Pedagogy of the Oppressed


Pedagogy of the Oppressed

"Pedagogy of the Oppressed" is the most widely known of educator Paulo Freire's works. It was first published in Portuguese in 1968 as "Pedagogia do oprimido" and the first English translation was published in 1970. The book examines the struggle for justice and equity within the educational system and proposes a new pedagogy.

Dedicated "to the oppressed, and to those who suffer with them and fight at their side," Freire includes a detailed Marxist class analysis in his exploration of the relationship between the colonizer and the colonized. Rooted in his own experience helping Brazilian adults to read and write, the book remains popular among educators in developing countries. According to Donaldo Macedo, a former colleague of Freire and University of Massachusetts professor, the text is still revolutionary, and he cites as evidence students from totalitarian states risking punishment to read "Pedagogy of the Oppressed". The book has sold over 750 000 copies worldwide and is one of the foundations of critical pedagogy.

Summary

Translated into several languages, most editions of "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" contain at least one introduction/foreword, a preface, and four chapters.

The first chapter explores how oppression has been justified and how it is overcome through a mutual process between the "oppressor" and the "oppressed". Examining how the balance of power between the colonizer and the colonized remains relatively stable, Freire admits that the powerless in society can be frightened of freedom. He writes, "Freedom is acquired by conquest, not by gift. It must be pursued constantly and responsibly. Freedom is not an ideal located outside of man; nor is it an idea which becomes myth. It is rather the indispensable condition for the quest for human completion." (47) According to Freire, freedom will be the result of "praxis"--informed action--when a balance between theory and practice is achieved.

The second chapter examines the "banking" approach to education -- a metaphor used by Freire that suggests students are considered empty bank accounts that should remain open to deposits made by the teacher. Freire rejects the "banking" approach, claiming it results in the dehumanization of both the students and the teachers. In addition, he argues the banking approach stimulates oppressive attitudes and practices in society. Instead, Freire advocates for a more world-mediated, mutual approach to education that considers people incomplete. According to Freire, this "authentic" approach to education must allow people to be aware of their incompleteness and strive to be more fully human. This attempt to use education as a means of consciously shaping the person and the society is called conscientization, a term first coined by Freire in this book.

The third chapter is devoted to dialogics--"the essence of education as the practice of freedom"--and dialogue. Freire argues that words involve a radical interaction between reflection and action and that true words are transformational. Dialogue requires mutual respect and cooperation to not only develop understanding, but also to change the world. "Authentic" education, according to Freire, will involve dialogue between the teacher and the student, mediated by the broader world context. He warns that the limits imposed upon both the colonizer and the colonized dehumanize everyone involved, thereby removing the ability for dialogue to occur, inevitably barring the possibility of transformation.

This chapter developed the use of the term limit-situation with regards to dimensions of human praxis. This is in line with the Alvaro Viera Pinto's use of the word/idea in his "Consciencia Realidad Nacional" which Freire contends is "using the concept without the pessimistic character originally found in Jaspers"(Note 15, Chapter 3) in reference to Karl Jaspers notion of 'Grenzsituationen'.

The last chapter proposes dialogics as an instrument to free the colonized, through the use of cooperation, unity, organization and cultural synthesis (overcoming problems in society to liberate human beings). This is in contrast to antidialogics which use conquest, manipulation, cultural invasion, and the concept of divide and rule. Freire suggests that populist dialogue is a necessity to revolution; that impeding dialogue dehumanizes and supports the status quo. This is but one example of the dichotomies Freire identifies in the book. Others include the student-teacher dichotomy and the colonizer-colonized dichotomy.

More detailed chapter by chapter summaries are available through [http://www.comminit.com/en/node/27123 The Communication Initiative] .

Influences

The work was strongly influenced by the work of Frantz Fanon.

ee also

*Theatre of the Oppressed

References

*Freire, Paulo. "Pedagogy of the Oppressed." New York: Continuum, 2007.

*Rich Gibson, [http://www.pipeline.com/%7Erougeforum/freirecriticaledu.htm The Frozen Dialectics of Paulo Freire] , in "NeoLiberalism and Education Reform", Hampton Press, 2006.

Issues in Freirean pedagogy

* Conscientization
* Critical consciousness
* Critical pedagogy
* Popular education
* Teaching for social justice
* Adult literacy
* Adult education
* Praxis

External links

* [http://marxists.anu.edu.au/subject/education/freire/pedagogy/index.htm Pedagogy of the Oppressed by Paulo Freire]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • pedagogy of the oppressed — engiamųjų pedagogika statusas T sritis švietimas apibrėžtis Ugdymo teorijos projektas, kuriuo ieškoma būdų ir galimybių sudaryti sąlygas, kuriomis vargingieji visuomenės sluoksniai galėtų įgyti tam tikrą dvasinę kultūrą ir išsilavinimą. Šios… …   Enciklopedinis edukologijos žodynas

  • Critical pedagogy — Major works Pedagogy of the Oppressed …   Wikipedia

  • Oppressors–oppressed distinction — Oppressors oppressed distinction or dominant dominated opposition, is an influential political argument. One of its first uses was by Hegel in his 1802 The German Constitution, in which he said that The Catholics had been in the position of… …   Wikipedia

  • Philosophy of education — The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose, process, nature and ideals of education. This can be within the context of education as a societal institution or more broadly as the process of human existential growth, i.e. how it is… …   Wikipedia

  • Sociology of education — The sociology of education is the study of how public institutions and individual experiences affects education and its outcome. It is most concerned with the public schooling systems of modern industrial societies, including the expansion of… …   Wikipedia

  • Paulo Freire — Born September 19, 1921(1921 09 19) Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Died May 2, 1997( …   Wikipedia

  • Critical consciousness — Critical pedagogy Major works Pedagogy of the Oppressed …   Wikipedia

  • Popular education — Critical pedagogy Major works Pedagogy of the Oppressed …   Wikipedia

  • Paulo Freire — (* 19. September 1921 in Recife; † 2. Mai 1997 in São Paulo) war ein in Theorie und Praxis einflussreicher brasilianischer Pädagoge und weltweit rezipierter Autor. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Paolo Freire — Paulo Freire Paulo Freire (* 19. September 1921 in Recife; † 2. Mai 1997 in São Paulo) war ein in Theorie und Praxis einflussreicher brasilianischer Pädagoge und weltweit rezipierter Autor. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.