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Neo-fascism is a post–World War II ideology that includes significant elements of fascism. The term neo-fascist may apply to groups that express a specific admiration for Benito Mussolini and Italian Fascism or any other fascist leader/state. Neo-fascism usually includes palingenetic ultranationalism, populism, anti-immigration policies or, where relevant, nativism, anti-communism, and opposition to the parliamentary system and liberal democracy. Allegations that a group is neo-fascist may be hotly contested, especially if the term is used as a political epithet. Some post–World War II regimes have been described as neo-fascist due to their authoritarian nature, and sometimes due to their fascination with fascist ideology and rituals.
Argentina (1946–1955 and 1973–1974) - Juan Perón admired Mussolini and established his own regime (while considered by some to be neo-fascist) inspired on elements of corporatism, although it has been more often considered populism. After he died, his third wife and vice-president Isabel Perón was deposed by a military junta, after a short interreign characterized by support to the neo-fascist Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (la Triple A) terrorist group. Videla's junta, which participated in Operation Condor, supported various neo-fascist and right-wing terrorist movements; the SIDE supported Luis García Meza Tejada's Cocaine Coup in Bolivia and trained the Contras in Nicaragua.
The Bolivian Socialist Falange party founded in 1937 played a crucial role in mid-century Bolivian politics. Luis García Meza Tejada's regime took power during the 1980 Cocaine Coup in Bolivia with the help of Italian neo-fascist Stefano Delle Chiaie, Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie and the Buenos Aires junta. That regime has been accused of neo-fascist tendencies and of admiration for Nazi paraphernalia and rituals. Hugo Banzer Suárez, who preceded Tejada, also displayed admiration towards Nazism and fascism. Since the popular election of Evo Morales, Bolivia has seen a resurgence of far right politics in opposition to his Movement Towards Socialism government, policies, and reforms. Resurgent neo-fascist groups include the Bolivian Socialist Falange, Santa Cruz Youth Union, and Nacion Camba.
- See also Neo-Nazism in Greece
Fascism in Greece has been present in politics since the Greek National Socialist Party, though with limited popularity among the public. During the 1950s and 1960s, Greek neo-fascists composed extremist fractions, one of which was responsible for the killing of politician Gregoris Lambrakis. In 1967, Colonels' Junta in Greece found inspiration in the Metaxas period of 1936-1941, although, strictly speaking, the regime's nature was not fascist, but military-based, anti-communist, ultra-nationalist and authoritarian.
A decade after the restoration of democracy in 1974, former Junta leader George Papadopoulos founded and lead the National Political Union, a party supporting, if not neo-fascism, at least authoritarian views and the ideal of "Ellas ton Ellinon Christianon" (Greece of Greek-Orthodox Greeks). The Greek neo-fascists were greatly alienated though, but continued to existed in fringe minority parties, very rarely achieving parliament seats.
Guatemala (1953-1980s) - Mario Sandoval Alarcón, a self-identified fascist, headed the National Liberation Movement after a coup d'état, supported by the US, overthrew the democratic government of Col. Jacobo Arbenz.
SUMKA is an Iranian neo-Nazi group that is otherwise known as Hezb-e Sosialist-e Melli-ye Kargaran-e Iran or the Iran National-Socialist Workers group. The group is claiming to be direct heirs of the original still exists. Although it remains to be seen how far this revival extended beyond the internet. They now present their two main enemies as being Jews and Arabs, in keeping with the anti-Islamic and Aryan identity politics of the original party. This group is not connected to the equally minor Iranian National Socialist Party or the Aryan League. This party is against any form of Communism.
Italy was broadly divided into two political blocs following World War II, the Christian Democracy, which remained in power until the 1980s, and the Italian Communist Party (PCI), very strong immediately after the war but which was expulsed from power in May 1947, a month before the Paris Conference on the Marshall Plan, along with the French Communist Party (PCF). Despite attempts in the 1970s towards a "historic compromise" between the PCI and the DC, the PCI didn't take part in the executive power until the 1980s. In December 1970, Junio Valerio Borghese attempted, along with Stefano Delle Chiaie, the Borghese Coup which was supposed to install a neo-fascist regime. Neo-fascist groups took part in various false flag terrorist attacks, starting with the December 1969 Piazza Fontana massacre, for which Vincenzo Vinciguerra was convicted, and usually considered to have stopped with the 1980 Bologna railway bombing. A 2000 parliamentary report from the center-left Olive Tree coalition concluded that "the strategy of tension had been supported by the United States in order to impede the PCI, and, in a lesser measure, the PSI from reaching executive power".
Since the 1990s, Alleanza Nazionale, led by Gianfranco Fini, has distanced itself from Mussolini and fascism and made efforts to improve relations with Jewish groups, with most die-hards leaving it; it now seeks to present itself as a respectable right-wing party. Neo-fascist parties in Italy are Tricolour Flame ("Fiamma Tricolore"), New Force ("Forza Nuova") and the National Social Front ("fronte sociale nazionale").
Lebanon (1982–1988) - The right wing Christian Phalangist Party "Kataeb", backed by its own private army and inspired by the Spanish Falangists, was nominally in power in the country during the 1980s but had limited authority over the highly factionalised state, two-thirds of which was controlled by Israeli and Syrian troops.
With Mongolia located between the larger nations Russia and China, ethnic insecurities have driven many Mongolians to neo-fascism, expressing nationalism centered around Chengiz Khan and Adolf Hitler. Groups advocating these ideologies include Blue Mongolia, Dayar Mongol, and Mongolian National Union.
The National Socialism Association (NSA) is a neo-fascist political organization founded in Taiwan in September 2006 by Hsu Na-chi (許娜琦), a 22-year-old female political science graduate of Soochow University. The NSA views Adolf Hitler as its leader and often uses the slogan "Long live Hitler". This has brought them condemnation from the Simon Wiesenthal Center, an international Jewish human rights center.
TürkischeJugend (Turkish: Türk Gençliği) is a neo-Nazi organization in Turkey, founded in 2004. According to its founder[who?], their enemies are Kurds, Persians, Armenians, Gypsies and Jews who live in Turkey. They also oppose the Islamic religion and the Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi. As of 2007, the organization had more than 250 members. In an interview published in 2006 in the magazine Yeni Aktüel, the founder and the co-founder[who?] of the organization said:
We don't have any political connections. We hate Jews because they are controlling the world in their own evil interests. We are against Fethullah Gülen's partizans because they want to destroy our leader, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's Republic (Although Atatürk is known not to be in any kind, neither racist nor having neo-Nazi ideas.). We hate Kurds and Gypsies because they're polluting Turkey, mostly İstanbul.
TürkischeJugend members mostly live in İstanbul, Ankara, Bursa and Malatya. TürkischeJugend's logo is two white oblique Sig Runes on black: The symbol of the Waffen-SS. In 2005, the organization contacted another Turkish neo-Nazi organization, the National Socialist Turkish Movement (NASOTUHA), but this message was ignored by NASOTUHA.
The British National Party are a nationalist party in the United Kingdom who have the ideology of fascism and anti-immigration. Party leader Nick Griffin has, in the past, been involved in the practise of holocaust denial. BNP: Under the skin, news.bbc.co.uk, http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/programmes/2001/bnp_special/the_leader/beliefs.stm, retrieved 2009-06-17 </ref>
- See also Neo-Nazism in the United States
The presence or absence of elements of fascism in the United States since World War II has been a matter of dispute, with some opponents of the former George W. Bush administration citing similarities between the Homeland Security Act of 2002 and Nazi Germany's Enabling Act of 1933.
In 1951, the New European Order (NEO) neo-fascist Europe-wide alliance was set up to promote Pan-European nationalism. It was a more radical splinter-group of the European Social Movement. The NEO had its origins in the 1951 Malmö conference when a group of rebels led by René Binet and Maurice Bardèche refused to join the European Social Movement as they felt that it did not go far enough in terms of racialism and anti-communism. As a result Binet joined with Gaston-Armand Amaudruz in a second meeting that same year in Zurich to set up a second group pledged to wage war on communists and non-white people.
Several Cold War regimes and international neo-fascist movements collaborated in operations such as assassinations and false flag bombings. Stefano Delle Chiaie, involved in Italy's strategy of tension, took part in Operation Condor; organizing the 1976 assassination attempt of Chilean Christian Democrat Bernardo Leighton. Vincenzo Vinciguerra escaped to Franquist Spain with the help of the SISMI, following the 1972 Peteano attack, for which he was sentenced to life. Along with Delle Chiaie, Vinciguerra testified in Rome in December 1995 before judge Maria Servini de Cubria, stating that Enrique Arancibia Clavel (a former Chilean secret police agent prosecuted for crimes against humanity in 2004) and US expatriate DINA agent Michael Townley were directly involved in General Carlos Prats' assassination. Michael Townley was sentenced in Italy to 15 years of prison for having served as intermediary between the DINA and the Italian neo-fascists.
The regimes of Franquist Spain, Augusto Pinochet's Chile and Alfredo Stroessner's Paraguay participated together in Operation Condor, which targeted political opponents worldwide. During the Cold War, these international operations gave rise to some cooperation between various neo-fascist elements engaged in a "Crusade against Communism". Anti-Fidel Castro terrorist Luis Posada Carriles was condemned for the Cubana Flight 455 bombing on October 6, 1976. According to the Miami Herald, this bombing was decided on at the same meeting during which it was decided to target Chilean former minister Orlando Letelier, who was assassinated on September 21, 1976. Carriles wrote in his autobiography: "... we the Cubans didn't oppose ourselves to an isolated tyranny, nor to a particular system of our fatherland, but that we had in front of us a colossal enemy, whose main head was in Moscow, with its tentacles dangerously extended on all the planet."
- Fascism as an international phenomenon
- Palingenetic ultranationalism
- American Nazi Party
- Christian Identity
- Creativity Movement
- Alain de Benoist
- International Third Position
- National Alliance (United States)
- National anarchism
- National Bolshevism
- Neo-fascism and religion
- Nouvelle Droite
- William Luther Pierce
- George Lincoln Rockwell
- ^ Constantine P. Danopoulos (1983). "Military Professionalism and Regime Legitimacy in Greece, 1967-1974". Political Science Quarterly (The Academy of Political Science) 98 (3): 485–506. doi:10.2307/2150499. JSTOR 2150499.
- ^ Time
- ^ Mongol News
- ^ "Taiwan political activists admiring Hitler draw Jewish protests - Haaretz - Israel News". Haaretz.com. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/837697.html. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
- ^ Renton, David (1 March 2005). "'A day to make history'? The 2004 elections and the British National Party". Patterns of Prejudice 1 (39). http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a713722453. Retrieved 15 th January 2009.
- ^ Thurlow, Richard C. (2000). Fascism in Modern Britain. Sutton. ISBN 0750917474. http://books.google.com/?id=vAWGAAAAIAAJ.
- ^ Copsey, Nigel (September 2009). Contemporary British Fascism: The British National Party and the Quest for Legitimacy (2nd ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0230574378.
- ^ Wood, C; Finlay, W. M. L. (December 2008). "British National Party representations of Muslims in the month after the London bombings: Homogeneity, threat, and the conspiracy tradition". British Journal of Social Psychology 47 (4): 707–26. doi:10.1348/014466607X264103. PMID 18070375.
- ^ Kurt P. Tauber, German Nationalists and European Union, p. 573
- ^ Documents concerning attempted assassination of Bernardo Leighton, on the National Security Archives website.
- ^ http://www.isn.ethz.ch/php/documents/collection_gladio/Terrorism_Western_Europe.pdf[dead link]
- ^ http://www.isn.ethz.ch/php/news/media_desk.htm#Gladio[dead link]
- ^ "mun6". Jornada.unam.mx. http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2000/05/22/mun6.html. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
- ^ "During this period we have systematically established close contacts with like-minded groups emerging in Italy, Belgium, Germany, Spain or Portugal, for the purpose of forming the kernel of a truly Western League of Struggle against Marxism." Yves Guérin-Sérac, quoted by Stuart Christie, in Stefano Delle Chiaie: Portrait of a Black Terrorist, London: Anarchy Magazine/Refract Publications, 1984. ISBN 0-946222-09-6, p.27)
- ^ Preface to Los Caminos del Guerrero, 1994.
- The Beast Reawakens by Martin A. Lee, (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1997, ISBN 0-316-51959-6)
- Fascism (Oxford Readers) by Roger Griffin, 1995, ISBN 0-19-289249-5
- Fascism in Britain: A History, 1918-1985 by Richard C. Thurlow (Olympic Marketing Corp, 1987, ISBN 0-631-13618-5)
- Fascism Today: A World Survey by Angelo Del Boca (Pantheon Books, 1st American edition, 1969)
- Free to Hate: The Rise of the Right in Post-Communist Eastern Europe by Paul Hockenos (Routledge; Reprint edition, 1994, ISBN 0-415-91058-7)
- The Dark Side of Europe: The Extreme Right Today by Geoff Harris, (Edinburgh University Press; New edition, 1994, ISBN 0-7486-0466-9)
- The Far Right in Western and Eastern Europe by Luciano Cheles, Ronnie Ferguson, and Michalina Vaughan (Longman Publishing Group; 2nd edition, 1995, ISBN 0-582-23881-1)
- The Radical Right in Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis by Herbert Kitschelt (University of Michigan Press; Reprint edition, 1997, ISBN 0-472-08441-0)
- Shadows Over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe edited by Martin Schain, Aristide Zolberg, and Patrick Hossay (Palgrave Macmillan; 1st edition, 2002, ISBN 0-312-29593-6)
- Eternal Fascism: Fourteen Ways of Looking at a Blackshirt - Umberto Eco's list of 14 characteristics of Fascism, originally published 1995.
- What is Fascism? Some General Ideological Features by Matthew N. Lyons
- Fascism by Chip Berlet
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