- Wells Cathedral
Infobox UK cathedral
building_name =Wells Cathedral
caption =The west front, completed c. 1250, features about 300 mediaeval statues; many of the figures, and their niches, were originally painted and gilded
full_name =Cathedral Church of St. Andrew
denomination =Church of England
diocese =Bath and Wells
dean =John Clarke
organist =Matthew Owens
website = [http://www.wellscathedral.org.uk www.wellscathedral.org.uk]
architecture_style =Gothic (Early English)
convert|24.9|m|ft|abbr=on including aisles
tower_height =convert|48.7|m|ft|abbr=on (crossing)
Wells Cathedral is a
Church of England cathedralin Wells, Somerset, England. It is the seat of the Bishop of Bath and Wells, who lives at the adjacent Bishop's Palace.
Built between 1175 and 1490, Wells Cathedral has been described as “the most poetic of the English Cathedrals”.cite book|first=Alec |last=Clifton-Taylor|title=The Cathedrals of England|year=1967|publisher=Thames and Hudson] Much of the structure is in the
Early English styleand is greatly enriched by the deeply sculptural nature of the mouldings and the vitality of the carved capitals in a foliate style known as “stiff leaf”. The eastern end has retained much original glass, which is rare in England. The exterior has a splendid Early English façade and a large central tower.cite book|first= Tim |last=Tatton-Brown|coauthors=John Crook|title=The English Cathedral|year=2002|publisher=New Holland Publishers|id=ISBN 1-84330-120-2 ] cite book|first=Lawrence |last=Lee|coauthors=George Seddon, Francis Stephens, |title=Stained Glass|year=1976|publisher=Spring Books|id=ISBN 0-600-56281-6]
The first church was established on the site in 705. Construction of the present building began in the 10th century and was largely complete at the time of its dedication in 1239. It has undergone several expansions and renovations since then and has been designated by
English Heritageas a grade I listed building.cite web | title=Cathedral Church of St Andrew, Chapter House and Cloisters | work=Images of England | url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/search/details.aspx?id=483287| accessdate=2008-02-10] Peter Priceis the current Bishop of Bath and Wellshaving been appointed in 2001; and John Clarke took over as Dean in September 2004 after previously being principal of Ripon College Cuddesdon.The Cathedral also has a cat that resides upon a wooden chair, which is covered by a white seat cover, that has a mitre upon the top of the back of this chair. The chair is located near the Quire near the middle of the Cathedral.
There is archaeological evidence of a late
Ancient Rome mausoleumon the site. [cite book |title=A field guide to Somerset archeology|last=Adkins |first= Lesley|authorlink= |coauthors=Roy Adkins |year=1992 |publisher=Dovecote Press |location=Wimborne |isbn=0946159947 |pages=118-119 ]
The first church was established here in 705 by King Ine of Wessex, at the urging of
Aldhelm, Bishop of Sherborne, in whose dioceseit lay. [cite web |url=http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/adversaries/archaeology/wells01.html |title=Wells Cathedral |accessdate=2008-02-10 |format= |work=Early British Kingdoms ] It was dedicated to Saint Andrew. The only remains of this first church are some excavated foundations which can be seen in the cloisters. The baptismal font in the south transept is the oldest surviving part of the cathedral which is dated to c.700 AD. [cite web |url=http://www.request.org.uk/main/churches/tours/wells/font.htm |title=Virtual tour of Wells Cathedral |accessdate=2008-02-10 |format= |work=RE:Quest]
Two centuries later, the seat of the diocese was shifted to Wells from
Sherborne. The first Bishop of Wells was Athelm(circa 909), who crowned King Athelstan. Athelm and his nephew Saint Dunstan both became Archbishops of Canterbury. [cite web |url=http://www.britannia.com/history/somerset/churches/wellscath.html |title=History & Architecture of Wells Cathedral |accessdate=2008-02-10 |format= |work=Britannia ]
The present structure was begun under the direction of Bishop Reginald de Bohun, who died in 1184.Powicke "Handbook of British Chronology" p. 251] Wells Cathedral dates primarily from the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries; the
naveand transeptare masterpieces of the Early English style of architecture. It was largely complete at the time of its dedication in 1239.cite web |url=http://www.wellscathedral.org.uk/history/archaelogy/wellscathedral.shtml |title=History |accessdate=2008-02-10 |format= |work=Wells Cathedral ]
The Bishop responsible for the construction was
Jocelyn of Wells, a brother of Bishop Hugh II of Lincoln, [http://british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=34341 British History Online Bishops of Bath] accessed on September 23, 2007] and one of the Bishops at the signing of Magna Carta. Jocelyn's building campaigns also included the Bishop's Palace, a choristers' school, a grammar school, hospitalfor travellers and a chapel. He also built a manor at Wookey, near Wells. The master mason designer associated with Jocelyn was Elias of Dereham(died 1246). Jocelyn lived to see the church dedicated, but despite much lobbying of Rome, died before cathedral status was granted in 1245. He died on November 19 1242,Fryde "Handbook of British Chronology" p. 228] at Wells and was buried in the choir of Wells Cathedral.Dunning "Wells, Jocelin of (d. 1242)" "'Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/14831 Online Edition] accessed November 15, 2007] [http://british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=34341 British History Online Bishops of Bath] accessed on September 23, 2007] He may have been the father of Nicholas of Wells. The memorial brass on his tomb is supposedly one of the earliest brasses in England. Masons continued with the enrichment of the West front until about 1260.
King John was excommunicated between 1209 and 1213. During this time, work on the cathedral was suspended. In this period, building technology advanced so that bigger blocks of masonry could be moved and incorporated into the walls. The effect of this technological advance can be seen on the walls of Wells cathedral; at a particular point in the building's walls, the blocks of stone can be seen to increase in size.
By the time the building was finished, including the Chapter House (1306), [cite web |url=http://www.sacred-destinations.com/england/wells-cathedral.htm |title=Wells Cathedral |accessdate=2008-02-10 |format= |work=Sacred destinations ] it already seemed too small for the developing liturgy, in particular the increasingly grand processions. So, a new spate of expansive building was initiated. Bishop
John Drokensfordstarted the proceedings with the heightening of the central tower and the beginnings of a dramatic eight-sided Lady Chapelat the far east end, finished by 1326. [cite web |url=http://www.isleofalbion.co.uk/wellscathedral/ |title=Wells Cathedral|accessdate=2008-02-10 |format= |work=Isle of Albion ] Thomas of Whitney was the master mason.
Ralph of Shrewsburyfollowed, continuing with the eastward extension of the quire and the retro- quire beyond with its forest of pillars. He also built Vicars' Hall and Close, to give the men of the choir a secure place to live, away from the town with all its temptations.cite web |url=http://www.wells-uk.com/local_history.php |title=Local history |accessdate=2008-02-10 |format= |work=Wells UK ] He enjoyed an uneasy relationship with the citizens of Wells, partly because of his imposition of taxes, and felt the need to surround his palace with crenellated walls and a moat and drawbridge.
The appointment of
William Wynfordas master mason in 1365 marked another period of activity. He was one of the foremost architects of his time and apart from Wells was engaged in work for the king at Windsor and at New College Oxfordand Winchester Cathedral. [page 352, English Medieval Architects A Biographical Dictionary Down to 1550, John Harvey 1984] Under Bishop John Harewell, who raised money for the project, he built the south-west tower of the West Front and designed the north west, which was built to match in the early 1400s. [gutenberg|no=12287|name=Somerset by Wade, G.W. & Wade, J.H.] Inside the building he filled in the early English lancet windows with delicate tracery.
In the fourteenth century the central piers of the crossing were found to be sinking under the weight of the crossing tower, so the "scissor arches" (inverted
strainer archesthat are such a striking feature) were inserted to brace and stabilize the piers as a unit. [cite web |url=http://www.btinternet.com/~timeref/hpl285.htm |title=Wells Cathedral |accessdate=2008-02-10 |format= |work=Timeref ]
Tudors and civil war
By the reign of Henry VII the cathedral building was complete, with an appearance much as it is seen today. Following the
dissolution of the monasteriesin 1541 the income of the cathedral was reduced, as a result medievalbrasses were sold off, and a pulpitwas placed in the nave for the first time.cite web |url=http://www.wellscathedral.org.uk/history/presentbuilding/changesofmonarch.shtml |title=Changes of monarch |accessdate=2008-02-10 |format= |work=Wells cathedral ]
Elizabeth I gave both the Chapter and the Vicars' Choral a new charter in 1591 which created a new governing body, consisting of the dean and eight residentiary canons. This body had control over the estates of the church as well as complete authority over its affairs, but removed its right to elect its own dean. [cite web |url=http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=40953 |title='Colleges: The cathedral of Wells', A History of the County of Somerset: Volume 2 (1911) |accessdate=2008-02-10 |format= |work=British History Online ] The stability which the new charter brought came to an end with the onset of the civil war and the execution of Charles I. Local fighting led to damage to the fabric of the cathedral including stonework, furniture and windows. The dean at this time was Dr. Walter Ralegh, a nephew of the explorer Sir
Walter Raleigh. He was imprisoned after the fall of Bridgwaterto the Parliamentarians in 1645, brought back to Wells and confined in the deanery. His jailer was the local shoe maker and city constable, David Barrett, who caught him writing a letter to his wife. When he refused to surrender it, Mr Barrett ran him through with a sword, from which he died six weeks later, [cite web |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/somerset/content/articles/2007/10/24/elizabeth_feature.shtml |title=Hollywood parodies real life drama in Wells |accessdate=2008-02-10 |format= |work=BBC Somerset ] on 10 October 1646and he was buried in the choir before the deans stall. No inscription marks his grave. [cite book |title=Dictionary of National Biography |last=Lee |first=Sidney |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2001 |publisher=Adamant Media Corporation |location= |isbn=1402170645 |pages=206-207 ]
Commonwealth of Englandunder Oliver Cromwellno dean was appointed and the building fell into disrepair. The bishop was in retirement and some clergy were reduced to performing menial tasks or begging on the streets.
In 1661 when Charles II was restored to the throne,
Robert Creyghtone, who had served as the kings chaplain in exile, was appointed as the dean and later served as the bishop for two years before his death in 1672. [cite book |title=Cathedrals Under Siege: Cathedrals in English Society, 1600-1700 |last=Lehmberg |first=Stanford E. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1996 |publisher=Penn State Press |location= |isbn=0271014946 |pages=55 ] His magnificent brass lectern, given in thanksgiving, can still be seen in the cathedral. He donated the great west window of the nave at a cost of £140.
Following Creyghtone's appointment as bishop
Ralph Bathurst, who had been president of Trinity College, Oxford, [cite book |title=Trinity: 450 Years of an Oxford College Community |last=Hopkins |first=Clare |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2005 |publisher=Oxford University Press|location=Oxford |isbn=0199518963 |pages=161 ] chaplain to the king, fellow of the Royal Society, took over as the dean. During his long tenure restoration of the fabric of the cathedral took place. During the Monmouth Rebellionof 1685, puritan soldiers damaged the West front, tore lead from the roof to make bullets, broke the windows, smashed the organ and the furnishings, and for a time stabled their horses in the nave. [cite web |url=http://www.somerset.gov.uk/archives/ASH/Monmouthreb.htm |title=The Monmouth rebellion and the bloody assize |accessdate=2008-02-11 |format= |work=Somerset County Council ] The work of restoration had to start all over again under bishop Thomas Kenwho was appointed in that year and served until 1691. He was one of seven bishops imprisoned for refusing to sign King James II's "Declaration of Indulgence", which would have enabled Catholics to resume positions of political power but popular support led to his acquittal. He later refused to take the oath of allegiance to William and Marybecause James II had not formally abdicated. Thomas Ken and others (known as the Non-Jurors; the older meaning of "juror" is "one who takes an oath", hence "perjurer" as "one who swears falsely") refused and were put out of office. [cite web |url=http://magicstatistics.com/2005/10/02/wells-cathedral/ |title=Wells Cathedral |accessdate=2008-02-11 |format= |work=Magic Statistics ] He was forced to retire to Frome.
Bishop Kidder who succeeded him was killed during the
Great Storm of 1703, [cite web |url=http://www.uab.edu/english/hone/etexts/edb/day-pages/331-nov27.html |title=November 27th |accessdate=2008-02-11 |format= |work=Every-day book ] when two chimney stacks in the palace fell on the bishop and his wife, asleep in bed. [cite web |url=http://www.humnet.ucla.edu/humnet/c1718cs/Nltr35.html |title=Newsletter no. 35, Spring 2000: |accessdate=2008-02-11 |format= |work=The Center & Clark Newsletter On Line ] This same storm wrecked the Eddystone lighthouseand blew in part of the great west window in Wells.
Victorian era and restoration
In the middle of the 1800s a major restoration programme was needed. Under Dean Goodenough the monuments were removed to the cloisters and remaining medieval paint and
whitewashwas removed in an operation known as the 'the great scrape'. [cite web |url=http://www.wellscathedral.org.uk/history/presentbuilding/restoration.shtml |title=Restoration |accessdate=2008-02-11 |format= |work=Wells Cathedral ] Anthony Salvin, took charge of the extensive restoration of the Quire. The wooden galleries were removed and new stalls with stone canopies were placed further back within the line of the arches. The stone screen was pushed outwards in the centre to support a new organ. Since then a rolling programme of improvement to the fabric has been continued.
Three early registers of the dean and chapter of Wells - the Liber Albus I (White Book; R I), Liber Albus II (R III), and Liber Ruber (Red Book; R II, section i) - were edited by W. H. B. Bird for the Historical Manuscripts Commissioners and published in 1907. These three books comprise, with some repetition, a cartulary of possessions of the cathedral, with grants of land dating back as early as the 8th century, well before the development of hereditary surnames in England; acts of the dean and chapter; and surveys of their estates, mostly in Somerset. [ [http://www.theoriginalrecord.com/cgi-bin/search/decade/100] Liber Albus I (White Book; R I), Liber Albus II (R III), and Liber Ruber (Red Book; R II, section i) indexed by surname: scans available online.]
The interior of the cathedral is based on three aisles, with stress being placed on horizontal, rather than vertical lines. A unique feature in the crossing are the double pointed inverted arches, known as owl-eyed strainer arches. [cite web |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/middle_ages/architecture_medmason_02.shtml |title=The Medieval Stonemason |accessdate=2008-02-11 |format= |work=BBC History ] This unorthodox solution was found by the cathedral mason, William Joy in 1338, [cite web |url=http://www.ingenia.org.uk/ingenia/issues/issue10/heyman.pdf |title=Why ancient cathedrals stand up: The structural design of masonry |accessdate=2008-02-11 |format=PDF |work=Ingenia ] to stop the central tower from collapsing when another stage and spire were added to the tower which had been begun in the 13th century. [cite book |title=Somerset: A landmark visitors guide (3rd Ed) |last=Sale |first=Richard |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2007 |publisher= Landmark Publishing |location=Ashbourne |isbn=9781843063285 |pages=149-150 ] The capitals in the south west arm of the transept include depictions such as a bald-headed man, a man with toothache, a thorn-extractor, and a moral tale: fruit thieves being caught and punished.
The west façade, is convert|100|ft|m|0|lk=on high and convert|150|ft|m|0 wide with niches for more than 500 medieval figure sculptures of which 300 survive. Between 1975 and 1986 the west front underwent a major cleaning and restoration programme, including
Silanecoating and Lime treament for many of the statues. [cite journal |last=Caroe |first=M.B. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1985 |month= |title=Wells Cathedral Conservation of Figure Sculptures 1975-1984 |journal=Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology |volume=17 |issue=2 |pages=3–13 |id= |url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0044-9466%281985%2917%3A2%3C2%3AWCCOFS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C |accessdate= 2008-02-12 |quote=|doi=10.2307/1494129 ]
The West front is composed of a yellow stone, inferior
oolite, of the middle Jurassicera which came from the Doulting Stone Quarryabout convert|8|mi|km|0 to the East. [cite web| url= http://www.ougswessex.fsnet.co.uk/rep2003/wells.html | publisher= Open University Geological Society | title= Wells Catherdral | accessdate= 2008-03-17]
Wells Cathedral contains one of the most substantial collections of medieval stained glass in England.cite web |url=http://www.britac.ac.uk/pubs/review/_pdfs/09/07-ayers.pdf |title=The Medieval Stained Glass of Wells Cathedral |accessdate=2008-02-11 |format=PDF |work=British Academy ]
Many of the windows were damaged by soldiers in 1642 and 1643. The oldest surviving are two windows on the west side of the Chapter House staircase date from 1280-90, and two windows in the south choir aisle which are from 1310–1320. The
Lady Chapelrange is from 1325–1330, and includes images of local saint Dunstan, however the east window underwent extensive repairs by Thomas Willementin 1845. The choir east window is a fine Jesse Tree, which includes significant silver stain, and is flanked by two windows each side in the clerestory, with large figures of saints, all of which are from 1340–1345. The 1520 panels in the chapel of St Katherine are attributed to Arnold of Nijmegenand were acquired from the destroyed church of Saint-Jean, Rouen, the last panel was bought in 1953. The large triple lancet to the nave west end was glazed at the expense of Dean Creyghton at a cost of £140 in 1664 and repaired in 1813. The central light was largely replaced to a design by Archibald Keightley Nicholsonbetween 1925–1931. The main north and south transept end windows are by Powell, and were erected in the early 20th century.
Fittings and monuments
The cathedral contains architectural features and fittings some dating back hundreds of years, and tombs and monuments to bishops and noblemen.
brass lecternin the Lady Chapel is from 1661 and has a moulded stand and foliate crest. In the north transept chapel is a 17th century oak screen with columns, formerly part of cow stalls, with artisan Ionic capitals and cornice, which is set forward over chest tomb of John Godilee. There is a bound oak chest from the 14th century which would have been used to store the Chapter Seal and key documents. The Bishop's Throne dates from 1340, and has a panelled, canted front and stone doorway, and a deep nodding cusped ogee canopy over it, with 3 stepped statue niches and pinnacles. The throne was restored by restored by Anthony Salvinaround 1850. Opposite the throne is a 19th century pulpit, which is octagonal on a coved base with panelled sides, and steps up from the north aisle. The round font in the south transept is from the former Saxon cathedral, it has an arcade of round-headed arches, on a round plinth and a cover made in 1635 cover with heads of putti round sides. The Chapel of St Martin is a memorial to every Somerset man who fell in World War I.cite book |title=Curiosities of Somerset |last=Leete-Hodge |first=Lornie |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1985 |publisher=Bossiney Books |location=Bodmin |isbn=0906456983 |pages=20 ]
The monuments and tombs include:
* Bishop Giso, died 1088
* Bishop Bytton died 1274
William of March, died 1302
John Drokensford, died 1329
John Godelee, died 1333
* John Middleton, died c1350
Ralph of Shrewsbury, died 1363
* Bishop Harewell died 1386
William Bykonylldied c1448
* John Bernard, died 1459
* Bishop Bekynton, died 1464
John Gunthorpe, died 1498
John Stilldied 1607
Robert Creyghtondied 1672
* Bishop Kidder, died 1703
* Bishop Hooper, died 1727
* Bishop Harvey died 1894
The Wells clock is an
astronomical clockin the north transept. The surviving mechanism, dated to between 1386 and 1392, was replaced in the 19th century, and was eventually moved to the Science Museum in London, where it continues to operate. It is the second-oldest surviving clock in England. [cite web |url=http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/objects/time_measurement/1884-77.aspx |title=Wells Cathedral clock, c.1392 |accessdate=2008-02-11 |format= |work=Science Museum ] The dial represents the geocentricview of the universe, with sun and moon revolving round a central fixed earth. It still has its original medieval face, and may be unique in showing a philosophical model of the pre-Copernican universe with the earth at its centre. As well as showing the time on a 24 hour dial, it also reflects the motion of the sun and the moon, the phases of the moon, and the time since the last new moon. [cite web |url=http://www.isleofalbion.co.uk/wellscathedral/ |title=Wells Cathedral |accessdate=2008-02-11 |format= |work=Isle of Albion ] When the clock strikes every quarter, jousting knights move around above the clock and the Quarter Jack bangs the quarter hours with his heels. An outside clock opposite Vicars' Hall, placed there just over seventy years after the interior clock, is connected with the inside mechanism.
Organ and organists
The first record of an organ dates from 1310, with a smaller organ, probably for the Lady Chapel, being installed in 1415. In 1620 a new organ, built by Thomas Dallam was installed at a cost of £398 1s 5d, however this was destroyed by soldiers in the Monmouth rebellion and another new organ was built in 1662, [cite web |url=http://npor.emma.cam.ac.uk/cgi-bin/Rsearch.cgi?Fn=Rsearch&rec_index=N06889 |title=Somerset, Wells Cathedral of St. Andrew, Dean & Chapter Of Wells [N06889] |accessdate=2008-02-11 |format= |work=National Pipe Organ Register (NPOR) ] which was enlarged in 1786, [cite web |url=http://npor.emma.cam.ac.uk/cgi-bin/Rsearch.cgi?Fn=Rsearch&rec_index=N06890 |title=Somerset, Wells Cathedral of St. Andrew, Dean & Chapter Of Wells N06890|accessdate=2008-02-11 |format= |work=National Pipe Organ Register (NPOR) ] and again in 1855. [cite web |url=http://npor.emma.cam.ac.uk/cgi-bin/Rsearch.cgi?Fn=Rsearch&rec_index=N06891 |title=Somerset, Wells Cathedral of St. Andrew, Dean & Chapter Of Wells N06891|accessdate=2008-02-11 |format= |work=National Pipe Organ Register (NPOR) ] In 1909–1910 a new organ was built by
Harrison & Harrisonwith the best parts of old organ retained, [cite web |url=http://npor.emma.cam.ac.uk/cgi-bin/Rsearch.cgi?Fn=Rsearch&rec_index=N06892 |title=Somerset, Wells Cathedral of St. Andrew, Dean & Chapter Of Wells N06892|accessdate=2008-02-11 |format= |work=National Pipe Organ Register (NPOR) ] and this has been maintained by the same company since. [cite web |url=http://npor.emma.cam.ac.uk/cgi-bin/Rsearch.cgi?Fn=Rsearch&rec_index=N06893 |title=Somerset, Wells Cathedral of St. Andrew, Dean & Chapter Of Wells N06893|accessdate=2008-02-11 |format= |work=National Pipe Organ Register (NPOR) ]
*1416 Walter Bagele (or Vageler)
*1428 John Marshal
*1479 Richard Hygons
*1552 Nicholas Prynne
*1558 Robert Awman
*1559 William Lyde
*1563 Thomas Tanner
*1568 Matthew Nailer
*1588 John Clerk
*1600 Thomas Hunt
*1608 James Weare
*1613 Edmund Tucker
*1614 Richard Brown
*1619 John Oker (or Okeover)
*1663 John Brown
*1674 Mr Hall
*1674 John Jackson
*1688 Robert Hodge
*1690 John George
*1713 William Broderip
*1726 Joseph Millard
*1727 William Evans
*1741 Jacob Nickells
*1741 John Broderip
*1771 Peter Parfitt
*1775 Robert Parry
*1781 Dodd Perkins
*1820 William Perkins
*1859 Charles Williams Lavington
*1895 Percy Garter Buck
*1899 Rev Canon Thomas Henry Davis
*1971 Anthony Crossland
*2004 Rupert Gough (acting)
*2005 Matthew Owens
In filming for the 2007 "
Doctor Who" episode " The Lazarus Experiment" the cathedral interior stood in for that of Southwark Cathedral. Parts of the Academy Award-nominated 2007 film were also filmed in the cathedral. [cite web |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/somerset/content/articles/2007/10/24/elizabeth_feature.shtml |title=Hollywood parodies real life drama in Wells |accessdate=2008-02-12 |format= |work=BBC Somerset ]
William Turner(died 1568), who was Dean of Wells.
William Robinson ClarkDean of Tauntonand prebendary of Wells 1859–1880.
List of Church of England dioceses
List of cathedrals in the United Kingdom
Diocese of Bath and Wells
List of Bishops of Bath and Wells and precursor offices
Architecture of the medieval cathedrals of England
English Gothic architecture
Church of England
*cite book |title=The Medieval Stained Glass of Wells Cathedral |last=Ayers |first=Tim |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2004 |publisher=Oxford University Press |location= |isbn=9780197262634 |pages=
*cite book |title=Wells Cathedral |last=Reid |first=R.D. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1963 |publisher=Friends of Wells Cathedral |location= |isbn=0902321110 |pages=
* [http://www.wellscathedral.org.uk/ Official Website]
* [http://www.sacred-destinations.com/england/wells-cathedral-pictures/index.htm Wells Cathedral photo album] - 148 images
* [http://www.flickr.com/search/?w=all&q=Wells+Cathedral&m=text Flickr images tagged Wells Cathedral]
* [http://www.britannia.com/history/somerset/churches/wellscath.html David Nash Ford, ed., 1924. "The History & Architecture of Wells Cathedral in Somerset"]
* [http://www.bishopspalacewells.co.uk/index.php The mute swans of Wells]
* [http://www.ofchoristers.net/Chapters/Wells.htm A history of the choristers and choir school of Wells Cathedral]
* [http://www.wellscvc.org.uk/ Wells Cathedral Voluntary Choir]
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