1990 Luzon earthquake


1990 Luzon earthquake

The 1990 Luzon earthquake occurred on Monday, July 16, 1990, at 4:26 PM local time in the Philippines. The densely populated island of Luzon was struck by an earthquake with a 7.8 Ms (surface-wave magnitude). The earthquake produced a 125 km-long ground rupture that stretched from Dingalan, Aurora to Kayapa, Nueva Vizcaya as a result of strike-slip movements along the Philippine Fault Zone and the Digdig Fault. The earthquake epicenter was placed at 15º 42' N and 121º 7' E near the town of Rizal, Nueva Ecija, northeast of Cabanatuan City.cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors =
title =The July 16 Luzon Earthquake: A Technical Monograph | work =Inter-Agency Committee for Documenting and Establishing Database on the July 1990 Earthquake | publisher =Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology | date =2001 | url =http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/Earthquake/1990LuzonEQ_Monograph/foreword.html | format = | doi =
accessdate = 2007-07-16
]

Impact

The earthquake caused damage in an area of about 20,000 square kilometers, from northwest of Manila through the Central Luzon and into the mountains of the Cordillera Administrative Region. About 1,600 people were killed, mostly in the central Luzon and Cordillera region. This was one of the deadliest and costliest natural disasters in the Philippines.

LOPEZ, QUEZON 1990Lopez, Quezon catholic church was ruined by the 1990 earthquake, Lopezeños houses devastated and create damages to nature. Several public and private buildings were heavily damaged.

Baguio City, Benguet

Baguio City, a popular tourist destination, was one of the hardest hit with the number of deaths estimated at around 1000. Several private and public buildings were severely damaged or destroyed, many of which were hotels. One of the buildings destroyed was a five-star Hyatt Hotel; its 12 story section collapsed over the lobby area killing about 50 people. Nevada Hotel, another five-star hotel, was damaged beyond repair when the lower level collapsed, killing about 40 people. Many affected residents, who lost their homes or their place to stay, ended up setting up tents in public parks, such as in Burnham Park, or in the streets. Kennon Road, one of the major routes from Manila to Baguio City, was shut down due to severe landslides.

For the first 48 hours after the earthquake, the city was isolated from the rest of the country. Electric, water, and communication lines were destroyed. The city was inaccessible by land because of landslides and inaccessible by air, except by helicopters, because of damage at the airport. Food and fuel were scarce. Because hospital buildings were damaged, patients were relocated under tents set up in open spaces in front of hospitals. Damage to homes and the occurrence of many aftershocks caused most residents to set up camps in open spaces in the city. Three days after the earthquake, a main road leading to the city was cleared to enable delivery of supplies. . [ [http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00001734.htm International notes Earthquake Disaster - Luzon, Philippines ] ]


=Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija=

Cabanatuan City has many concrete buildings, most of which are three stories high. The only building that collapsed during the earthquake was Philippine Christian College, the tallest building in the city with six floors. The city suffered about 363 casualties (including 274 students trapped in the collapsed Philippine Christian College), with 154 of them dead. Some of the victims who did not die in the collapse were found dead later from dehydration because they were not pulled out in time. [ [http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=847 This Day in History 1990: Earthquake wreaks havoc in the Philippines ] ]

Dagupan City, Pangasinan

In Dagupan City, About 90 buildings in the city were damaged, and about 20 collapsed. Some structures sustained damage because liquefaction caused buildings to sink as much as 1 meter (39 inches). The earthquake caused a decrease in the elevation of the city and several areas were flooded. The city suffered 64 casualties of which 47 survived and 17 died. Most injuries were sustained during stampedes at a university building and a theater.

La Union

Five municipalities in La Union were affected: Agoo, Aringay, Caba, Santo Tomas, and Tubao with a combined population of 132,208. Many buildings collapsed or were severely damaged. 100,000 families were displaced when two coastal villages sank. The province suffered many casualties and 32 of them died.

Manila

When the earthquake struck Manila, a lot of students were still in school. Some of the old schools collapsed killing students and teachers. Fortunately, students trapped under the collapsed building were saved after days of mishaps.

Geology

Based on preliminary analysis, cases and controls were similar in age and sex distribution. Similar proportions of cases and controls were inside (74% and 80%, respectively) and outside (26% and 20%, respectively) buildings during the earthquake. For persons who were inside a building, risk factors included building height, type of building material, and the floor level the person was on. Persons inside buildings with seven or more floors were 35 times more likely to be injured (odds ratio [OR] =34.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] =8.1-306.9). Persons inside buildings constructed of concrete or mixed materials were three times more likely to sustain injuries (OR=3.4; 95% CI=1.1-13.5) than were those inside wooden buildings. Persons at middle levels of multistory buildings were twice as likely to be injured as those at the top or bottom levels (OR=2.3; 95% CI=1.3-4.2). [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-8960622.html Earthquake disaster - Luzon, Philippines ] ]


=Patterns of Da

The earthquake caused different patterns of damage in different parts of Luzon Island. The mountain resort of Baguio was most severely affected, probably because it had the highest population density and many tall concrete buildings, which were more susceptible to seismic damage. Because all routes of communication, roads, and airport access were severed for several days, relief efforts were also the most difficult there. Relief efforts were further hampered by daily drenching, cold rains. Because Baguio is home to a large mining company and a military academy, experienced miners and other disciplined volunteers played a crucial role in early rescue efforts. Rescue teams arriving from Manila and elsewhere in Luzon were able to decrease mortality from major injuries. Surgeons, anesthesiologists, and specialized equipment and supplies were brought to the area, and victims were promptly treated. Patients requiring specialized care (e.g., hemodialysis) not available in the disaster area were airlifted to tertiary hospitals in metropolitan Manila. Outside of Baguio, destruction tended to be more diffuse. Damage was caused by landslides in the mountains and settling in coastal areas. Relief efforts in these areas were prompt and successful, partly because the areas remained accessible.

On July 19, 3 days after the earthquake, the priority of relief efforts shifted from treatment of injuries to public health concerns. For example, numerous broken pipes completely disrupted water systems, limiting the availability of potable water, and refugees who camped in open areas had no adequate toilet facilities. Early efforts at providing potable water by giving refugees chlorine granules were unsuccessful. Most potable water was distributed from fire engines, and DOH sanitarians chlorinated the water before it was distributed. Surveys of refugee areas showed few latrines; these had to be dug by the DOH. [ [http://www.cdc.gov/mmwR/preview/mmwrhtml/00001734.htm International notes Earthquake Disaster - Luzon, Philippines ] ]

Aftermath and reconstruction

Baguio City rebounded back as a tourist spot years after the earthquake. The land where the former Hyatt Regency Hotel stands has remained untouched. One of the more prominent survivors when the hotel was levelled was Sonia Roco, widow of former Sen. Raul Roco, who held out for almost a week under the rubble, existing only on water. One of the fatalities was Mrs. Alice Laya, wife of former Marcos minister Jaime Laya. [Citation
url=http://www.malaya.com.ph/jul17/news7.htm
title=Amid hotel ruins, survivors of 1990 Baguio earthquake remember
date=July 17, 2007
publisher=Malaya News
accessdate=2008-05-09
]

Bibliography

*cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors =
title =The July 16 Luzon Earthquake: A Technical Monograph | work =Inter-Agency Committee for Documenting and Establishing Database on the July 1990 Earthquake | publisher =Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology | date =2001 | url =http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/Earthquake/1990LuzonEQ_Monograph/foreword.html | format = | doi =
accessdate = 2007-07-16

References

External links

* [http://www.cityofpines.com/baguioquake/quake.html Baguio City Earthquake]
* [http://www.geocities.com/lingayenbay/earthquake.html The 1990 Baguio City Earthquake]
* [http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00001734.htm International notes Earthquake Disaster - Luzon, Philippines ]
* [http://www.rapidsar.org.uk/index.cgi?content=17 Rapid.Org.UK - Philippines earthquake]
* [http://www.drj.com/drworld/content/w1_116.htm Disaster Recovery Journal - Earthquake Devastates Philippines]


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