Tocantins (state)


Tocantins (state)

Infobox Brazilian State
name = State of Tocantins






motto =
anthem =



capital = Palmas
latd= |latm= |latNS= |longd= |longm= |longEW=
largest_city = Palmas
demonym = Tocantinense
leader_name1 = Marcelo Miranda
leader_name2 = Paulo Sidnei Antunes
area = 277.620,91
area_magnitude = 1 E11
area_rank = 10th
population_estimate = 1,332,441
population_estimate_rank = 24th
population_estimate_year = 2006
population_census = 1,307,818
population_census_year = 2005
population_density = 4.8
population_density_rank = 22th
GDP = R$ 9,084,000,000
GDP_rank = 24th
GDP_year = 2005
GDP_per_capita = R$ 6,957
GDP_per_capita_rank = 16th
HDI = 0.756
HDI_rank = 14th
HDI_year = 2005
abbreviation = BR-TO
time_zone = BRT
utc_offset = -3
time_zone_DST = BRST
utc_offset_DST = -2

Tocantins (pronounced|tokɐ̃ˈtĩs [The presented pronunciation is in Brazilian Portuguese variant spoken in Tocantins (and most of Brazil). Other possible pronunciations are: IPA| [tokɐ̃ˈtʃĩs] (most of Southeast, except São Paulo), IPA| [tokɐ̃ˈtsĩs] (São Paulo). The European Portuguese pronunciation is IPA| [tokɐ̃ˈtĩʃ] .] ) is one of the states of Brazil.The state was formed in 1988 out of the northern part of Goiás, and construction began on the capital, Palmas, in 1989, in contrast to most of the other cities in the state which date back to Portuguese colonial period. It is the newest Brazilian State and, because it is still very young, it is developing slowly, building on its most important resources: the rivers Araguaia and Tocantins, the largest hydro basin entirely inside Brazilian territory. Because it is in the central zone of the country, it has characteristics of the Amazon, but also has open pastures. The Ilha do Bananal, in the southwest of the State, is the largest fluvial isle in the world. There is the National Park of Araguaia, and the Carajás Indian reservations. Another highlight is the Jalapão, about 250 kilometers from the capital, Palmas. There, the rivers create true oases in the dry landscape, attracting many eco-tourists to the region.

Geography

Tocantins forms the boundary between the Amazon Rainforest and the coastal savanna. As a result, the state's geography is varied. Many rivers cross through the state (including one of the same name), and there are over 20 archaeologically significant sites found in Tocantins.

Climate

An equatorial climate is a type of tropical climate in which there is no dry season – all months have mean precipitation values of at least 60mm. It is usually found at latitudes within five degrees of the equator – which are dominated by the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The equatorial climate is denoted "Af" in the Köppen climate classification. Tropical rainforest is the natural vegetation in equatorial regions.

Vegetation

The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world. Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, and tropical forests in the Americas are consistently more species rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia.Turner, I.M. 2001. "The ecology of trees in the tropical rain forest". Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-80183-4] As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. More than 1/3 of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest. [ [http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildplaces/amazon/index.cfm Amazon Rainforest, Amazon Plants, Amazon River Animals] ]

History

What is today Tocantins state was first explored by Jesuit missionaries in about 1625, seeking to convert the Amerindian peoples of the area to Christianity. The area is named after the Tocantins River, which in turn is an indigenous name.

Before 1988 the area was part of the Goiás state, in the north of the state. However, ever since the 1600s, the north has been isolated and difficult to access. As a result, the southern area of the state became more developed, and there had been a strong separatist movement in the north for many years.

The first large scale stirrings of separatism were in 1809, when heavy taxes were levied on mining. This led to a minor revolt which was quickly crushed by the army. A string of failed uprisings occurred in the 19th century.

In the 1970s, pressure was put on the federal government by the northern Goiás population for a separate state, and in the 1988 Constitution, Tocantins state was officially created.

Since its establishment, Tocantins is the fastest-growing Brazilian state, with a thriving economy based on agriculture and agro-industry which attracts immigrants from all over the country. The construction of the long-planned North-South Railway (Brazil) will probably boost the economic growth even more. Tocantins is also considered one of the best-managed Brazilian states.

Demographics

According to the IBGE of 2007, there were 1,377,000 people residing in the state. The population density was 4.8 inh./km².

Urbanization: 71.5% (2004); Population growth: 2.6% (1991-2000); Houses: 355,502 (2005). [Source: PNAD.]

The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 948,000 Pardo (Brown) people (68.9%), 330,000 White people (24.0%), 95,000 Black people (6.9%), 2,000 Asian or Amerindian people (0.2%). [cite book |url=ftp://ftp.ibge.gov.br/Indicadores_Sociais/Sintese_de_Indicadores_Sociais_2007/Tabelas |title=Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2007 |publisher=IBGE |location=Tocantins, Brazil |format=PDF |isbn=85-240-3919-1 |accessdate=2007-07-18 |year=2007 |language=Portuguese]

Interesting facts

Vehicles: 259,890 (March/2007);
Mobile phones: 543 thousand (April/2007); Telephones: 166 thousand (April/2007); Cities: 136 (2007). [Source: IBGE.]

Economy

The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 59.9%, followed by the industrial sector at 27.2%. Agriculture represents 12.9% of GDP (2004). Tocantins exports: soybean 89.2%, meat of cattle 10.5% (2002).

Share of the Brazilian economy: 0.4% (2005).

As with much of Brazil, Tocantins' economy is dependent on cattle raising, though the state's pineapple plantations not only supply much of Brazil with the fruit, but also many other Mercosul nations with it too. In the state's north, charcoal and oils are extracted from the babaçu palm tree.

The federal government, seeking to broaden Tocantins' economic base by funding the construction of a hydroelectric dam in the state, allowed a private company to construct a sizable five-turbine hydroelectric dam, blocking the Tocantins river and displacing some indigenous inhabitants. However, its contribution to the state is indisputable - one turbine alone powers the entire state of Tocantins while the remaining four provide electricity which is sold to other parts of Brazil.

Education

Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.

Educational institutions

* Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT) (Federal University of Tocantins);
* Fundação Universidade do Tocantins (Unitins) (Foundation University of Tocantins);
* Escola Técnica Federal de Palmas (ETF-TO);
* Faculdade de Tecnologia de Palmas (FTP);
* Fundação Unirg (Unirg) (Foundation Unirg);
* and many others.

Infrastructure

National Airport

The facility occupies one of Brazil’s largest airport sites and has privileged location near the Lageado Hydroelectric Station.Designed with a modern concept of visual communication, the new Palmas Airport Complex contains an Aeroshopping area, a program developed by Infraero aiming to turn Brazil’s main airports into true commercial centers with their own brand and identity.The passenger terminal has 12.300 square meters of constructed area and capacity to serve up to 370 thousand people a year. It has a food court, cultural space, shops, panoramic deck, elevators and air conditioning. The runway can receive aircraft the size of a Boeing 767. There are three taxiways and aprons for general aviation, making operations more flexible. The airport has full infrastructure that includes a control tower and installations for the Air Navigation Group, fire brigade, a covered equipment parking area, canteen and training rooms, two aircraft fueling stations, a gate with electronic entry control, guard booths. parking and flight protection buildings, besides a 4 km (2.48 mi) access road linking the airport to the Tocantins capital city’s main thoroughfare.

Highways

BR-153,BR-010,BR-226,BR-230,BR-235,BR-242,TO-348,TO-164.

Flag

The message of the flag is the phrase "where the sun rises for all". In the middle of the flag is the golden yellow sun, with its rays symbolically targeting to the future of the state. The sun is placed on a white band, where the white color represents peace. The blue in the upper left and the yellow in the bottom right represent the waters and the soil of the state. The colors date back to a flag used by the Autonomous Government of Palmas in the 19th century.

The flag was adopted with the state flag law (law no 094/89) of November 17 1989.

Cities

Other cities include:
* Tocantinópolis
* Colinas do Tocantins
* Araguaína
* Gurupi
* Palmas
* Taquarussu do Porto
* Porto Nacional

References

See also

* Brazil
* [http://www.to.gov.br Official Website]
* [http://www.braziltour.com/site/gb/home/index.php Brazilian Tourism Portal]
* List of cities in Brazil (all cities and municipalities)


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