- Great Northern War
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Great Northern War
Russo–Swedish Wars, Polish–Swedish warsand Dano-Swedish Wars
caption=Great Northern War. Clockwise from top:
Battle of Poltava, Battle of Gangut, Battle of Narva, Battle of Gadebusch, Battle of Storkyro
Russian Empireand Sweden vying for hegemony over Eastern Europe.
territory=Russia gained many of the Swedish dominions, including
Livonia. Prussia gained part of the Swedish Pomerania. Hanover gained Bremen-Verden.
noflag Poland–Lithuania (1704 to 1709)
flag|Ottoman Empire|1453 (1710 to 1714)
commander1=flagicon|Sweden|naval Charles XII KIA
commander2=flagicon|Russia Peter the Great
flagicon|Denmark Frederick IV
77,000-135,000 Swedish troops
(1700 and 1707, respectively)
100,000-200,000 Ottomans (participated in one battle)
16,000 Polish troops (1708)
1,400 pirates Fact|date=May 2008
+100,000 Poles and Saxons (as the most)
Unknown number of German troops from Prussia and Hannover Fact|date=May 2008
casualties1=About 25,000 Swedes killed in battle, a total of 175,000 was killed by famine, disease and exhaustion etc. [Ericson, Lars, Svenska knektar (2004) Lund: Historiska media]
casualties2= Around 75,000 Russians and 14,000-20,000 Poles, Saxons and an additional 8000 Danes killed in the large battles, 60,000 Danes in total between 1709-1719. [Lindegren, Jan, Det danska och svenska resurssystemet i komparation (1995) Umeå : Björkås : Mitthögsk]
Likely tens of thousands died for each nation (the Russians most likely had higher numbers, the Danish numbers between 1709-1719 are included above) due to disease, exhaustion, famine etc Fact|date=May 2008
notes=1 The Madagascar pirates were only collaborating with the Swedish navy and state, they were not formally in war with any of the Coalition countries. [Liljegren, B. (2000). "Karl XII: En Biografi". Lund: Historiska media, p. 308-309. ISBN 91-85377-14-7] [ Bergstrand, F. (1997). "Då Madagaskar skulle bli svenskt-och England katolskt." Karolinska förbundets årsbok (KFÅ). ]
The Great Northern War (1700-21) was fought between
Russiaand Swedenfor supremacy in the Baltic Sea. Initially, Russia joined the coalition in the war with Denmarkand Saxony– composed of the so-called Northern Alliance, but after the outbreak of hostilities the Union collapsed, and was rebuilt in 1709. At various stages of the war other participants attended: on the side of Russia – Hanover, Holland, Prussia, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth; on the side of Sweden – the Ottoman Empire, Zaporozhian Cossacks, and others. The war ended with the defeat of Sweden in 1721, leaving Russia dominant in the Baltic Seaand a major player in European politics. The war began as a coordinated attack on Sweden by the coalition in 1700 and ended in 1721 with the Treaty of Nystadand the Stockholm treaties.
Between 1560 and 1658, Sweden created a Baltic empire centered on the
Gulf of Finlandand comprising the provinces of Karelia, Ingria, Estonia, and Livonia. During the Thirty Years' WarSweden gained tracts in Germanyas well, including Western Pomerania, Wismar, the Duchy of Bremen, and Verden. At the same period Sweden conquered Danish and Norwegian provinces north of the Sound (1645; 1658). These victories may be ascribed to a well trained army, which despite its comparatively small size was far more professional than most continental armies. In particular, it was able to maintain a high rate of small armsfire due to proficient drilling. However, the Swedish state was unable to support and maintain its army as the war was prolonged and the costs of warfare could not be passed to occupied countries.
The foreign interventions during the
Time of Troublesresulted in Sweden's gains in the Treaty of Stolbovo(1617). The treaty deprived Russia of direct access to the Baltic Sea, meaning that the Russians were not in a position to challenge the Swedish regional hegemony. Russian fortunes reversed during the later half of the 17th century, notably with the rise to power of Peter the Great, who looked to address the earlier losses and re-establish a Baltic presence. In the late 1690s, the adventurer Johann Patkulmanaged to ally Russia with Denmark and Saxony by the Treaty of Preobrazhenskoyeand in 1700 the three powers attacked.
Charles XIIhad left a standing army based on annual training, consisting of 77,000 men in 1700, but by 1707 this number had risen to at least 120,000 in spite of casualties. It was the army with the best morale in northern Europe, but not the greatest bulk. The large Ottoman forces were poorly disciplined and lacking in morale.
Though able to mobilize 170,000 Fact|date=May 2008 men, Russia was not able to put all in action at the same place. Furthermore, the Russian mobilization system was ineffective, and the expansive nation had to be defended everywhere—garrisons had to be supported and the war paid for. A great mobilization over vast territories would have been unrealistic. Peter the Great aimed to have an army with the same morale as the Swedish.
The Danes added 20,000 in their invasion against Holstein-Gottorp and several more against other fronts. Poland and Saxony together could mobilize at least 100,000 men.
From the very beginning of the Great Northern War, Sweden suffered from the inability of Charles XII to view the situation from anything but a purely personal point of view. His determination to avenge himself on enemies overpowered every other consideration. Time and again during the eighteen years of warfare it was in his power to dictate an advantageous peace, but he decided against from moral beliefs. He would not take over the Polish throne, instead giving it to the other candidate, Stanisław. He also had the chance to crush Saxony but chose instead to let them walk out because he believed highly in the word of royals. The early part of the war consisted of a continual string of Swedish victories under Charles XII. Denmark was defeated in the summer of 1700, in what was to be the first major campaign of the war, and in such a way that she could not participate in the war for a number of years. Russia then suffered a crushing defeat in the
Battle of Narvain November.
After the dissipation of the first coalition through the
peace of Travendaland the victory at Narva, the Swedish chancellor, Benedict Oxenstjerna, rightly regarded the universal bidding for the favor of Sweden by Franceand the maritime powers, then on the eve of the War of the Spanish Succession, as a golden opportunity of ending the war and making Charles the arbiterof Europe.
At that time, the representatives of Poland-Lithuania (which considered itself neutral despite its king's active participation in the anti-Swedish coalition) offered to serve as mediators between the Swedish king and Augustus. But Charles, intent on dethroning Augustus of Saxony from the Polish throne, attacked
Poland, therefore ending the official neutrality of Poland-Lithuania. Five years later, on September 24, 1706, he concluded the Polish War through the treaty of Altranstadt, but, this treaty brought no advantage to Sweden, not even compensation for the expenses of six years of warfare. But he did attain his goal of dethroning August II and putting his ally Stanisław on the throne. Since he believed that Poles in general were not responsible he didn't do anything more. That has been regarded as a mistakeFact|date=June 2008 since it became very easy for August II to retake the throne.
During the years between 1700 and 1707, two of Sweden's Baltic provinces,
Estoniaand Ingria, had been seized by the Tsar, and a third, Livonia, had been essentially ruined. To secure his acquisitions, Peter founded the city of Saint Petersburgin Ingria in 1703. He began to build a navyand a modern-style army, based primarily on infantry drilled in the use of firearms.
Even now Charles, by a stroke of the pen, could have recovered nearly everything he had lost. In 1707, Peter was ready to retrocede everything except Saint Petersburg and the line of the Neva, and again Charles preferred risking the whole to saving the greater part of his Baltic possessions. The year following, he invaded Russia, but was frustrated in
Smolenskby Generalissimo Menshikovand headed to Ukrainefor the winter. However, the abilities of his force were sapped by the cold weather and Peter's use of scorched earthtactics. When the campaign started again in the spring of 1709, a third of his force had been lost and he was crushingly defeated by a larger and better-fed Russian force under Peter in the Battle of Poltava, fleeing to the Ottoman Empireand spending five years in exile. Peter's victory shook all European courts. In just one day, Russia emerged as a major European power.
This shattering defeat did not end the war, although it decided it. Denmark and Saxony joined the war again and Augustus the Strong, through the crafty politics of
Boris Kurakin, regained the Polish throne. Peter continued his campaigns in the Baltics, and eventually he built up a powerful navy. In 1710 the Russians captured Tallinnand Viipuri. In 1714, Peter's galley navy managed to capture a small detachment of the Swedish navy in the first Russian naval victory near Hanko peninsula.
The Russian army occupied
Finlandmostly in 1713-1714, Viipuri had been captured already in 1710. The last stand of the Finnish troops was in the battle of Napue in early 1714 in Isokyrö, Ostrobothnia. The occupation period of Finland in 1714-1721 is known as the Greater Wrath( _fi. isoviha). During the bloody occupation period thousands of Finns were killed or deported to Russia.
Though Charles returned from the Ottoman Empire and resumed personal control of the war effort, initiating a series of Norwegian Campaigns, he accomplished little before his death in 1718. Only the firmness of the Chancellor, Count Arvid Horn, held Sweden in the war until Charles finally returned from the Ottoman Empire, arriving in Swedish held
Stralsundin November 1714 on the south shore of the Baltic. Charles was then at war with all of Northern Europe, and Stralsund was doomed. Charles remained there until December 1715, escaping only days before Stralsund fell. By this point, Charles was considered mad by many, as he would not consider peace and the price Sweden had paid was already dear, with no hope in sight. All of Sweden’s Baltic and German possessions were lost.
Over the next few years little changed, but a series of raids on Sweden itself demonstrated that there was little fight left, and soon
Prussia, Hanover, and many smaller German states entered the war in the hope of gaining territory when peace was made. Eventually a series of massive seaborne invasions by combined Danish and Russian navies of the Swedish homeland forced the issue.
The war was finally concluded by the
Treaty of Nystadbetween Russia and Sweden in Uusikaupunkiin 1721. Sweden had lost almost all of its "overseas" holdings gained in the 17th century, and ceased to be a major power. Russia gained its Baltic territories, and became the greatest power in Eastern Europe. Prussia and Hanover, which made peace agreements with Sweden before Russia, gained territory from Sweden's German possessions. Sweden's dissatisfaction with the result would lead to its fruitless attempts at recovering the lost territories, such as Hats' Russian War, and Gustav III's Russian War.
* "Sweden and the Baltic, 1523 – 1721", by Andrina Stiles, Hodder & Stoughton, 1992 ISBN 0-340-54644-1
* "The Struggle for Supremacy in the Baltic: 1600-1725" by Jill Lisk; Funk & Wagnalls, New York, 1967
* "The Northern Wars, 1558-1721" by Robert I. Frost; Longman, Harlow, England; 2000 ISBN 0-582-06429-5
* "Norges festninger" by Guthorm Kavli; Universitetsforlaget; 1987; ISBN 82-00-18430-7
* "Admiral Thunderbolt" by Hans Christian Adamson, Chilton Company, 1958
* "East Norway and its Frontier" by Frank Noel Stagg, George Allen & Unwin, Ltd. 1956
Extensive information on the major battles and campaigns of the Great Northern War can be found as part of these articles:
Peter I of Russia| Charles XII of Sweden| Battle of Narva| Battle of Holowczyn| Battle of Lesnaya| Battle of Poltava| Battle of Gangut| Battle of Gadebusch| Treaty of Nystad| Great Northern War and Norway| Russo-Turkish War, 1710-1711
* [http://www.timelines.info/history/conflict_and_war/18th_&_19th_century_conflicts/great_northern_war/ Great Northern War timeline]
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