Combined cycle


Combined cycle

In electric power generation a combined cycle is an assembly of heat engines that work in tandem off the same source of heat, converting it into mechanical energy, which in turn usually drives electrical generators. The principle is that the exhaust of one heat engine is used as the heat source for another, thus extracting more useful energy from the heat, increasing the system's overall efficiency. This works because heat engines are only able to use a portion of the energy their fuel generates (usually less than 50%).

The remaining heat (e.g., hot exhaust fumes) from combustion is generally wasted. Combining two or more thermodynamic cycles results in improved overall efficiency, reducing fuel costs. In stationary power plants, a successful, common combination is the Brayton cycle (in the form of a turbine burning natural gas or synthesis gas from coal) and the Rankine cycle (in the form of a steam power plant). Multiple stage turbine or steam cylinders are also common.

Historically successful combined cycles have used hot cycles with mercury vapor turbines, magnetohydrodynamic generators or molten carbonate fuel cells, with steam plants for the low temperature bottoming cycle. Bottoming cycles operating from a steam condenser's heat are theoretically possible, but uneconomical because of the very large, expensive equipment needed to extract energy from the small temperature differences between condensing steam and outside air or water. However, it is common in cold climates (such as Finland) to drive community heating systems from a power plant's condenser heat. Such cogeneration systems can yield theoretical efficiencies above 95%.

In automotive and aeronautical engines, turbines have been driven from the exhausts of Otto, Diesel, and Crower cycles. These are called turbo-compound engines. Aside from turbochargers, they have failed commercially because their mechanical complexity and weight are less economical than multistage turbines. Stirling engines are also a good theoretical fit for this application.

In a combined cycle power plant (CCPP), or combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant, a gas turbine generator generates electricity and heat in the exhaust is used to make steam, which in turn drives a steam turbine to generate additional electricity. This last step enhances the efficiency of electricity generation. Many new gas power plants in North America and Europe are of this type. Such an arrangement used for marine propulsion is called combined gas (turbine) and steam (turbine) (COGAS).

Contents

Design principle

Working principle of a combined cycle power plant (Legend: 1-Electric generators, 2-Steam turbine, 3-Condenser, 4-Pump, 5-Boiler/heat exchanger, 6-Gas turbine)

In a thermal power station water is the working medium. High pressure steam requires strong, bulky components. High temperatures require expensive alloys made from nickel or cobalt, rather than inexpensive steel. These alloys limit practical steam temperatures to 655 °C while the lower temperature of a steam plant is fixed by the boiling point of water. With these limits, a steam plant has a fixed upper efficiency of 35 to 42%.

An open circuit gas turbine cycle has a compressor, a combustor and a turbine. For gas turbines the amount of metal that must withstand the high temperatures and pressures is small, and lower quantities of expensive materials can be used. In this type of cycle, the input temperature to the turbine (the firing temperature), is relatively high (900 to 1,400 °C). The output temperature of the flue gas is also high (450 to 650 °C). This is therefore high enough to provide heat for a second cycle which uses steam as the working fluid; (a Rankine cycle).

In a combined cycle power plant, the heat of the gas turbine's exhaust is used to generate steam by passing it through a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with a live steam temperature between 420 and 580 °C. The condenser of the Rankine cycle is usually cooled by water from a lake, river, sea or cooling towers. This temperature can be as low as 15 °C

In an automotive powerplant, an Otto, Diesel, Atkinson or similar engine would provide one part of the cycle and the waste heat would power a Rankine cycle steam or Stirling engine, which could either power ancillaries (such as the alternator) or be connected to the crankshaft by a turbo compounding system.[citation needed]

Typical size of CCGT plants

For large scale power generation, a typical set would be a 270 MW gas turbine coupled to a 130 MW steam turbine giving 400 MW. A typical power station might consist of between 1 and 6 such sets.

Plant size is important in the cost of the plant. The larger plant sizes benefit from economies of scale (lower initial cost per kilowatt) and improved efficiency.

A single shaft combined cycle plant comprises a gas turbine and a steam turbine driving a common generator. In a multi-shaft combined cycle plant, each gas turbine and each steam turbine has its own generator. The single shaft design provides slightly less initial cost and slightly better efficiency than if the gas and steam turbines had their own generators. The multi-shaft design enables 2 or more gas turbines to operate in conjunction with a single steam turbine, which can be more economical than a number of single shaft units.

The primary disadvantage of multiple stage combined cycle power plants is that the number of steam turbines, condensers and condensate systems - and perhaps the number of cooling towers and circulating water systems - increases to match the number of gas turbines. For a multiple shaft combined cycle power plant there is only one steam turbine, condenser and the rest of the heat sink for up to three gas turbines; only their size increases. Having only one large steam turbine and heat sink results in low cost because of economies of scale. A larger steam turbine also allows the use of higher pressures and results in a more efficient steam cycle. Thus the overall plant size and the associated number of gas turbines required have a major impact on whether a single shaft combined cycle power plant or a multiple shaft combined cycle power plant is more economical.

Gas turbines of about 150 MW size are already in operation manufactured by at least four separate groups - General Electric and its licensees, Alstom, Siemens, and Westinghouse/Mitsubishi. These groups are also developing, testing and/or marketing gas turbine sizes of about 200 MW. Combined cycle units are made up of one or more such gas turbines, each with a waste heat steam generator arranged to supply steam to a single steam tubine, thus forming a combined cycle block or unit. Typical Combined cycle block sizes offered by three major manufacturers (Alstom, General Electric and Siemens) are roughly in the range of 50 MW to 500 MW and costs are about $600/kW.

Efficiency of CCGT plants

(When talking about the efficiency of heat engines and power stations the convention should be stated ie HHV (aka Gross Heating Value etc) or LCV (aka Net Heating value) AND whether Gross output (at the generator terminals) or Net Output (at the power station fence) are being considered. The two are of course separate but both must be stated. Failure to do so causes endless confusion.)

In general in service Combined Cycle efficiencies are over 50 percent on a lower heating value and Gross Output basis. Most combined cycle units, especially the larger units, have peak, steady state efficiencies of 55 - 59%. Research aimed at 1370°C (2500°F) turbine inlet temperature has led to even more efficient combined cycles and 60 percent efficiency has been reached for at least one combined cycle unit, (e.g. the combined cycle unit of Baglan Bay, a GE H-technology gas turbine with a NEM 3 pressure reheat boiler. Utilising steam from the HRSG to cool the turbine blades). Other GT manufacturers also claim to have broken the 60% efficiency for combined cycle (e.g. Siemens).

By combining both gas and steam cycles, high input temperatures and low output temperatures can be achieved. The efficiency of the cycles add, because they are powered by the same fuel source. So, a combined cycle plant has a thermodynamic cycle that operates between the gas-turbine's high firing temperature and the waste heat temperature from the condensers of the steam cycle. This large range means that the Carnot efficiency of the cycle is high. The actual efficiency, while lower than this, is still higher than that of either plant on its own.[1] The actual efficiency achievable is a complex area.[2]

The electric efficiency of a combined cycle power station, calculated as electric energy produced as a percent of the lower heating value of the fuel consumed, may be as high as 58 percent when operating new, ie unaged, and at continuous output which are ideal conditions. As with single cycle thermal units, combined cycle units may also deliver low temperature heat energy for industrial processes, district heating and other uses. This is called cogeneration and such power plants are often referred to as a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant.

Boosting Efficiency

The efficiency of CCGT and GT can be boosted by pre-cooling combustion air. This is practised in hot climates and also has the effect of increasing power output. This is achieved by evaporative cooling of water using a moist matrix placed in front of the turbine, or by using Ice storage air conditioning. The latter has the advantage of greater improvements due to the lower temperatures available. Furthermore, ice storage can be used as a means of load control or load shifting since ice can be made during periods of low power demand and, potentially in the future the anticipated high availability of other resources such as renewables during certain periods.

Supplementary firing and blade cooling

Supplementary firing may be used in combined cycles (in the HRSG) raising exhaust temperatures from 600°C (GT exhaust) to 800 or even 1000°C. Using supplemental firing will however not raise the combined cycle efficiency for most combined cycles. For single boilers it may raise the efficiency if fired to 700- 750°C - for multiple boilers however, supplemental firing is often used to improve peak power production of the unit, or to enable higher steam production to compensate for failure of a second unit.

Maximum supplementary firing refers to the maximum fuel that can be fired with the oxygen available in the gas turbine exhaust. The steam cycle is conventional with reheat and regeneration. Hot gas turbine exhaust is used as the combustion air. Regenerative air preheater is not required. A fresh air fan which makes it possible to operate the steam plant even when the gas turbine is not in operation,increases the availability of the unit.

The use of large supplementary firing in Combined Cycle Systems with high gas turbine inlet temperatures causes the efficiency to drop. For this reason the Combined Cycle Plants with maximum supplementary firing are only of minimal importance today, in comparison to simple Combined Cycle installations. However, they have two advantages that is a) coal can be burned in the steam generator as the supplementary fuel, b) has very good part load efficiency.

The HRSG can be designed with supplementary firing of fuel after the gas turbine in order to increase the quantity or temperature of the steam generated. Without supplementary firing, the efficiency of the combined cycle power plant is higher, but supplementary firing lets the plant respond to fluctuations of electrical load. Supplementary burners are also called duct burners.

More fuel is sometimes added to the turbine's exhaust. This is possible because the turbine exhaust gas (flue gas) still contains some oxygen. Temperature limits at the gas turbine inlet force the turbine to use excess air, above the optimal stoichiometric ratio to burn the fuel. Often in gas turbine designs part of the compressed air flow bypasses the burner and is used to cool the turbine blades.

Supplementary firing raises the temperature of the exhaust gas from 800 to 900 degree Celsius. Relatively high flue gas temperature raises the condition of steam (84 bar, 525 degree Celsius) thereby improving the efficiency of steam cycle.

Fuel for combined cycle power plants

The turbines used in Combined Cycle Plants are commonly fueled with natural gas. However, global natural gas reserves are expected to be fully consumed by 2070.[3] Despite this fact, it is becoming the fuel of choice for an increasing amount of private investors and consumers because it is more versatile than coal or oil and can be used in 90% of energy applications. Chile which once depended on hydropower for 70% of its electricity supply, is now boosting its gas supplies to reduce reliance on its drought afflicted hydro dams. Similarly China is tapping its gas reserves to reduce reliance on coal, which is currently burned to generate 80% of the country’s electric supply.

Where the extension of a gas pipeline is impractical or cannot be economically justified, electricity needs in remote areas can be met with small scale Combined Cycle Plants, using renewable fuels. Instead of natural gas, Combined Cycle Plants can be filled with biogas derived from agricultural and forestry waste, which is often readily available in rural areas.

Combined cycle plants are usually powered by natural gas, although fuel oil, synthesis gas or other fuels can be used. The supplementary fuel may be natural gas, fuel oil, or coal. Biofuels can also be used. Integrated solar combined cycle power stations combine the energy harvested from solar radiation with another fuel to cut fuel costs and environmental impact. The first such system to come online is Yazd power plant, Iran[4][5] and more are under construction at Hassi R'mel, Algeria and Ain Beni Mathar, Morocco. Next generation nuclear power plants are also on the drawing board which will take advantage of the higher temperature range made available by the Brayton top cycle, as well as the increase in thermal efficiency offered by a Rankine bottoming cycle.

Low-Grade Fuel for Turbines: Gas turbines burn mainly natural gas and light oil. Crude oil, residual, and some distillates contain corrosive components and as such require fuel treatment equipment. In addition, ash deposits from these fuels result in gas turbine debating’s of up to 15 percent they may still be economically attractive fuels however, particularly in combined-cycle plants.

Sodium and potassium are removed from residual, crude and heavy distillates by a water washing procedure. A simpler and less expensive purification system will do the same job for light crude and light distillates. A magnesium additive system may also be needed to reduce the corrosive effects if vanadium is present. Fuels requiring such treatment must have a separate fuel-treatment plant and a system of accurate fuel monitoring to assure reliable, low-maintenance operation of gas turbines.

Configuration of CCGT plants

The combined-cycle system includes single-shaft and multi-shaft configurations. The single-shaft system consists of one gas turbine, one steam turbine, one generator and one Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG), with the gas turbine and steam turbine coupled to the single generator in a tandem arrangement on a single shaft. Key advantages of the single-shaft arrangement are operating simplicity, smaller footprint, and lower startup cost. Single-shaft arrangements, however, will tend to have less flexibility and equivalent reliability than multi-shaft blocks. Additional operational flexibility is provided with a steam turbine which can be disconnected, using an synchro-self-shifting (SSS) Clutch,[6] for start up or for simple cycle operation of the gas turbine.

Multi-shaft systems have one or more gas turbine-generators and HRSGs that supply steam through a common header to a separate single steam turbine-generator. In terms of overall investment a multi-shaft system is about 5% higher in costs.

Single- and multiple-pressure non-reheat steam cycles are applied to combined-cycle systems equipped with gas turbines having rating point exhaust gas temperatures of approximately 540 °C or less. Selection of a single- or multiple-pressure steam cycle for a specific application is determined by economic evaluation which considers plant installed cost, fuel cost and quality, plant duty cycle, and operating and maintenance cost.

Multiple-pressure reheat steam cycles are applied to combined-cycle systems with gas turbines having rating point exhaust gas temperatures of approximately 600 °C.

The most efficient power generation cycles are those with unfired HRSGs with modular pre-engineered components. These unfired steam cycles are also the lowest in cost. Supplementary-fired combined-cycle systems are provided for specific application.

The primary regions of interest for cogeneration combined-cycle systems are those with unfired and supplementary fired steam cycles. These systems provide a wide range of thermal energy to electric power ratio and represent the range of thermal energy capability and power generation covered by the product line for thermal energy and power systems. by Engr. Bilal Pervez

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)

An integrated gasification combined cycle, or IGCC, is a power plant using synthesis gas (syngas). Syngas can be produced from a number of sources, including coal and biomass.

Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC)

An integrated solar combined cycle, or ISCC, is a power plant using solar thermal collectors. This is typically in the form of parabolic troughs.

Automotive use

Any turbocharged engine is effectively a combined cycle with the turbo charger extracting extra energy from the exhaust gases. Theoretically, this extracted energy could be used to drive the wheels, but it is more practical to use it to force air into the engine which reduces the suction loss and thereby improves the efficiency overall. On large marine diesels turbo-compounding has been employed where the turbocharger physically pushes the engine around via some sort of gearing arrangement.

Combined cycles have traditionally only been used in large power plants. BMW, however, has proposed that automobiles use exhaust heat to drive steam turbines.[7] This can even be connected to the car or truck's cooling system to save space and weight, but also to provide a condenser in the same location as the radiator and preheating of the water using heat from the engine block. However, stirling engines can also be used if light weight is a priority (as in a sports car or racing application), because they use a gas such as air rather than water as the working fluid.

It may be possible to use the pistons in a reciprocating engine for both combustion and steam expansion like in the Crower six stroke.[8]

Aeromotive use

Some versions of the Wright R-3350 were produced as turbo-compound engines. Three turbines driven by exhaust gases, known as power recovery turbines, provided nearly 600 hp at takeoff. These turbines added power to the engine crankshaft through bevel gears and fluid couplings.[9]

See also

References

External links


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