- Haggadah of Pesach
The Haggadah ( _he. הגדה) is a
Jewishreligious text that sets out the order of the Passover Seder. Haggadah, meaning "telling," is a fulfillment of the scriptural commandment to each Jewto "tell your son" about the Jewish liberation from slavery in Egypt, as described in the book of Exodusin the Torah.
According to Jewish tradition the Haggadah was compiled during the Mishnaic and
Talmudic periods, although the exact date is unknown.
The Haggadah could not have been written earlier than the time of Rabbi
Yehudah bar Elaay(circa 170 CE) who is the last tanna to be quoted in the Haggadah. According to most Talmudic commentaries Rav and Shmuel argued on the compilation of the Haggadah, ["pesachim" 116a] and hence it wasn't completed by then. Based on a Talmudic statement, it was completed by the time of Rav Nachman (mentioned in Pesachim 116a). There is a dispute however to which Rav Nachman, the Talmud was referring. According to some commentators this was Rav Nachman bar Yaakov[see tosafos bava batra 46b who states that every time the Talmud says Rav Nachman it is Rav Nachman bar Yaakov] (circa 280 CE) while others maintain this was Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak(360 CE). [see Rashithere]
Malbim, [cite book |last=Taub |first=Jonathan |coauthors=Shaw, Yisroel |year=1993 |title=The Malbim Haggadah |publisher=Targum Press |id=ISBN 1-56871-007-0] along with a minority of commentators believe that Rav and Shmuel were not arguing on its compilation but on its interpretation and hence was completed before then. According to this explanation; the Haggadah was written during the lifetime of Rav Yehudah haNasi, [As Rav Yehudah haNasi was a student of Yehudah bar Elaay and the teacher of Rav and Shmuel] the compiler of the Mishna. The Malbim theorizes that the Haggadah was written by Rav Yehudah haNasi himself.
As of 2006, the oldest complete readable manuscript of the Haggadah found is in a prayer book compiled by Saadia Gaonin the tenth century. The earliest known Haggadot, produced as works in their own right; are manuscripts from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries; such as "The Golden Haggadah" (probably Barcelona c. 1320) and the " Sarajevo Haggadah" (late fourteenth century). It is believed that the first printed Haggadot were produced in 1482, in Guadalajara, Spain; however this is mostly conjecture, as there is no printer's colophon. The oldest confirmed printed Haggadah was printed in Soncino, Italyin 1486 by the Soncino family.
Although the Jewish printing community was quick to adopt the
printing pressas a means of producing texts, the general adoption rate of printed Haggadot was slow. By the end of the sixteenth century, only twenty-five Haggadah editions had been printed. This number increased to thirty-seven during the seventeenth century, and 234 during the eighteenth century. It is not until the nineteenth century, when 1,269 separate editions were produced, that a significant shift is seen toward printed Haggadot as opposed to manuscripts. From 1900–1960 alone, over 1,100 Haggadot were printed. [Yerushalmi pp. 23–24]
Published in 1526, the
PragueHaggadah is known for its attention to detail in lettering and introducing many of the themes still found in modern texts. Although illustrations had often been a part of the Haggadah, it was not until the Prague Haggadah that they were used extensively in a printed text. The Haggadah features over sixty woodcutillustrations picturing "scenes and symbols of the Passover ritual; [...] biblical and rabbinic elements that actually appear in the Haggadah text; and scenes and figures from biblical or other sources that play no role in the Haggadah itself, but have either past or future redemptive associations". [Yerushalmi p. 34]
While the main portions of the text of the Haggadah have remained mostly the same since their original compilation, there have been some additions after the last part of the text. Some of these additions, such as the
cumulative songs "One Kid" ("חד גדיא") and "Who Knows One?" ("אחד מי יודע"), which were added sometime in the fifteenth century, gained such acceptance that they became a standard to print at the back of the Haggadah. In more recent times, attempts to modernize the Haggadah have been undertaken primarily to revitalize a text seen by some as "no longer expressing their deepest religious feelings nor their understanding of the Passover festival itself". [Yerushalmi p. 66] However, it should be noted that mainstream Judaism does not approve of this "modernization" and still uses the historical texts. [Yerushalmi p. 98]
Notes and references
* Scherman, Rabbi Nosson & Zlotowitz, Rabbi Meir, "Artscroll youth haggadah":
Mesorah Publications( ISBN 0-89906-232-6)
* [http://www.desiretoshare.com/guidetopesach.htm The Sephardic Guide to Pesach & Haggadah]
* [http://www.chabad.org/holidays/passover/pesach.asp?AID=1980 The Haggadah on Chabad.org]
* [http://www.aish.com/passinsight/ Insights into the Haggadah]
* [http://ohr.edu/yhiy/article.php/806 Haggadah Insights]
* [http://www.haggadah.co.il/ The Papercut Haggadah]
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