Territorialism was a
Jewish political movement calling for creation of a sufficiently large and compact Jewish territory (or territories), not necessarily in the Land of Israeland not necessarily fully autonomous.
Before 1905 some
Zionistleaders took seriously proposals for Jewish homelands in places other than Palestine. Theodor Herzl's " Der Judenstaat" argued for a Jewish state in either Palestine, "our ever-memorable historic home", or Argentina, "one of the most fertile countries in the world". Many of the socialist Zionistgroups were more territorialist than Zionist, such as Nachman Syrkin's Zionist Socialist Workers Party(the Z.S.).
In 1903 British cabinet ministers suggested the
British Uganda Program, land for a Jewish state in " Uganda" (actually in modern Kenya). Herzl initially rejected the idea, preferring Palestine, but after the April 1903 Kishinev pogromHerzl introduced a controversial proposal to the Sixth Zionist Congressto investigate the offer as a temporary measure for Russian Jews in danger. Notwithstanding its emergency and temporary nature, the proposal still proved very divisive, and widespread opposition to the plan was demonstrated by a walkout led by the Russian Jewish delegation to the Congress. Few historians believe that such a settlement scheme could have attracted either immigrants or Jewish financial support. Since there was strong support on the part of some members of the Zionist leadership, however, peace was kept in the movement by the time-honored parliamentary maneuver of voting to establish a committee for the investigation of the possibility, which was not finally dismissed until the 7th Zionist Congress in 1905. [ [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/firstcong.html#7 Seventh Congress - Basle, 1905] ( Jewish Virtual Library)]
In response to this, the
Jewish Territorialist Organization(ITO) led by Israel Zangwillsplit off from the Zionist movement. It attempted to locate territory suitable for Jewish settlement in various parts of America (e.g. Galveston), Africa, Asia, and Australia, but with little success. The ITO was dissolved in 1925.
Apart from the (ITO), within the
USSRthere was also a Territorialist effort in Ukraine, the Crimeaand then towards Birobidzan, where a Jewish Autonomous Regionwas established in 1934. [ [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/Territorialism.html Territorialism] ( Jewish Virtual Library)]
In the face of the looming
Nazi genocide, Isaac Nachman Steinbergestablished the Freeland Leaguein the United States in 1935. This organization attempted, unsuccessfully, to pursue Jewish autonomy by obtaining a large piece of territory in sparsely populated areas in Ecuador, Australia, or Surinam. One of the more well-known ventures was the Kimberley Plan, to secure land in Australia. [ [http://www.music.princeton.edu/~newton/notyet/index.html A Jewish colony in the Kimberleys] ] After the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, Steinberg had criticized the exclusivist politics of the Zionist government and continued his attempts to create a non-nationalist Jewish settlement in some other region of the world. After Steinberg's death in 1957 the Freeland Leaguewas led by Mordkhe Schaechter, who gradually changed the focus of the organization to more cultural, Yiddishist goals. The 2007 alternate historydetective story " The Yiddish Policemen's Union" by American author Michael Chabon, inspired by the 1939 Slattery Reportand based on the premise that after World War II, a temporary Yiddish-speaking settlement for Jewish refugeeswas established in Alaskain 1941 while the State of Israelwas destroyed shortly after its creation in 1948, can be considered a Territorialist alternate history (though the writer does not necessarily share the ideology of the Territorialist movement).
* [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0377-919X(197521)4%3A3%3C74%3AIZCTZ%3E2.0.CO%3B2-T Israel Zangwill's Challenge to Zionism]
* [http://www.angelfire.com/il2/borochov/cohen1.html Ber Borochov and Socialist Zionism] by
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
territorialism — [ter΄ə tôr′ē əliz΄əm] n. any territorial system territorialist n … English World dictionary
TERRITORIALISM — Jewish movements in the 20th century aiming to establish an autonomous settlement of Jews in a sufficiently large territory in which the predominant majority of the population shall be Jewish. In contrast to Zionism, Territorialism regarded… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
territorialism — noun Date: 1881 1. landlordism 2. the principle established in 1555 requiring the inhabitants of a territory of the Holy Roman Empire to conform to the religion of their ruler or to emigrate • territorialist noun … New Collegiate Dictionary
territorialism — territorialist, n. /ter i tawr ee euh liz euhm, tohr /, n. 1. a principle or system that gives predominance to the landed classes. 2. Also called territorial system. a theory of church policy according to which the supreme ecclesiastical… … Universalium
territorialism — noun Territoriality: the assertion of rights to a territory … Wiktionary
territorialism — ter·ri·to·ri·al·ism … English syllables
territorialism — Территориализм … Вестминстерский словарь теологических терминов
territorialism — /tɛrəˈtɔriəlɪzəm/ (say teruh tawreeuhlizuhm) noun 1. the principle of the predominance of the landed classes. 2. organisation on a territorial basis. 3. Also, territorial system. Ecclesiastical the theory of Church government according to which… … Australian English dictionary
territorialism — ˌ ̷ ̷ ̷ ̷ˈ ̷ ̷ ̷ ̷əˌlizəm noun ( s) Etymology: territorial (I) + ism 1. : landlordism 2 2. : the principle established by the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 providing for compulsory conformity of all the inhabitants of a terr … Useful english dictionary
ZIONISM — This article is arranged according to the following outline: the word and its meaning forerunners ḤIBBAT ZION ROOTS OF ḤIBBAT ZION background to the emergence of the movement the beginnings of the movement PINSKER S AUTOEMANCIPATION settlement… … Encyclopedia of Judaism