Autogynephilia (pronEng|ˌɔːtoʊˌɡaɪnəˈfɪliə) (from Greek "αὐτό" (self), "γῦνή" (woman) and "φῖλία" (love) — "love of oneself as a woman") is the term coined in 1989 by
Ray Blanchardto refer to "a man's paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of himself as a woman." It has been theorized to motivate cross-dressing as a sexual fetish ( transvestic fetishism) in biological males and to motivate gender dysphoria in non-homosexual biological males (compare with homosexual transsexuals). Autogynephilia has also been suggested to pertain to romantic love as well as to sexual arousal patterns. [Lawrence, A. A. (2007). Becoming what we love: Autogynephilic transsexualism conceptualized as an expression of romantic love. "Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 50," 506–520.]
Autogynephilia is recognized by the "
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual" of the American Psychiatric Association, which indicates that of individuals with gender identity disorder, " [The] adult males who are sexually attracted to females, to both males and females, or to neither sex usually report a history of erotic arousal associated with the thought or image of oneself as a woman (termed "autogynephilia")" [emphasis in original] . [American Psychiatric Association. (2000). "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author, p. 578.]
Blanchard (2005) provides case examples to illustrate the sexual fantasies that people reported and that suggested the existence of autogynephilia:
Philip was a 38-year-old professional man referred to the author's clinic for assessment....Philip began masturbating at puberty, which occurred at age 12 or 13. The earliest sexual fantasy he could recall was that of having a woman's body. When he masturbated, he would imagine that he was a nude woman lying alone in her bed. His mental imagery would focus on his breasts, his vagina, the softness of his skin, and so on—all the characteristic features of the female physique. This remained his favorite sexual fantasy throughout his life.
According to Blanchard, "An autogynephile does not necessarily become sexually aroused every time he pictures himself as female or engages in feminine behavior, any more than a heterosexual man automatically gets an erections whenever he sees an attractive woman. Thus, the concept of autogynephilia...refers to a "potential" for sexual excitation" [emphasis in original] .
Blanchard classified four subtypes of autogynephilic sexual fantasies, but noted that "All four types of autogynephilia tend to occur in combination with other types rather than alone."Blanchard, R. (1991). Clinical observations and systematic studies of autogynephilia. "Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 17," 235-251.] Blanchard, R. (1993). Varieties of autogynephilia and their relationship to gender dysphoria. "Archives of Sexual Behavior, 22, 241–251.]
*Transvestic autogynephilia: arousal to the act or fantasy of wearing women's clothing
*Behavioral autogynephilia: arousal to the act or fantasy of doing something regarded as feminine
*Physiologic autogynephilia: arousal to fantasies of female-specific body functions
*Anatomic autogynephilia: arousal to the fantasy of having a woman's body, or parts of one.
Blanchard (2005) also provides other examples of autogynephiles' narratives to illustrate the range of those fantasies in their own words:
I have been in a steady relationship with a lady some eight years older than me.... We regularly have sex and I really enjoy getting her excited and giving her orgasms. She gets to a point where she wants me inside her, and I do this, but I usually have to imagine I am the women to have an orgasm myself. For some reason she likes to have her legs closed, so I am usually the one with my legs spread, which reinforced my fantasy of being the one who is penetrated. I have not told her what I fantasize about during sex, and have not told her that I have started hormones. (Narrative #54)
An early experience I can still vividly remember of becoming aroused at the thought of becoming female was when I was approximately 9 or 10 years old. I was overweight and I had begun to develop breasts, solely from my weight. I would soap my breasts in the shower and imagine I was really a woman with a real woman's breasts, and I would become extremely aroused....It was until I actually started therapy that I began appearing in public dressed as a female. In the early days I would become aroused whenever anyone, a sales clerk, a casual stranger, would address me as "Ma'am" or perform come courtesy such as holding a door for me. This arousal led to a heightened fear of discovery, i.e., that my erection would give me away. (Narrative #13)
When having sex with women, biological males with autogynephilia (regardless of whether they plan actually to undergo transition) sometimes imagine themselves as women sexually interacting as lesbians. [Newman, L. E., & Stoller, R. J. (1974). Nontranssexual men who seek sex reassignment. "American Journal of Psychiatry, 131," 437–441.] Blanchard notes that biological males with autogynephilia may also have sex with males: "The effective erotic stimulus in these interactions, however, is not the male physique of the partner, as it is in true homosexual attraction, but rather the thought of being a woman, which is symbolized in the fantasy of being penetrated by a man. For these persons, the male sexual partner serves...to intensify the fantasy of being a woman."Blanchard, R. (1989). The concept of autogynephilia and the typology of male gender dysphoria. "The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177," 616-623.] Blanchard (2005) provides an individual's narrative illustrating the phenomenon:
I have also had sexual enounters with eight men.... I found I enjoyed the physical aspects of this type of sex and felt I was confirming my womanhood by being a passive partner. All these encounters occurred while I was [cross-] dressed and were all one night stands. I have never been interested in sex with a man when I was presenting as a man myself. (Narrative #54)
There also exist biological males who report being sexually aroused by the image or idea of having "some" but not "all" female anatomy, such as having female breasts but retaining their male genitalia; Blanchard referred to this phenomenon as "partial autogynephilia." [Blanchard, R. (1993). The she-male phenomenon and the concept of partial autogynephilia. "Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 19," 69–307.] [Blanchard, R. (1993). Partial versus complete autogynephilia and gender dysphoria. "Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 19," 301–307.]
Origin of the concept
Blanchard has recounted how he came to recognize the phenomenon of "autogynephilia" and to coin the term describing it.Blanchard, R. (2005). Early history of the concept of autogynephilia. "Archives of Sexual Behavior, 34," 439–446.] Although Blanchard provided autogynephilia with a precise definition, premodern authors described the same idea, describing the sexuality of transsexual people as fetishism:
*Fenichel (1930) observed in some of his patients that "Love for the subject's own self—phantasies that the masculine element in his nature can have intercourse with the feminine (i.e., with himself) are not uncommon." [Fenichel, O. (1930). The psychology of transvestism. "International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 11," 211-227.] (p. 214)
Havelock Ellis(1935) variously used the term "sexo-aethetic inversion" and "Eonism" to refer to cross-gender behavior and feelings, writing that "The Eonist is embodying, in an extreme degree, the aesthetic attribute of imitation of, and identification with, the admired object. It is normal for a man to identify himself with the woman he loves. The Eonist carries that identification too far" (p. 244). [Ellis, H. (1935). "Psychology of sex: A manual for students." New York: Emerson.]
Magnus Hirschfeld(1948) used the term "automonosexuals," indicating that "We are almost tempted to believe that we are here faced with a splitting of the personality in the sense that the masculine component in the psyche of these men is sexually stimulated by the feminine component that that they feel attracted not by the women outside them, but by the woman inside them" (p. 167). [Hirschfeld, M. (1948). "Sexual anomalies." New York: Emerson.]
Kurt Freund(1982) coined the term "cross-gender fetishism" to refer to "the subject's fantasizing, during fetishistic activity, that she or he belong to the opposite sex...the fetish, in such cases always an object characteristic of the opposite sex, is used to induce or enhance cross-gender identity" (p. 50). [Freund, K., Steiner, B. W., & Chan, S. (1982). Two types of cross-gender identity. "Archives of Sexual Behavior, 11," 49-63.]
Classification of transsexuals
* Blanchard-Bailey-Lawrence Theory
* Blanchard-Bailey-Lawrence Theory Controversy
List of transgender-related topics
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
autogynephilia — noun a) a form of sexual response in biological males characterized by sexual arousal over the idea of being or becoming female b) a supposed form of gender identity disorder … Wiktionary
autogynephilia — au·to·gyne·phil·ia (aw″to gi″nə filґe ə) a type of gender dysphoria in which a man is sexually aroused by the thought or image of himself as a woman … Medical dictionary
Blanchard, Bailey, and Lawrence theory controversy — The BBL Controversy also known as the Autogynephilia Controversy is an ongoing and heated line of discussion in the transgendered community. The subject, Blanchard, Bailey, and Lawrence theory, is a theory of transsexual taxonomy developed by Ray … Wikipedia
Blanchard, Bailey, and Lawrence theory — The Blanchard, Bailey, and Lawrence theory (an informal name) is a taxonomy of gender dysphoria in biological males, including male to female transsexuals. It was proposed in the late 1980s by Ray Blanchard, a sexologist at the Centre for… … Wikipedia
Homosexual transsexual — is a controversial term used by some psychologists and sexologists to describe male to female transsexual women who are exclusively or predominantly attracted to males.citation last=Lawrence first=Anne last2 = Latty first2 = Elizabeth M author2… … Wikipedia
Autogynophil — love of oneself as a woman Autogynophilie (auch Autogynäkophilie und fälschlich Autogynäphilie) (von gr.: auto „Selbst“, gyno „Frau“, philie „Liebe“: „die eigene Weiblichkeit lieben“) ist ein Erklärungsmodell für Transsexualität und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Autogynäkophil — love of oneself as a woman Autogynophilie (auch Autogynäkophilie und fälschlich Autogynäphilie) (von gr.: auto „Selbst“, gyno „Frau“, philie „Liebe“: „die eigene Weiblichkeit lieben“) ist ein Erklärungsmodell für Transsexualität und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Autogynäkophilie — love of oneself as a woman Autogynophilie (auch Autogynäkophilie und fälschlich Autogynäphilie) (von gr.: auto „Selbst“, gyno „Frau“, philie „Liebe“: „die eigene Weiblichkeit lieben“) ist ein Erklärungsmodell für Transsexualität und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Konträre Sexualstörung — Dieser Artikel wurde aufgrund von inhaltlichen Mängeln auf der Qualitätssicherungsseite der Redaktion Sexualität eingetragen. Dies geschieht, um die Qualität der Artikel aus dem Themengebiet Sexualität auf ein akzeptables Niveau zu bringen. Dabei … Deutsch Wikipedia
Transsexualismus — Dieser Artikel wurde aufgrund von inhaltlichen Mängeln auf der Qualitätssicherungsseite der Redaktion Sexualität eingetragen. Dies geschieht, um die Qualität der Artikel aus dem Themengebiet Sexualität auf ein akzeptables Niveau zu bringen. Dabei … Deutsch Wikipedia