- Treaties of Tilsit
The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by
Napoleon Iof Francein the aftermath of his victory at Friedland in the town of Tilsitin July, 1807. The first was signed on July 7, between TsarAlexander I of Russia and Napoleon Iof France, when they met on a raft in the middle of the Nemunas River. The second was signed with Prussiaon July 9.
The treaties ended war between
Imperial Russiaand the French Empire and began an alliance between the two empires which rendered the rest of Europe almost powerless. The two countries secretly agreed to aid each other in disputes — France pledged to aid Russia against Ottoman Turkey, while Russia agreed to join the Continental Systemagainst the British Empire. Napoleon also convinced Alexander to enter into the Anglo-Russian Warand to instigate the Finnish Waragainst Swedenin order to force Sweden to join the Continental System.
More specifically, the tsar agreed to evacuate
Wallachiaand Moldavia, which had been occupied by Russian forces as part of the Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812. The Ionian Islandsand Cattaro, which had been captured by Russian admirals Ushakovand Senyavin, were to be handed over to the French. In recompense, Napoleon guaranteed the sovereignty of the Duchy of Oldenburgand several other small states ruled by the tsar's German relatives.
The treaty with
Prussiastripped the country of about half its territory: Kottbuspassed to Saxony, the left bank of the Elbewas awarded to the newly-created Kingdom of Westphalia, Belostokwas given to Russia (which led to the creation of the Belostok Oblast), and the rest of Polish lands in the Prussian possession was set up as the quasi-independent Duchy of Warsaw. Prussia was to reduce the army to 40,000 and to pay the indemnity of 100,000,000 francs. Talleyrandhad advised Napoleon to pursue milder terms; the treaties marked an important stage in his estrangement from the emperor.
Many observers in Prussia and Russia viewed the treaty as unequal and as a national humiliation. The Russian soldiers refused to follow Napoleon's commands, as the Lisbon Incident demonstrated to all Europe. Napoleon's matrimonial plans to marry the tsar's sister were stymied by Russian royalty. Cooperation between Russia and France eventually broke down in
1810when the tsar began to allow neutral ships to land in Russian ports. In 1812, Napoleon crossed the Nemunas and invaded Russia, ending any vestige of alliance.
* [http://www.lwl.org/westfaelische-geschichte/portal/Internet/ku.php?tab=que&ID=801 Kingdom of Prussia: Peace Treaty of Tilsit]
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