- George W. P. Hunt
name = George W. P. Hunt
caption = Hunt (left) with future Chief Justice of the Arizona Supreme Court,
Jesse Addison Udall.
order = 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th
office = Governor of Arizona
term_start = February 14, 1912
term_end = January 1,, 1917 December 25, 1917 – January 6, ,1919 January 1,, 1923 – January 7, 1929 January 5,, 1931 – January 2,, 1933
predecessor = Thomas E. Campbell (1917 & 1919) John C. Phillips (1929)
successor = Thomas E. Campbell (1917 & 1923) John C. Phillips (1929)
Benjamin Baker Moeur(1933)
ambassador_from2 =United States
May 18, 1920
October 4, 1921
birth_date = birth date|1859|11|1|mf=y
death_date = death date and age|1934|12|24|1859|11|1
party = Democrat
spouse = Helen Duett Ellison
George Wylie Paul HuntRef|Name_note|A (
November 1, 1859– December 24, 1934) was an American politicianand businessman. He was the first Governor of Arizona, serving a total of seven terms, along with President of the convention that wrote Arizona's constitution. In addition, Hunt served in both houses of the Arizona Territorial Legislatureand was posted as Minister to Siam.
Calling himself the "Old Walrus", Hunt was convert|5|ft|9|in|m tall, close to convert|300|lb|kg, bald, and had a drooping
handlebar moustache.Politically, he was a Progressive Erapopulist who supported reforms such as women's suffrage, secret ballots, income tax, free silver coinage, and compulsory education.Goff p. 9] Hunt was also an opponent of capital punishmentand a supporter of organized labor.cite news |title=G. W. P. Hunt Dies; Leader in Arizona |pages=p. 23 |publisher="New York Times" |date= December 25, 1934] Johnson p. 70]
Hunt was born in
Huntsville, Missourito George Washington and Sarah Elizabeth (Yates) Hunt on November 1, 1859. His family was originally well-to-do, with the town of Huntsville being named for Hunt's grandfather, but lost their fortune as a result of the American Civil War. After being educated in a combination of public and private schools, Hunt ran away from his family on March 3, 1878. For three years his family believed he had been killed by Indians while Hunt traveled through Kansas, Coloradoand rafted down the Rio Grande.Goff p. 7]
Hunt arrived in
Globe, Arizona, his home for the rest of his life, with two burros and needing a job. His first job was as a waiter in the Pasco Café. This was followed by a series of odd jobs including a mucker in a mine and work on a cattle ranch before he became a clerk at a general store. Early experience in the grocery department lead Hunt to perform most of his household's shopping. The store purchased by a larger concern, the Old Dominion Commercial Company, and Hunt advanced to become president of the combined business. Following his election as Governor, he sold his company stock and limited his investments to government bonds
Hunt married Helen Duett Ellison in
Holbrook, Arizonaon February 24, 1904. The couple had a single daughter named Virginia. Hunts personal interests included cultivation of rare shrubs and trees along with collection of Southwestern Indian art. He was a Freemasonand Oddfellow.
Hunt's first foray into politics was an unsuccessful 1890 run for county recorder of
Gila County. This was followed by successful runs for the Territorial House of Representatives in 1892 and 1894. During his first term as a Representative, Hunt sponsored legislation authorizing a US$5,000 reward for capture of the Apache Kid.Wagoner p. 303]
After two terms in the
lower houseHunt successfully ran for a seat in the upper house, the Council, in 1896. During the 1897 legislative session, he sponsored legislation requiring children between eight and fourteen years of age attend school for a minimum of twelve weeks per year.Wagoner p. 351] Hunt was reelected to the Council in 1898 before voluntarily leaving politics till 1904. Upon reentering politics, he was again elected to the council in 1904, 1906, and 1908. During the 23rd Arizona Territorial Legislature, Hunt was President of the Council but was unable to secure passage of his bill providing primary elections to nominate political candidates. During the 1907 legislative session he secured passage of a bill outlawing gambling within the territory.Wagoner p. 441] During his final legislative session, Hunt once again served as President of the Council and won passage of his bill creating nominating primaries.
Following passage of Arizona's Enabling Act, an election was called to select delegates to a constitutional convention. Hunt won election as one of five delegates from Gila County.Wagoner p. 462] On the first day of the convention, Hunt was in turn selected as president for the convention.Wagoner p. 466] The last surviving member of the convention, Jacob Weinberger, later recalled Hunt as a "behind-the-scenes manipulator who presided in in the manner of a stoic, benign Buddhandash if one can picture Buddha with a splendid handlebar mustache."Wagoner p. 466] Among the features of the new constitution that he supported were
initiative, recall, and referendum.
Hunt announced his candidacy for Governor of the new state in September 1911. Following victory in the Democratic primary, he went on to a narrow victory over Republican challenger Edmund W. Wells to be elected first Governor of Arizona.Goff p. 12]
Hunt was sworn in as Arizona's first state Governor on
February 14, 1912. [cite news |title=Gov. Hunt Inaugurated |pages=p. 8 |publisher="New York Times" |date= February 15, 1912|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9407E5DE1F31E233A25756C1A9649C946396D6CF] When the new legislature met in March of the same year, the he lobbied for passage of legislation restricting child labor, lobbying, and usury. Other legislation supported by Hunt included requirements for newspapers to disclose their ownership, creation of workers' compensation, and creating old age pensions.
Due to an Arizona Supreme Court ruling that there would be no elections for state officials in 1912, Hunt's first run for reelection did not occur till 1914. After defeating
Ralph H. Cameron, the governor's second term was dominated by events along the United States–Mexico border. Conflict from the Mexican Revolutionbegan affecting American interests by April 1914. [cite news |title=Arizona Fears the Rebels |pages=p. 4 |publisher="New York Times" |date= April 26, 1914|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9A06EED7163AE633A25755C2A9629C946596D6CF] This was followed by an October 11, 1914attack on Naco, Arizona. [cite news |title=American Troops Fire on Mexicans |pages=p. 5 |publisher="New York Times" |date= October 12, 1914|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9801E7D7143EE033A25751C1A9669D946596D6CF] Hunt considered deploying the Arizona National Guard to protect American lives, but was convinced by Secretary of War Lindley M. Garrisonto allow U.S. Army troops to handle the conflict. [cite news |title=Won't Call Out Militia |pages=p. 8 |publisher="New York Times" |date= October 15, 1914|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9D05E3D6143AE633A25756C1A9669D946596D6CF] Problems with cross border shootings continued with the American military unable to prevent the violence without crossing into Mexico. [cite news |title=Naco Baffles Government |pages=p. 18 |publisher="New York Times" |date= December 8, 1914|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9D00E7DE1438E633A2575BC0A9649D946596D6CF]
The elections of 1916 resulted in a contested election result. Initial results showed that challenger
Thomas E. Campbellhad won by 30 votes, but Hunt challenged the results claiming that several precincts had experienced fraudulent voting. [cite news |title=Gov. Hunt Refuses to Yield Office |pages=p. 4 |publisher="New York Times" |date=January 2,, 1917 |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=980CE4D81438EE32A25751C0A9679C946696D6CF] Hunt initially refused to leave office, but a January 27, 1917ruling by the Arizona Supreme Court naming Campbell the de-facto governor forced him to surrender his office. [cite news |title=Gov. Hunt Put Out of Office by Court |pages=p. 14 |publisher="New York Times" |date= January 28, 1917|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9405EEDB173AE433A2575BC2A9679C946696D6CF] The former governor maintained his fights in the court, and on December 22, 1917was declared the winner of the 1916 election by a total of 43 votes. [cite news |title=Court Declares Hunt Governor of Arizona |pages=p. 5 |publisher="New York Times" |date= December 23, 1917|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9407E2DD1E3BE03ABC4B51DFB467838C609EDE] Hunt returned to office for his third term on December 25, 1917.
With the United States entry into
World War I, Hunt began knitting scarves for soldiers as a patriotic duty and said he wished he could served with the US Marines. The governor's associations with the Industrial Workers of the Worldhowever caused his loyalties to be questioned. After a person from Flagstaff challenged his loyalties, Hunt files a lawsuitclaiming libeland was awarded one cent in damages.Johnson p. 72]
Minister to Siam
In 1918, Hunt decided not to run for reelection and left office in January 1919. He soon became bored and began looking for new challenges. One such challenge was his attempt to learn how to drive an automobile. After driving into a ditch several times, he described the experience with: "One started out in the morning with exhilaration and by nightfall was towed home in shame."
By early 1920 Hunt was believed to be planning a run for Mark Smith's
U.S. Senateseat. To counter this possible threat it is rumored that Smith, with the help of Henry F. Ashurst, asked President Wilsonto appoint Hunt to a diplomatic position that would take him away from Arizona. The story continues with Wilson placing his finger on a globe and asking "Would this be far enough?"Johnson p. 72] Hunt was confirmed as the United States Minister to Siamon May 18, 1920. [cite news |title=Hunt Confirmed as Minister to Siam |pages=p. 9 |publisher="New York Times" |date= May 19, 1920|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9B04EED9173AEE32A2575AC1A9639C946195D6CF]
Hunt was replaced as Minister to Siam by President
Warren G. Hardingon October 4, 1921. [cite news |title=Eight Ministers Named by Harding |pages=p. 14 |publisher="New York Times" |date= October 5, 1921|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9C03E2D6123EEE3ABC4D53DFB667838A639EDE] While in Siam, Hunt had maintained contact with Arizona by sending postcards. The former governor also brought with him a variety of souvenirs to hand out to his supporters.Johnson p. 72] Upon his return, Hunt began speaking to various groups within Arizona about his experiences overseas. After a short time the topic of these speaks changed to politics and by the mid-1922 Hunt was running for his fourth term as Governor of Arizona.Goff p. 15]
Beginning in 1923 Hunt served as Governor of Arizona for six consecutive years, winning closely contested reelection contests in both 1924 and 1926. Arizona's primary political issue during this time period was ratification of the
Colorado River Compact.The governor opposed ratification of the compact, which appropriated water rights to the Colorado Riveramong seven states, claiming that it gave California an unfair share of "Arizona's birthright". The issue was of such importance to Hunt that Arizonans of the day joked that while Jesus had walked on water, their governor ran on the Colorado River.
In addition to his stance on the Colorado River, Hunt's political longevity became a source of pointed comments. During his fifth term, Hunt's political opponents gave the governor the sobriquet "George V". This was updated to "George VI" after he won a sixth term.cite journal |title=Gentlemen All |journal=Time |volume=10 |issue=6 |pages=9 |date=
August 8, 1927|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,730846-2,00.html] During a 1928 meeting at the Phoenix airport, Will Rogerspicked up on the theme by asking Hunt to adopt the comedian so that he could succeed his "hereditary governorship".
Hunt was defeated in his 1928 reelection bid, swept aside by that year's Republican landslide. His 1930 campaign was successful and Hunt returned for a seventh term. He failed to gain his party's nomination in 1932, losing to
Benjamin Baker Moeur, and made another unsuccessful run in 1934. Hunt died in his house of heart failure on December 24. 1934. He was interred in a white pyramid set atop a hill in Phoenix's Papago Park.Johnson p. 74]
* Hunt's two middle names are uncertain. His second name is alternatively given as Wiley, Willie, Wyley, and Wylley while some family members used the name Pearle instead of Paul for his third name.
*cite book |last=Goff |first=John S. |chapter=George W. P. Hunt |editor=Myers, John L. (ed.) |title=The Arizona governors, 1912-1990 |year=1989 |publisher=Heritage Publishers |location=Phoenix |isbn=0-929690-05-2 |pages=(pp. 7-17)
*cite book |last=Johnson |first=James W. |others=illustrations by David `Fitz' Fitzsimmons |title=Arizona Politicians: The Noble and the Notorious |year=2002 |publisher=University of Arizona Press |isbn=0-8165-2203-0
*cite book |last=Wagoner |first=Jay J. |title=Arizona Territory 1863-1912: A Political history |publisher=University of Arizona Press |location=Tucson |date=1970 |isbn=0-8165-0176-9
* [http://www.sharlot.org/archives/history/dayspast/text/2005_06_26.shtml Arizona's first governor, George W.P. Hunt, was the consummate politician] from Sharlot Hall Museum
* [http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgnextoid=8169224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD&vgnextchannel=e449a0ca9e3f1010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD Arizona Governor George Wylie Hunt] by
National Governors Association
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