005), p. 638.
  33. ^ Jacob (1961), p. 515.
  34. ^ Tuck (1985), p. 276.
  35. ^ a b Hicks (1998), p. 164.
  36. ^ Carpenter (1997), p. 145.
  37. ^ Tuck (1985), p. 277.
  38. ^ Hicks (1998), p. 176.
  39. ^ Harriss (2005), p. 641.
  40. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 42.
  41. ^ Wolff (2001), p. 322.
  42. ^ York was of royal lineage, and – allowing for matrilineal descent – actually had a better claim to the throne than Henry; Ross (1997), pp. 3–5.
  43. ^ Hicks (1998), pp. 186–7.
  44. ^ Keen (2003), p. 355.
  45. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 44.
  46. ^ Pollard (1988), p. 24.
  47. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 46.
  48. ^ Wolff (2001), p. 328.
  49. ^ Ross (1997), pp. 31–2.
  50. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 47.
  51. ^ Watts (1996), p. 360.
  52. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 48.
  53. ^ Wolff (2001), pp. 331–2.
  54. ^ Hicks (1998), p. 235.
  55. ^ Jacob (1961), pp. 527–8.
  56. ^ Hicks (1998), pp. 255–6.
  57. ^ Keen (2003), p. 372.
  58. ^ Hicks (1998), p. 227.
  59. ^ Pollard (2007), pp. 77–80.
  60. ^ Hicks (1998), p. 221.
  61. ^ a b Horrox, Rosemary (2004). "Neville, John, Marquess Montagu (c.1431–1471)" (subscription required). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19946. 
  62. ^ Hicks, Michael (2004). "Neville, George (1432–1476)" (subscription required). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19934. 
  63. ^ Ross (1997), p. 50.
  64. ^ Hicks (1998), p. 242.
  65. ^ Hicks (1998), pp. 228, 243.
  66. ^ Ross (1997), p. 59.
  67. ^ Hicks (1998), pp. 244–7.
  68. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 54.
  69. ^ Hicks (1998), p. 261.
  70. ^ a b Ross (1997), p. 91.
  71. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 56.
  72. ^ Carpenter (1997), pp. 169–70.
  73. ^ Pollard (1988), pp. 26–7.
  74. ^ Hicks (1998), pp. 230, 253.
  75. ^ Hicks (1998), p. 263.
  76. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 59.
  77. ^ Ross (1997), p. 95.
  78. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 60.
  79. ^ Hicks (1998), pp. 259–64.
  80. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 58.
  81. ^ Hicks (1998), pp. 264–5.
  82. ^ Hicks (1998), p. 269.
  83. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 64.
  84. ^ "Robin of Redesdale" was an alias; the rebellion was actually led by Warwick's northern retainers; Hicks (1998), pp. 270–1, 275.
  85. ^ a b Pollard (2007), p. 66.
  86. ^ Ross (1997), pp. 116–7.
  87. ^ Hicks (1980), pp. 32–3.
  88. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 65.
  89. ^ Ross (1997), pp. 131–2.
  90. ^ Carpenter (1997), p. 175.
  91. ^ Scofield, C.L. (1922). "The capture of Lord Rivers and Sir Antony Woodville, 19 Jan. 1460" (subscription required). English Historical Review xxxvii (146): pp. 544–546. JSTOR 552360. 
  92. ^ Wilkinson (1969), p. 292.
  93. ^ Pollard (2007), pp. 65–6.
  94. ^ Keen (2003), p. 378.
  95. ^ There has been debate over Warwick's actual involvement in the plot; Holland, P. (1988). "The Lincolnshire Rebellion of March 1470" (subscription required). English Historical Review ciii: pp. 849–69. doi:10.1093/ehr/CIII.CCCCIX.849. JSTOR 570259. 
  96. ^ Pollard, A.J. (1979). "Lord FitzHugh's Rising in 1470". Bulletin of the John Rylands Library lii: pp. 170–5. 
  97. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 68.
  98. ^ Wilkinson (1969), pp. 292–3.
  99. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 69.
  100. ^ Wilkinson (1969), p. 293.
  101. ^ Ross (1997), p. 152.
  102. ^ The date was not 29 September, as some sources (e.g. Hicks (1998), p. 300) state; Ross (1997), p. 153.
  103. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 71.
  104. ^ Hicks (1980), p. 74.
  105. ^ a b Tuck (1985), p. 284.
  106. ^ Hicks (1998), p. 307.
  107. ^ Wolff (2001), pp. 344–5.
  108. ^ Hicks (1980), p. 93.
  109. ^ Ross (1997), pp. 167–8.
  110. ^ a b Pollard (2007), p. 73.
  111. ^ a b Hicks (1998), p. 310.
  112. ^ Wilkinson (1969), p. 294.
  113. ^ Though the king's exact fate is unknown, there is little doubt that he was murdered; Wolff (2001), p. 347.
  114. ^ Hicks (1980), p. 98.
  115. ^ Hicks (1980), p.102.
  116. ^ The legality of appropriating these lands was highly doubtful, as they were held by the countess suo jure, and should not have been affected by the earl's forfeiture; Ross (1997), pp. 188–9.
  117. ^ Hicks (1980), pp. 126–7.
  118. ^ Pollard (2007), pp. 2–3.
  119. ^ Hicks (1998), p. 3.
  120. ^ The first writer to use the term "Kingmaker" about Warwick was John Mair in 1521, though Major wrote in Latin (regum creator). It was Samuel Daniel who in 1609 first used the term in English, and not until the eighteenth century was it popularised, by David Hume; Hicks (1998), pp. 3–4.
  121. ^ a b Hicks (1998), p. 5.
  122. ^ Hume, David (1826). History of England. vol. iii. Oxford. p. 160. 
  123. ^ Lytton, Edward Bulwer (1843). The Last of the Barons. London. 
  124. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 195.
  125. ^ Oman (1899), p. 239.
  126. ^ Kendall (1957), p. 12.
  127. ^ Keen (2003), p. 374.
  128. ^ Pollard (2007), p. 198.
  129. ^ Ross (1997), pp. 124–5.
  130. ^ Carpenter (1997), pp. 180–1.
  131. ^ Turnbull (1985), The Book of the Medieval Knight.


  • Carpenter, Christine (1992). Locality and Polity: A Study of Warwickshire Landed Society, 1401–1499. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521370167. 
  • Carpenter, Christine (1997). The Wars of the Roses: Politics and the Constitution in England, c. 1437–1509. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521318742. 
  • Harriss, G. L. (2005). Shaping the Nation: England, 1360–1461. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198228163. 
  • Hicks, Michael (1991). Richard III and his rivals: magnates and their motives in the Wars of the Roses. London: Hambledon Continuum. ISBN 978-1852850531. 
  • Hicks, Michael (1992). False, Fleeting, Perjur'd Clarence: George, Duke of Clarence 1449–78 (rev. ed.). Bangor: Headstart History. ISBN 187304108X. 
  • Hicks, Michael (1998). Warwick the Kingmaker. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-16259-3. 
  • Jacob, E.F. (1961). The Fifteenth Century: 1399–1485. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-821714-5. 
  • Keen, Maurice (2003). England in the Late Middle Ages (new ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 0415272920. 
  • Kendall, Paul Murray (1957). Warwick the Kingmaker. London. ISBN 0-351-17096-0. 
  • Oman, Charles (1899). Warwick, the Kingmaker (reprinted ed.). London; New York: Macmillan. 
  • Pollard, A.J. (1988). The Wars of the Roses. Basingstoke: Macmillan Education. ISBN 0333406036. 
  • Pollard, A.J. (2004). "Neville, Richard, sixteenth earl of Warwick and sixth earl of Salisbury [called the Kingmaker] (1428–1471)" (subscription required). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19955. 
  • Pollard, A.J. (2007). Warwick the Kingmaker. London: Hambledon. ISBN 9781847251824. 
  • Ross, Charles (1997). Edward IV (new ed.). New Haven, London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300073720. 
  • Tuck, Anthony (1985). Crown and Nobility 1272–1461: Political Conflict in Late Medieval England. London: Fontana. ISBN 0006860842. 
  • Watts, John (1996). Henry VI and the Politics of Kingship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521420393. 
  • Wilkinson, Bertie (1969). The later Middle Ages in England, 1216–1485. Harlow: Longmans. ISBN 0582482658. 
  • Wolff, Bertram Percy (2001). Henry VI (new ed.). New Haven, London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300089260. 

Further reading


Secondary sources

  • Armstrong, C.A.J. (1983). England, France and Burgundy in the Fifteenth Century. London: Hambleton Press. ISBN 0907628135. 
  • Dockray, K.R. (1983). "The Yorkshire Rebellions of 1469" (PDF). The Ricardian 6 (82): pp. 246–57. Retrieved 3 October 2008. 
  • Gairdner, James (1875). The Houses of Lancaster and York: With the Conquest and Loss of France. Longmans, Green and Co: London. 
  • Goodman, Anthony (1981). The Wars of the Roses: Military Activity and English Society, 1452–97. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0710007280. 
  • Griffiths, R.A. (1981). The reign of King Henry VI: The Exercise of Royal Authority, 1422–1461. London: Benn. ISBN 0510262619. 
  • Gross, Anthony; J.R. Lander (1996). The Dissolution of the Lancastrian Kingship: Sir John Fortescue and the Crisis of Monarchy in Fifteenth-Century England. Stamford: Paul Watkins. ISBN 1871615909. 
  • Hammond, P.W. (1990). The battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury. Gloucester: Sutton. ISBN 0862993857. 
  • Hicks, Michael (1979). "Descent, Partition and Extinction: The "Warwick Inheritance"". Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research lii: pp. 116–28. 
  • Hicks, Michael (1995). Bastard Feudalism. London: Longman. ISBN 0582060915. 
  • Johnson, P.A. (1988). Duke Richard of York 1411–1460. Oxford: Clarendon. ISBN 0198229461. 
  • Jones, M.K. (1989). "Edward IV, the Earl of Warwick, and the Yorkist Claim to the Throne". Historical Research lxx: pp. 342–52. 
  • Jones, M.K. (1989). "Somerset, York and the Wars of the Roses". English Historical Review civ: pp. 285–307. doi:10.1093/ehr/CIV.CCCCXI.285. 
  • Lander, J.R. (1976). Crown and Nobility, 1450–1509. London: Edward Arnold. ISBN 0713158336. 
  • McFarlane, K.B. (1981). The Nobility of Later Medieval England. London: Hambledon. ISBN 0950688258. 
  • McFarlane, K.B. (1973). England in the Fifteenth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198226578. 
  • Pollard, A.J. (1990). North-Eastern England during the Wars of the Rosxes. Oxford: Clarendon. ISBN 0198200870. 
  • Pugh, T.B. (1990). "Richard, Duke of York, and the Rebellion of Henry Holand, Duke of Exeter, in May 1454". Historical Research lxiii: pp. 248–62. 
  • Richmond, C.F. (1967). "English Naval Power in the Fifteenth Century". History lii: pp. 1–15. 
  • Richmond, C.F. (1970). "The Nobility and the Wars of the Roses". Journal of Historical Sociology ix (4): pp. 395–409. 
  • Ross, Charles (ed.) (1979). Patronage Pedigree and Power. Gloucester: Sutton. ISBN 0904387372. 
  • Storey, R.L. (1986). The End of the House of Lancaster. Gloucester: Sutton. ISBN 0862992907. 

External links

Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Lord Rivers
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
Succeeded by
Sir John Scott
Political offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Gloucester
Lord High Admiral
Succeeded by
The Duke of Gloucester
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Anne de Beauchamp
Earl of Warwick
(jure uxoris
by Anne Beauchamp)

Succeeded by
Edward Plantagenet
Preceded by
Richard Neville
(jure uxoris
by Alice Montacute)
Earl of Salisbury
Succeeded by

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