Astrarium


Astrarium

An astrarium, also called a planetarium, is the mechanical representation of the cyclic nature of astronomical objects in one timepiece. It is an astronomical clock.

History

Greek and Roman World

, was recently redated between [150 to 100 B.C] [http://www.antikythera-mechanism.gr/] . Extensive study of the fragments, using X-rays, have revealed enough details (gears, pinions, crank) to enable researchers to build partial replicas [http://www.antikythera-mechanism.gr/data/models/solid-models.html] , [http://sfr.ee.teiath.gr/historia/historia/graphics/instr/images/antik06.jpg] [http://ircamera.as.arizona.edu/NatSci102/text/extgreek_files/image004.jpg] . Engraved on the major gears are the names of the planets (such as Venus), which leaves little doubt as to the intended use of the mechanism.

However, before the end of the Roman Empire, the know-how and science behind this piece of clockwork would be lost.

Middle Ages and Renaissance

The first documented astrarium clock was completed in 1364 by Giovanni de Dondi (1318-1389), a scholar and physician of the Middle Ages interested in astronomy and horology. The original clock, consisting of 107 wheels and pinions, was lost, perhaps during the sacking of Mantua in 1630, but de'Dondi left detailed descriptions which have survived, enabling the reconstruction of the clock. It displays the mean time, sidereal, or star, time and the motions of the sun, moon and the five then known planets Venus, Mars, Saturn, Mercury, and Jupiter. It was conceived according to a Ptolemaic conception of the solar system. De'Dondi was inspired by his father Jacopo who had designed the astronomical clock in the Piazzi dei Signori, Padua in 1344 - one of the first of its type.

In later ages more astraria were built. A famous example is the one built in 1774 by Eise Eisinga from Dronrijp, Friesland, the Netherlands. It displayed all the planets and was fixed to the ceiling in a house in Franeker where it can still be visited.

In modern time the astrarium grew into a tourist attraction as a commercially exploited planetarium showing in IMAX the history of the universe and other astronomical phenomena.

ee also

* Astronomical clock
* Planetarium
* Orrery

External links

* [http://www.annosphere.com Annosphere] An electro-mechanical model of the earth/sun relationship.
* [http://www.scienceandsociety.co.uk/results.asp?
] : - a picture of De Dondi’s "Astrarium", the world’s first astronomical clock, 1364.
* [http://www.almagest.co.uk/middle/astrar.htm de Dondi's Astrarium Hi-Tech, 14th Century style]
* [http://www.planetarium-friesland.nl/ Het Eise Eisinga Planetarium]
* [http://theorderoftime.org/truetime/solartime.html Solar tempometer] An astrarium clock running to the sun.

Literature

* Giovanni de Dondi - "Tractatus astarii"


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Astrarium — Giovanni de’ Dondi, auch Giovanni Dondi dall Orologio (* 1318 in Chioggia, Venetien, Italien; † 22. Juni 1389 in Mailand, Lombardei) war ein italienischer Gelehrter und Hochschullehrer. Er entwickelte das „Astrarium“, eine der ersten öffentlichen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • De Dondi — Jacopo and Giovanni de Dondi (father and son) were scholars active in 14th century Padua, Italy, and are remembered today as being pioneers in the art of clock design and construction. The Astrarium, designed and built by Giovanni de Dondi over a …   Wikipedia

  • Giovanni Dondi — Statue de Giovanni Dondi à Prato della Valle Giovanni Dondi appelé en Italie Giovanni Dondi dell Orologio (né en 1318 à Chioggia et mort le 22 juin 1389 è Milan) est un médecin, astronome, philosophe, poète, horloger et universitaire… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Астрариум — Астрариум, реконструированный итальянским мастером Карло Кроче по описаниям Джованни де Донди[1] Астрариум, так …   Википедия

  • Giovanni Di Dondi — Jacopo et son fils Giovanni de Dondi sont des universitaires italiens du XIVe siècle qui enseignent à l université de Padoue. Ils sont des pionniers de l horlogerie. Giovanni de Dondi met au point après 16 ans de recherche une horloge… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Giovanni di Dondi — Jacopo et son fils Giovanni de Dondi sont des universitaires italiens du XIVe siècle qui enseignent à l université de Padoue. Ils sont des pionniers de l horlogerie. Giovanni de Dondi met au point après 16 ans de recherche une horloge… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Giovanni di dondi — Jacopo et son fils Giovanni de Dondi sont des universitaires italiens du XIVe siècle qui enseignent à l université de Padoue. Ils sont des pionniers de l horlogerie. Giovanni de Dondi met au point après 16 ans de recherche une horloge… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Giovanni Dondi — Giovanni de’ Dondi, auch Giovanni Dondi dall Orologio (* 1318 in Chioggia, Venetien, Italien; † 22. Juni 1389 in Mailand, Lombardei) war ein italienischer Gelehrter und Hochschullehrer. Er entwickelte das „Astrarium“, eine der ersten öffentlichen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Giovanni de Dondi — Giovanni de’ Dondi, auch Giovanni Dondi dall Orologio (* 1318 in Chioggia, Venetien, Italien; † 22. Juni 1389 in Mailand, Lombardei) war ein italienischer Gelehrter und Hochschullehrer. Er entwickelte das „Astrarium“, eine der ersten öffentlichen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Solar time — On a prograde planet like the Earth, the sidereal day is shorter than the solar day. At time 1, the Sun and a certain distant …   Wikipedia


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