- Yunnan clique
The Yunnan Clique (zh-cp|c=滇系|p=Diān Xì) was one of several mutually hostile
cliques or factions that split from the Beiyang Governmentin the Republic of China's warlord era. It was named for YunnanProvince. Cai Eis regarded as the founder of the clique when at the request of Liang Qichaoin 1915, he declared Yunnan's opposition to Yuan Shikai's monarchy. Cai died from natural causes shortly after the successful National Protection War. His chief lieutenant, Tang Jiyao, took over Yunnan and demanded that the National Assembly be restored. When this was accomplished, Yunnan officially reunified with the national government but kept its provincial army separate due to the Beiyang Army's grip in Beijingpolitics.
After the second dissolution of the National Assembly, the
Manchu Restorationdebacle, and the complete domination of the central government by the Beiyang generals, Yunnan joined several other southern provinces in forming a rival government in Guangzhouduring the Constitutional Protection Movement. Tang Jiyao was chosen as one of the seven executives of its ruling committee. Within the committee, there was a power struggle between Sun Yatsen's supporters and the Old Guangxi clique. Tang sided with Sun and helped in the expulsion of the Guangxi executives. In 1921, he was ousted by Gu Pinzhen, whose rule was recognized by Sun. The following year, Gu's army defected back to Tang. Tang sided with Sun again during Chen Jiongming's betrayal. Less than a week after Sun died in 1925, Tang claimed to be his rightful successor and made a move on Guangzhou in a bid to overthrow Hu Hanminand put himself in charge of the Kuomintang. His forces were routed by Li Zongrenduring the Yunnan-Guangxi War. Thereafter, Tang joined Chen Jiongming's China Public Interest Partyas its vice premier. In 1927, Long Yunseized control of the clique; Tang died shortly after.
Long then re-aligned Yunnan under the Nationalist government in
Nanjingbut stringently guarded the province's autonomy. Long was a critic of Chiang Kaishekand after the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War, he was removed from office.
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