Karelia (Karelian and Finnish "Karjala", _ru. Карелия ("Kareliya"), _sv. Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in
Northern Europeof historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden. It is currently divided between the Russian Republic of Karelia, the Russian Leningrad Oblast, and Finland (the regions of South Kareliaand North Karelia).
Use of name
Various subdivisions may be called Karelia.
Finnish Kareliawas a historical province of Finland, now divided between Finland and Russia, often called just "Karjala" in Finnish. The eastern part of this chiefly Lutheranarea was ceded to Russia after the Winter Warof 1939-40. This area is the "Karelia" of the Karelian question in Finnish politics.
Republic of Kareliais a Russian federal subject, including the so-called "East Karelia" with a chiefly Russian Orthodox population.
Karelia was bitterly fought over by
Swedenand the Novgorod Republicsince the 13th-century Swedish-Novgorodian Wars. The Treaty of Nöteborg(Finnish: Pähkinäsaaren rauha) in 1323 divided Karelia between the two. Viborg (Finnish: Viipuri) became the capital of the new Swedish province.
Treaty of Nystad(Finnish: Uudenkaupungin rauha) in 1721 between Imperial Russiaand Sweden ceded most of Karelia to Russia. After Finlandhad been occupied by Russia in the Finnish War, parts of the ceded provinces ( Old Finland) were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1917 Finland became independent and the border was confirmed by the Treaty of Tartuin 1920.
During the 1920s, Finns were involved in attempts to overthrow the Bolshevists in Russian Karelia (
East Karelia), for instance in the failed Aunus expedition. These mainly private expeditions ended after the peace treaty of Tartu. After the end of the Russian Civil War, and the establishment of the Soviet Unionin 1922, the Russian part of Karelia became the Karelian Autonomous republic of the Soviet Union(ASSR) in 1923.
In 1939 the Soviet Union attacked Finland starting the
Winter War. The Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940 handed most of Finnish Kareliato the Soviet Union. About 400,000 people, virtually the whole population, had to be relocated within Finland. In 1941 Karelia was re-conquered for three years during the Continuation War1941–1944 when East Karelia was also occupied by the Finns. The Winter War and the resulting Soviet expansion caused considerable bitterness in Finland, which lost its second biggest city, Viipuri, its industrial heartland along the river Vuoksi, the Saimaa canalthat connected central Finland to the Gulf of Finland, access to the fishing waters of Lake Ladoga(Finnish: Laatokka), and made an eighth of her citizens refugees without chance of return.
As a consequence of the peace treaty, the Karelian ASSR was incorporated with the
Karelo-Finnish SSR1941–1956, after which it became an ASSR again. Karelia was the only Soviet republic that was "demoted" from an SSR to an ASSR within the Russian SFR. Unlike autonomous republics, Soviet republics (in theory) had the constitutional right to secede. The possible fear of secession, as well as the Russian ethnic majority in Karelia may have resulted in its "demotion." In 1991 the Republic of Kareliawas created out of the ASSR.
The collapse of the Soviet Union brought an
economic collapse. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the area has experienced massive urban decay. The hastily and poorly constructed buildings from the Soviet era, as well as older houses remaining from the Finnish era, are being abandoned. [http://karjalantragedia.info/kt/?x=collapse]
Karelia is divided between Finland and Russia. The
Republic of Kareliais a republic of Russia, which was formed in 1991 from the Karelian ASSR. The Karelian Isthmusbelongs to the Leningrad Oblast. The Finnish parts of Karelia are part of the regions ("maakunta") of South Kareliaand North Karelia.
There are some small but enthusiastic groups of Finns campaigning for closer ties between Finland and Karelia. The political expression of these irredentist hopes is called the Karelian question and is about for Finland's re-acquisition of the ceded
Finnish Karelialive on in for instance the " Karjalan Liitto" and ProKarelia. These ambitions for closer ties with East Kareliado not include territorial demands. However, much of the original Finnish population of the Russian side of Karelia has been either resettled and integrated to inner Finland, Russified or dispersed into Russia as victims of Soviet internal population transfers.
Karelia stretches from the
White Seacoast to the Gulf of Finland. It contains the two largest lakes in Europe, Lake Ladogaand Lake Onega. The Karelian Isthmusis located between the Gulf of Finlandand Lake Ladoga.
The border between Karelia and
Ingria, the land of the closely related Ingrian people, has originally been the Neva river itself but later on it was moved northward into Karelian isthmus to follow the "Sestra River/Rajajoki" (Russian: Сестра/Раяйоки), today in the Saint Petersburgmetropolitan area, but in 1812–1940 the Russo-Finnish border.
On the other side of
Lake Ladoga, River Sviris usually thought of as the traditional southern border of Karelian territory, as Lake Saimaamarks the Western border while Lake Onegaand the White Seamark the Eastern border. In the North there were the nomadicSamis, but no natural border except for huge woods ( taiga) and tundra.
In historical texts Karelia is sometimes divided into "East Karelia" and "West Karelia," which are also called Russian Karelia and
Finnish Kareliarespectively. The area to the north of Lake Ladoga which belonged to Finland before World War IIis called Ladoga Karelia, and the parishes on the old pre-war border are sometimes called Border Karelia. White Kareliais the northern part of East Kareliaand Olonets Kareliais the southern part. Tver Kareliadenotes the villages in the Tver Oblastthat are inhabited by Karelians. [http://www.kotus.fi/verkkojulkaisut/julk129/karjala_suomen.shtml] [http://www.kotus.fi/verkkojulkaisut/julk129/karjala_venajan.shtml]
Towns and cities
Republic of Karelia
** Kalevala ("Калевала", Uhtua)
** Kem ("Кемь", "Vienan Kemi", compare with
Sortavala("Сортавала", "Sortavala", "Sordavala")
Vyborg("Выборг", "Viipuri", "Viborg")
Karelian languageis spoken in the Republic of Karelia and also in the Tver Karelian villages. The Veps languageis spoken on both sides of the River Svir. The so called Karelian dialects spoken mainly in Finnish South Karelia form the southeastern dialect group of Finnish. Similar dialects are also spoken in Ingria, which is an area between the Estonian border and Lake Ladoga. They appeared there in the 17th century after the Swedish conquest of the area. Anyhow the older inhabitants of the Ingria, the Ingrians have their own language, which is related to the Karelian language and the south-eastern dialects of Finnish. [http://www.internetix.ofw.fi/opinnot/opintojaksot/8kieletkirjallisuus/aidinkieli/murteet/kaakkois.html] The dialects in Finnish North Karelia belong to the large group of Savonian dialects in Eastern and Central Finland. [http://www.internetix.ofw.fi/opinnot/opintojaksot/8kieletkirjallisuus/aidinkieli/murteet/savolais.html] Karelianswho evacuated from Finnish Karelia resettled all over Finland and today there are approximately one million people in Finland having their roots in the area ceded to the Soviet Union after the World War II. In Finland, about 5,000 people speak Karelian.
Karelian hot pot
Music of Karelia
Karelia Suite, a collection of pieces by the composer Jean Sibelius
Asbestos-Ceramic, a type of pottery made in Karelia and vicinity
Karelianism, a cultural movement in the Grand Duchy of Finland
* [http://www.eki.ee/books/redbook/karelians.shtml Karelians] (The Peoples of the Red Book)
* [http://virtual.finland.fi/finfo/english/karjala.html The Many Karelias] - Virtual Finland
* Regonal flag. [http://www.fotw.us/flags/ru-kr_h2.html]
* [http://www.gosaimaa.fi - goSaimaa.fi for information about Southern Karelia travel]
* [http://www.pielis.ru/ Pielis.ru - travel information about North Karelia region and City of Joensuu]
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См. также в других словарях:
Karelia — (engl., russ. für Karelien) ist Karelia (Suite), Suite von Jean Sibelius für Orchester op. 11 (1893) The Karelia, eine Band bei Drakkar Entertainment Karelia (Band), französische Heavy Metal Band Volkstheater Karelia in Petrosawodsk K 18 Karelia … Deutsch Wikipedia
Karelia — (o Carelia) es un área geográfica en Europa del norte, que en la actualidad está dividida entre Finlandia (regiones de Karelia del Norte y Karelia del Sur) y Rusia (República de Karelia y óblast de Leningrado). En los idiomas karelio, finés y … Enciclopedia Universal
Karelia — → Carelia … Diccionario panhispánico de dudas
Karelia — [kə rēl′yə; ] Russ [ kä rē′lē ä] region in N Europe between the Gulf of Finland and the White Sea, constituting an autonomous republic of Russia: 66,564 sq mi (172,400 sq km); pop. 789,000 … English World dictionary
Karelia — /keuh reel yeuh/; Russ. /ku rddye lyi yeuh/, n. 1. a region in the NW Russian Federation in Europe, comprising Lake Ladoga and Onega Lake and the adjoining area along the E border of Finland. 2. See Karelian Autonomous Republic. * * * ▪ republic … Universalium
Karelia — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Karelia, œuvre musicale de Jean Sibelius. Karelia, groupe de heavy metal français. Voir aussi Carélie Catégorie : Homo … Wikipédia en Français
Karelia — noun a) A region to the north of Saint Petersburg in Russia and Finland. b) An autonomous republic of Russia, official name the Republic of Karelia. See Also: Kareli, Karelian … Wiktionary
Karelia — geographical name autonomous republic NW Russia in Europe; formerly (1940 56), as the Karelo Finnish Republic , constituent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics capital Petrozadovsk area 66,564 square miles (172,401 square… … New Collegiate Dictionary
Karelia — autonomous republic, NW Russia; 66,560 sq. mi.; pop. 711,000; cap. Petrozavodsk … Webster's Gazetteer
Karelia — Ka•re•lia [[t]kəˈril yə[/t]] n. 1) geg a region in the NW Russian Federation in Europe, comprising Lake Ladoga and Onega Lake and the adjoining area along the E border of Finland 2) geg Karelian Autonomous Republic Ka•re′li•an, adj. n … From formal English to slang