Biplane


Biplane

A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings. The first powered heavier-than-air aircraft, the Wright brothers' Wright Flyer, used a biplane design, as did most aircraft in the early years of aviation. While a biplane wing structure has a structural advantage, it produces more drag than a similar monoplane wing. Improved structural techniques and materials, as first pioneered by Hugo Junkers in 1915, and the need for greater speed, made the biplane configuration obsolete for most purposes by the late 1930s.

The term is also occasionally used in biology, to describe the wings of some flying animals.

Aviation

Overview

In a biplane aircraft, two wings are placed one above the other. Both provide a portion of the lift, although they are not able to produce twice as much lift as a single wing of similar planform. This is because a wing's effect is imposed on a circular cylinder of air as the craft moves forward. In the case of the biplane, the upper and the lower are working on nearly the same portion of the atmosphere. In a wing of aspect ratio 6, and a wing separation distance of one chord length, the biplane configuration can produce about 20 percent more lift than a single wing of the same planform. [ Airplane Aerodynamics, Dommasch and Lomb, 1961 ed. ]

In the biplane configuration, the lower wing is often attached to the fuselage, while the upper wing is raised above, although other combinations have occurred. Almost all biplanes also have a third horizontal surface, the tailplane, to control the pitch, or angle of attack of the aircraft (although there have been a few exceptions). Either or both of the main wings can support flaps or ailerons to assist lateral and speed control; usually the ailerons are mounted on the upper wing, and flaps (if used) on the lower wing. Often there is bracing between the upper and lower wings, in the form of wires (tension members) and slender struts (compression members) positioned symmetrically on either side of the fuselage.

Variations on the biplane include the "sesquiplane", where one wing (usually the lower) is significantly smaller than the other, either in span, chord, or both. Sometimes the lower wing is only large enough to support the bracing struts for the upper wing. The name means "one-and-a-half wings".

Another (aerodynamically quite distinct) variation is the tandem wing which is an aircraft with one wing in front of the other (e.g. a wing in the nose and a wing in the tail). This is not usually considered a biplane, as the two wings are not one above the other.

Advantages and disadvantages

Aircraft built with two main wings (or three in a triplane) can usually lift up to 20% more than can a similarly sized monoplane of similar wingspan, which tends to afford greater maneuverability. The struts and wire bracing of a typical biplane form a box girder that permits a light but very strong wing structure.

On the other hand there are many disadvantages to the configuration. Each wing negatively interferes with the aerodynamics of the other. For a given wing area the biplane produces more drag and less lift than a monoplane, but this effect can be reduced by placing one wing forward of the other.

Most biplanes were either designed with the wings positioned directly "one-above-the-other", as first done with the Wright's 1903 "Flyer I", or with the upper wing positioned with its leading edge ahead of the lower wing, in a "positive stagger" format. Some examples of biplanes with the lower wing's leading edge ahead of the upper wing, called "negative stagger", were the Airco DH.5, Sopwith Dolphin, and the Beechcraft Staggerwing. Excessive amounts of stagger distort the box girder effect of the wing - and this tends to reduce the structural benefits of the biplane layout.

In ultralight aircraft

Larry Mauro created the "Easy Riser" biplane ultralight. Mauro also made a version powered with solar cells driving an electric motor for successful flight. Mauro's "Easy Riser" was used by the man who became known as "Father Goose", Bill Lishman. [ [http://www.ultralightnews.com/antulbg/easyriser_ultralight.htm Larry Mauro and Bill Lishman] ]

History

Most successful early aircraft were biplanes, in spite of considerable experimentation with monoplanes. For a period - (~ 1914 to 1925) almost all aircraft were biplanes.

In the early days of aviation all wing structures were strengthened by external bracing wires and struts. Effective lateral control (whether using wing warping or ailerons) requires a wing that is rigid enough to minimize "unintended wing warping", and the unwanted lateral rolling that results. The structure of a biplane wing (having the characteristics of a box girder) provided this almost by default, whereas the design of a sufficiently rigid "externally braced" monoplane wing was highly problematic.

The long-term answer to the problem was a cantilever wing – having sufficient stiffness to dispense with external bracing. Such wings were already being designed, pioneered by Hugo Junkers, and used in Germany during the last year of the First World War; and following research in the post war years by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and similar European bodies, as well as the concurrent development of aluminum alloys, cantilever monoplane wings were becoming the norm for most applications by the early nineteen thirties; and the era of the biplane was almost over.

Modern biplane designs now exist only in specialist niche roles and markets such as aerobatics and agricultural aircraft.

The vast majority of biplane designs have been fitted with reciprocating engines of comparatively low power; exceptions include the Antonov An-3 and WSK-Mielec M-15 Belphegor, fitted with turboprop and turbofan engines, respectively. Some older biplane designs, such as the Grumman Ag Cat and the aforementioned An-2 (in the form of the An-3) are available in upgraded versions with turboprop engines.

Famous biplanes include the Polikarpov Po-2, Sopwith Camel, Avro Tutor, Antonov An-2, Beechcraft Staggerwing, Boeing Stearman, Bristol Bulldog, Curtiss JN-4, de Havilland Tiger Moth, Fairey Swordfish, Hawker Hart, Pitts Special and the Wright Flyer. The Stearman is particularly associated with stunt flying with wing-walkers. Famous sesquiplanes include the Nieuport 17 and Albatros D.III.

In avian evolution

It has been suggested the feathered dinosaur "Microraptor" glided, and perhaps even flew, on four wings which were held in a biplane-like arrangement. This was made possible by the presence of flight feathers on both the forelimbs and hindlimbs of "Microraptor", and it has been suggested the earliest flying ancestors of birds may have possessed this morphology, with the monoplane arrangement of modern birds evolving later. [cite journal |author=Chatterjee S, Templin RJ |title=Biplane wing planform and flight performance of the feathered dinosaur Microraptor gui |journal=Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A |year=2007 |month=Jan |day=30 |volume=104 |issue=5 |pages=1576–80 |pmid=17242354 | doi = 10.1073/pnas.0609975104 ]

ee also

* Monoplane
* Triplane
* Tandem wing

References

External links

* Historical Collection of [http://www.old-picture.com/biplanes-index-001.htm Biplane Pictures]
* Jacqui Hayes: [http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/node/984 Bird wings evolved from biplane dinosaurs] COSMOS magazine
* Octave Chanute biplane hang glider: [http://spicerweb.org/Chanute/Cha_index.aspx Chanute]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Biplane — Bi plane, a. (A[ e]ronautics) Having, or consisting of, two superposed planes, a[ e]rocurves, or the like; of or pertaining to a biplane; as, a biplane rudder. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Biplane — Bi plane, n. [Pref. bi + plane.] (A[ e]ronautics) An a[ e]roplane with two main supporting surfaces one above the other. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • biplane — (n.) airplane with two full wings, one above the other, 1874, as a theoretical notion; first attested 1908 in reference to the real thing; from BI (Cf. bi ) + PLANE (Cf. plane) (n.1). So called from the two planes of the double wings …   Etymology dictionary

  • biplane — ► NOUN ▪ an early type of aircraft with two pairs of wings, one above the other …   English terms dictionary

  • biplane — [bī′plān΄] n. an airplane with two sets of wings, one above the other …   English World dictionary

  • biplane — /buy playn /, n. an airplane with two sets of wings, one above and usually slightly forward of the other. [1870 75; BI 1 + (AIR)PLANE] * * * ▪ aircraft  airplane with two wings, one above the other. In the 1890s this configuration was adopted for …   Universalium

  • biplane — UK [ˈbaɪˌpleɪn] / US noun [countable] Word forms biplane : singular biplane plural biplanes an old fashioned type of plane with two sets of wings …   English dictionary

  • biplane — [[t]ba͟ɪpleɪn[/t]] biplanes N COUNT A biplane is an old fashioned type of aeroplane with two pairs of wings, one above the other …   English dictionary

  • biplane — dvisparnis lėktuvas statusas T sritis Kūno kultūra ir sportas apibrėžtis Lėktuvas su dvigubais sparnais, įtaisytais per tam tikrą atstumą vienas virš kito. atitikmenys: angl. biplane vok. Doppeldecker, m rus. биплан …   Sporto terminų žodynas

  • biplane — noun Date: 1874 an aircraft with two main supporting surfaces usually placed one above the other …   New Collegiate Dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.