- 1896 Summer Olympics
Name = Games of the I Olympiad
Size = 175
Optional caption =
Host city =
Nations participating = 14The number, given by the International Olympic Committee, is open to interpretation and could be as few as 10 and as many as 15. There are numerous reasons for the disparity: National teams hardly existed at the time, and most athletes represented themselves or their clubs. In addition, countries were not always as well-defined as they are today. The number of countries here reflects the number used by most modern sources. See the relevant section for further details.] | Athletes participating = 241This number of competitors is according to the International Olympic Committee. The identities of 179 competitors are known. Mallon & Widlund calculate 245 athletes, while De Wael finds 246.]
Events = 43 in 9 sports
Opening ceremony = Monday April 6, 1896Greece still used the
Julian calendarat the time. According to that calendar, the Games were opened on 25 March and closed on 3 April.]
Closing ceremony = Wednesday, April 15, 1896
Officially opened by =
George I of Greece
Athlete's Oath =
Judge's Oath =
Olympic Torch =
The 1896 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, were an
international multi-sport eventwhich was celebrated in Athens, Greece, from April 6 to April 15, 1896. It was the first Olympic Gamesheld in the Modern era. Ancient Greecewas the birthplace of the Olympic Games, consequently Athens was perceived to be an appropriate choice to stage the inaugural modern Games. It was unanimously chosen as the host city during a congress organized by Pierre de Coubertin, a French pedagogueand historian, in Paris, on June 23, 1894. The International Olympic Committee(IOC) was also established during this congress.
Despite many obstacles and setbacks, the 1896 Olympics were regarded as a great success. The Games had the largest international participation of any sporting event to that date.
Panathinaiko Stadium, the first big stadium in the modern world, overflowed with the largest crowd ever to watch a sporting event.Young (1996), 153] The highlight for the Greeks was the marathon victory by their compatriot Spiridon Louis. The most successful competitor was German wrestler and gymnast Carl Schuhmann, who won four gold medals.
After the Games, Coubertin and the IOC were petitioned by several prominent figures including Greece's King George and some of the American competitors in Athens, to hold all the following Games in Athens. However, the
1900 Summer Olympicswere already planned for Paris and, except for the Intercalated Games of 1906, the Olympics did not return to Greece until the 2004 Summer Olympics, some 108 years later.
Reviving the Games
During the 18th century, several small-scale sports festivals across Europe were named after the
Ancient Olympic Games. Coubertin had an idea to revive the ancient Olympics, but in the form of a multi-national and multi-sport event—the ancient games were in a sense international, because various Greek city-states and colonies were represented, but only free male athletes of Greek origin were allowed to participate. [According to Donald G. Kyle, systematic excavations of Olympiahad begun only in 1875, and Coubertin's perceptions were loosely based on ancient sources (Kyle  , 96).] In 1890, Coubertin wrote an article in "La Revue Athletique", which espoused the importance of Much Wenlock—a rural market town in the English county of Shropshire. It was here that, in October 1850, the local physician William Penny Brookeshad founded the Wenlock Olympian Games, a festival of sports and recreations that included athletics and team sports, such as cricket, footballand quoits. [Mullins, [http://www.ioa.leeds.ac.uk/1980s/84099.htm Pierre de Coubertin and the Wenlock Olympian Games] ] Coubertin also took inspiration from the games organized in Greece, by businessman Evangelos Zappas. [Matthews (2005), 66; Young (1996), 81]
On June 18, 1894, Coubertin organized a congress at the Sorbonne, in Paris, to present his plans to representatives of sports societies from 11 countries. Following his proposal's acceptance by the congress, a date for the first modern Olympic Games needed to be chosen. Coubertin suggested that the Games be held concurrently with the 1900 Universal Exposition of Paris. Concerned that a six-year waiting period might lessen public interest, congress members opted instead to hold the inaugural Games in 1896. With a date established, members of the congress turned their attention to the selection of a host city. It remains a mystery how Athens was finally chosen to host the inaugural Games. In the following years both Coubertin and
Demetrius Vikelaswould offer recollections of the selection process that contradicted the official minutes of the congress. Most accounts hold that several congressmen first proposed London as the location, but Coubertin dissented. After a brief discussion with Vikelas, who represented Greece, Coubertin suggested Athens. Vikelas made the Athens proposal official on June 23, and since Greece had been the original home of the Olympics, the congress unanimously approved the decision. Vikelas was then elected the first president of the newly established International Olympic Committee(IOC). [Young (1996), 100–105]
News that the Olympic Games would return to Greece was received favorably by the Greek public, media, and royal family. According to Coubertin, "the Crown Prince Constantine learned with great pleasure that the Games will be inaugurated in Athens." Coubertin went on to confirm that, "the King and the Crown Prince will confer their patronage on the holding of these games." Constantine later conferred more than that; he eagerly assumed the presidency of the 1896 organizing committee. [Young (1996), 108]
However, the country had financial troubles and was in political turmoil. The job of prime minister alternated between
Charilaos Trikoupisand Theodoros Deligiannisfrequently during the last years of the 19th century. Because of this financial and political instability, both prime minister Trikoupis and Stephanos Dragoumis, the president of the Zappas Olympic Committee, which had attempted to organize a series of national Olympiads, believed that Greece could not host the event. [Young (1996), 111–118] In late 1894, the organizing committee under Stephanos Skouloudispresented a report that the cost of the Games would be three times higher than originally estimated by Coubertin. They concluded the Games could not be held, and offered their resignation. The total cost of the Games was 3,740,000 drachmas (about US$448,000).Zarnowski (1992), 16–32] With the prospect of reviving the Olympic games very much in doubt, Coubertin and Vikelas commenced a campaign to keep the Olympic movement alive. Their efforts culminated on January 7, 1895 when Vikelas announced that crown prince Constantine would assume the presidency of the organizing committee. His first responsibility was to raise the funds necessary to host the Games. He relied on the patriotism of the Greek people to motivate them to provide the required finances. [Young (1996), 118. According to Young (2004), 153, "Vikelas and the other Greeks did most of the work. Coubertin did very little."] Constantine's enthusiasm sparked a wave of contributions from the Greek public. This grassroots effort raised 330,000 drachmas. A special set of postage stamps were commissioned; the sale of which raised 400,000 drachmas. Ticket sales added an additional 200,000 drachmas. At the request of Constantine, businessman George Averoffagreed to pay for the restoration of the Panathinaiko Stadium. Averoff would donate about one million drachmas to this project. [Darling (2004), 135] As a tribute to his generosity, a statue of Averoff was constructed and unveiled on April 5, 1896 outside the stadium. It stands there to this day. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9901EEDB1431E733A25757C0A96E9C94689ED7CF&oref=slogin George Averoff Dead] , New York Times]
Some of the athletes would take part in the Games because they happened to be in Athens at the time the Games were held, either on vacation or for work (e.g., some of the British competitors worked for the British embassy). A designated
Olympic Villagefor the athletes did not appear until the 1932 Summer Olympics. Consequently the athletes had to provide their own lodging.
The first regulation voted on by the new IOC in 1894 was to allow only amateur athletes to participate in the Olympic Games. [Some scholars allege that during the Sorbonne congress Coubertin was led by tactical considerations, and used the amateur requirement only as a bait in order to realize his actual aim—namely the reintroduction of the Olympic Games—more quickly (Lennartz–Wassong  ), 20).] The various contests were thus held under amateur regulations with the exception of fencing matches. [Professionalism vs amateurism was one of the dominant themes of the 19th century regarding athletics. In Greece the amateurism of athletes debate was taken a step further to encompass the question of the participation of the lower classes in the Games. In 1870, during the Zappian Olympic Games, Philippos Ioannou, a classical scholar and professor, criticized the games, and attacked the ideal of amateurism. His contention was that they were a parody, because people from the working class had taken part in the games. Ioannou suggested that only young people from the upper class should be accepted in the following Olympiad ( [http://www.fhw.gr/olympics/ancient/en/304b.html Professionals and Amateurs] , Foundation of the Hellenic World).] The rules and regulations were not uniform, so the Organizing Committee had to choose among the codes of the various national athletic associations. The jury, the referees and the game director bore the same names as in antiquity ("Ephor", "Helanodic" and "Alitarc"). Prince George acted as final referee; according to Coubertin, "his presence gave weight and authority to the decisions of the ephors."Coubertin (1896), [http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/pageviewer?frames=1&cite=&coll=moa&view=50&root=%2Fmoa%2Fcent%2Fcent0053%2F&tif=00057.TIF&pagenum=46 46–47] ]
On April 6 (March 25 according to the
Julian calendar), the games of the First Olympiad were officially opened; it was Easter Mondayfor both the Western and Eastern Christian Churches and the anniversary of Greece's independence. [Coubertin (1896), [http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/pageviewer?frames=1&cite=&coll=moa&view=50&root=%2Fmoa%2Fcent%2Fcent0053%2F&tif=00013.TIF&pagenum=42 42] *Martin–Gynn (2000), 7–8] The Panathinaiko Stadium was filled with an estimated 80,000 spectators, including King George I of Greece, his wife Olga, and their sons. Most of the competing athletes were aligned on the infield, grouped by nation. After a speech by the president of the organizing committee, Crown Prince Constantine, his father officially opened the Games: [http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/past/index_uk.asp?OLGT=1&OLGY=1896 Athens 1896 – Games of the I Olympiad] , International Olympic Committee]
I declare the opening of the first international Olympic Games in Athens. Long live the Nation. Long live the Greek people.
Afterwards, nine bands and 150 choir singers performed an Olympic Hymn, composed by
Spyridon Samaras, with words by poet Kostis Palamas. Thereafter, a variety of musical offerings provided the backgrounds to the Opening Ceremonies until 1960, since which time the Samaras/Palamas composition has become the official Olympic Anthem (decision taken by the IOC Session in 1958). Other elements of current Olympic opening ceremonies were initiated later: the Olympic flamewas first lit in 1928, the first athletes' oath was sworn at the 1920 Olympic Games, and the first officials' oath was taken at the 1972 Olympic Games.
At the 1894 Sorbonne congress, a large roster of sports were suggested for the program in Athens. The first official announcements regarding the sporting events to be held featured sports such as football and cricket, but these plans were never finalized and these sports did not make the final list for the Games. Rowing and
yachtingwere scheduled, but had to be canceled due to strong winds on the planned day of competition.Coubertin–Philemon–Politis–Anninos (1897), 98–99, 108–109]
The athletics events had the most international field of any of the sports. The major highlight was the marathon, held for the first time in international competition.
Spiridon Louis, a previously unrecognized water carrier, won the event to become the only Greek athletics champion and a national hero. Although Greece had been favored to win the discus and the shot put, the best Greek athletes finished just behind the American Robert Garrettin both events.
world records were set, as few top international competitors had elected to compete. In addition, the curves of the track were very tight, making fast times in the running events virtually impossible. Despite this, Thomas Burke, of the United States, won the 100 meter race in 12.0 seconds and the 400 meter race in 54.2 seconds. Burke was the only one who used the " crouch start" (putting his knee on soil), confusing the jury. Eventually, he was allowed to start from this "uncomfortable position". [Sears (2001), 159]
The rules of the
International Cycling Associationwere used for the cycling competitions.Coubertin (1896), [http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/pageviewer?frames=1&cite=&coll=moa&view=50&root=%2Fmoa%2Fcent%2Fcent0053%2F&tif=00057.TIF&pagenum=46 46–47] ; Lennartz–Wassong (2004), 23] The track cyclingevents were held at the newly built Neo Phaliron Velodrome. Only one road event was held, a race from Athens to Marathon and back (87 kilometers).
In the track events, the best cyclist was Frenchman Paul Masson, who won the one lap
time trial, the sprint event, and the 10,000 meters. In the 100 kilometers event, Masson entered as a pacemaker for his compatriot Léon Flameng. Flameng won the event, after a fall, and after stopping to wait for his Greek opponent Georgios Kolettisto fix a mechanical problem. The Austrian fencer Adolf Schmalwon the 12-hour race, which was completed by only two cyclists, while the road race event was won by Aristidis Konstantinidis.Lennartz-Wassong (2004), 23]
The fencing events were held in the
Zappeion, which, built with money Evangelos Zappashad given to revive the ancient Olympic Games, had never seen any athletic contests before.Young (1996), 148] Unlike other sports (in which only amateurs were allowed to take part at the Olympics), professionals were allowed to compete in fencing, though in a separate event. These professionals were considered gentlemen athletes, just as the amateurs.
Four events were scheduled, but the
épéeevent was cancelled for unknown reasons. The foil event was won by a Frenchman, Eugène-Henri Gravelotte, who beat his countryman, Henri Callot, in the final. The other two events, the sabre and the masters foil, were won by Greek fencers. Leonidas Pyrgos, who won the latter event, became the first Greek Olympic champion in the modern era.
The gymnastics competition was carried out on the infield of the Panathinaiko Stadium. Germany had sent an 11-man team, which won five of the eight events, including both team events. In the team event on the horizontal bar, the German team was unopposed. Three Germans added individual titles:
Hermann Weingärtnerwon the horizontal bar event, Alfred Flatowwon the parallel bars; and Carl Schuhmann, who also competed successfully in wrestling, won the vault. Louis Zutter, a Swiss gymnast, won the pommel horse, while Greeks Ioannis Mitropoulosand Nikolaos Andriakopouloswere victorious in the rings and rope climbing events, respectively. [Young (1996), 151]
Held at a range at
Kallithea, the shootingcompetition consisted of five events—two using a rifleand three with the pistol. The first event, the military rifle, was won by Pantelis Karasevdas, the only competitor to hit the target with all of his shots. The second event, for military pistols, was dominated by two American brothers: John and Sumner Painebecame the first siblings to finish first and second in the same event. In order to avoid embarrassing their hosts, the brothers decided that only one of them would compete in the next pistol event, the free pistol. Sumner Paine won that event, thereby becoming the first relative of an Olympic champion to become Olympic champion himself.Coubertin–Philemon–Politis–Anninos (1897), 76, 83–84]
The Paine brothers did not compete in the 25 meter pistol event, as the event judges determined that their weapons were not of the required caliber. In their absence,
Ioannis Phrangoudiswon. The final event, the free rifle, began on the same day. However, the event could not be completed due to darkness and was finalized the next morning, when Georgios Orphanidiswas crowned the champion.
The swimming competition was held in the open ocean because the organizers had refused to spend the money necessary for a specially constructed stadium. Nearly 20,000 spectators lined the
Bay of Zeaoff the Piraeuscoast to watch the events. The water in the bay was cold, and the competitors suffered during their races. There were three open events (men's 100 metre freestyle, men's 500 metre freestyle, and men's 1200 metre freestyle), in addition to a special event open only to Greek sailors, all of which were held on the same day (April 11).
Alfréd Hajósof Hungary, this meant he could only compete in two of the events, as they were held too close together, which made it impossible for him to adequately recuperate. Nevertheless, he won the two events in which he swam, the 100 and 1200 meter freestyle. Hajós later became one of only two Olympians to win a medal in both the athletic and artistic competitions, when he won a silver medal for architecture in 1924. The 500 meter freestyle was won by Austrian swimmer Paul Neumann, who defeated his opponents by more than a minute and a half.
Although tennis was already a major sport by the end of the 19th century, none of the top players turned up for the tournament in Athens. The competition was held at the courts of the
Athens Lawn Tennis Club, and the infield of the velodrome used for the cycling events. John Pius Boland, who won the event, had been entered in the competition by a fellow-student of his at Oxford; the Greek, Konstantinos Manos. As a member of the Athens Lawn Tennis sub-committee, Manos had been trying, with the assistance of Boland, to recruit competitors for the Athens Games from among the sporting circles of Oxford University. In the first round, Boland defeated Friedrich Traun, a promising tennis player from Hamburg, who had been eliminated in the 100 meter sprint competition. Boland and Traun decided to team up for the doubles event, in which they reached the final and defeated their Greek and Egyptian opponents after losing the first set. [Gillmeister (1995), 23–24]
The sport of weightlifting was still young in 1896, and the rules differed from those in use today. Competitions were held outdoors, in the infield of the main stadium, and there were no weight limits. The first event was held in a style now known as the "
clean and jerk". Two competitors stood out: Scotsman Launceston Elliotand Viggo Jensenof Denmark. Both of them lifted the same weight; but the jury, with Prince George as the chairman, ruled that Jensen had done so in a better style. The British delegation, unfamiliar with this tie-breaking rule, lodged a protest. The lifters were eventually allowed to make further attempts, but neither lifter improved, and Jensen was declared the champion.Coubertin–Philemon–Politis–Anninos (1897), 70–71]
Elliot got his revenge in the one hand lift event, which was held immediately after the two-handed one. Jensen had been slightly injured during his last two-handed attempt, and was no match for Elliot, who won the competition easily. The Greek audience was charmed by the Scottish victor, whom they considered very attractive. A curious incident occurred during the weightlifting event: a servant was ordered to remove the weights, which appeared to be a difficult task for him. Prince George came to his assistance; he picked up the weight and threw it a considerable distance with ease, to the delight of the crowd.
No weight classes existed for the wrestling competition, held in the Panathinaiko Stadium, which meant that there would only be one winner among competitors of all sizes. The rules used were similar to modern
Greco-Roman wrestling, although there was no time limit, and not all leg holds were forbidden (in contrast to current rules).
Apart from the two Greek contestants, all the competitors had previously been active in other sports. Weightlifting champion Launceston Elliot faced gymnastics champion Carl Schuhmann. The latter won and advanced into the final, where he met
Georgios Tsitas, who had previously defeated Stephanos Christopoulos. Darkness forced the final match to be abandoned after 40 minutes; it was continued the following day, when Schuhmann needed only a quarter of an hour to finish the bout. [Coubertin–Philemon–Politis–Anninos (1897), 93–94]
On the morning of Sunday April 12, King George organized a banquet for officials and athletes (even though some competitions had not yet been held). During his speech, he made clear that, as far as he was concerned, the Olympics should be held in Athens permanently. The official closing ceremony was held the following Wednesday, after being postponed from Tuesday due to rain. Again the royal family attended the ceremony, which was opened by the
national anthemof Greece and an ode composed in ancient Greekby George S. Robertson, a British athlete and scholar.Coubertin (1896), [http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/pageviewer?frames=1&cite=&coll=moa&view=50&root=%2Fmoa%2Fcent%2Fcent0053%2F&tif=00059.TIF&pagenum=50 50] ]
Afterwards, the king awarded prizes to the winners. Unlike today, the first place winners received silver medals, an olive branch and a diploma. Athletes who placed second received copper medals, a branch of laurel and a diploma. Third place winners did not receive a medal. Some winners also received additional prizes, such as Spyridon Louis, who received a cup from
Michel Bréal, a friend of Coubertin, who had conceived the marathon event. Louis then led the medalists on a lap of honor around the stadium, while the Olympic Hymn was played again. The King then formally announced that the first Olympiad was at an end, and left the Stadium, while the band played the Greek national hymn and the crowd cheered.
Like the Greek king, many others supported the idea of holding the next Games in Athens; most of the American competitors signed a letter to the Crown Prince expressing this wish. Coubertin, however, was heavily opposed to this idea, as he envisioned international rotation as one of the cornerstones of the modern Olympics. According to his wish, the next Games were held in Paris, although they would be somewhat over-shadowed by the concurrently held
Universal Exposition. [Young (1996), 156]
The concept of national teams was not a major part of the Olympic movement until the Intercalated Games 10 years later, though many sources list the nationality of competitors in 1896 and give medal counts. There are significant conflicts with regard to which nations competed. The International Olympic Committee gives a figure of 14, but does not list them. The following 14 are most likely the ones recognized by the IOC. Some sources list 12, excluding Chile and Bulgaria; others list 13, including those two but excluding Italy. Egypt is also sometimes included because of
Dionysios Kasdaglis' participation. Belgium and Russia had entered the names of competitors, but konrad withdrew.
# – Despite
Australia's lack of independence from the British Empire, the results of Edwin Flackare typically given with him listed as Australian.
# – Austria was part of
Austria-Hungaryat the time, though the results of Austrian athletes are typically reported separately.
# – The
Bulgarian Olympic Committeeclaims that gymnast Charles Champaudwas competing as a Bulgarian. [http://www.bgolympic.org/fce/index.shtml?s=001&p=0039&n=000001 Athens 1896] , Bulgarian Olympic Committee] Champaud was a Swiss national living in Bulgaria. Mallon and de Wael both list Champaud as Swiss.De Wael, KONRAD [http://users.skynet.be/hermandw/olymp/gym1896.html Gymnastics 1896] ]
# – The Chilean Olympic Committee claims to have had one athlete,
Luis Subercaseaux, compete in the 100, 400, and 800 meter races in the athletics programme.Guttmann (1994), 128; [http://www.coch.cl/museo.htm La Presencia de Chile en los Juegos Olimpicos] , Olympic Committee of Chile; McGehee (2000), 107] No further details are given, and no mention is made of Subersaceaux in Mallon, de Wael, or the Official Report.
# – The
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Irelandhas historically maintained separate athletic organisations for each of its constituent countries. The major exception to this has been the Olympic Games, in which the country is considered as a single entity. However, it has conventionally used the name "Great Britain" at the Olympics rather than the more common shortening of the name to "the United Kingdom".
# – Greek results typically include the results of competitors from Cyprus,
Smyrnaand Egypt. [Gillmeister (1998), 364] Some sources give Cypriot results separately, though most count Anastasios Andreou, a Greek-Cypriot and the only athlete from Cyprus, as Greek (Cyprus was a protectorate of the United Kingdom at the time). Kasdaglis, an athlete of Greek origins living in Alexandria, Egypt, is listed by the IOC as Greek during his competition in the singles tennis competition but Kasdaglis and his doubles tennis teammate, Greek athlete Demetrios Petrokokkinos, are listed as a mixed team. [http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/past/table_uk.asp?OLGT=1&OLGY=1896 Athens 1896–Medal Table] , International Olympic Committee]
# – Hungary is usually listed separately from Austria, despite the two being formally joined as
Austria-Hungaryat the time. However, Hungarian results are considered to include those of athletes from Vojvodina(now part of Serbia)
# – The most prominent Italian involved with the games,
Carlo Airoldi, was deemed a professional and excluded from competition. However, the shooter listed by name simply as Rivabellawas also Italian and did compete. [De Wael, [http://users.skynet.be/hermandw/olymp/sho1896.html Shooting 1896] ]
Ten of the 14 participating nations earned medals, in addition to three medals won by mixed teams, i.e. teams made up of athletes from multiple nations. The United States won the most gold medals (11), while host nation Greece won the most medals overall (46) as well as the most silver (17) and bronze (19) medals, finishing with one fewer gold medal than the United States.
During these inaugural Olympics, winners were given a silver medal and an
olivebranch, while runners-up received a bronze medal and a laurel branch.Coubertin&ndashPhilemon–Politis–Anninos (1897), 232–234] The IOC has retroactively assigned gold, silver and bronze medals to the three best placed athletes in each event to comport with more recent traditions.
Women were not allowed to compete at the 1896 Summer Olympics. One, named
Stamata Revithi, the mother of a 17-month-old boy, ran the marathon course on April 11, the day after the men had run the official race. Although she was not allowed to enter the stadium at the end of her race, Revithi finished the marathon in about five hours and 30 minutes, and found witnesses to sign their names and verify the running time. Revithi intended to present this documentation to the Hellenic Olympic Committee, hoping that they would recognize her achievement. Neither her reports nor documents from the Hellenic Olympic Committee have been discovered to provide corroboration.Martin–Gynn (2000), 22]
*cite web |title=Athens 1896|publisher=
Bulgarian Olympic Committee|url=http://www.bgolympic.org/fce/index.shtml?s=001&p=0039&n=000001|accessdate=2008-07-07
*cite web |title=Athens 1896–Games of the I Olympiad |publisher=International Olympic Committee |url=http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/past/index_uk.asp?OLGT=1&OLGY=1896 |accessdate=2008-05-05
*cite web |title=Athens 1896–Medal Table |publisher=International Olympic Committee |url=http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/past/table_uk.asp?OLGT=1&OLGY=1896|accessdate=2008-05-05
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*cite book |title=Encyclopedia of the Modern Olympic Movement|editor=John E. Findling, Kimberly D. Pelle|last=Lennartz|first=Karl|coauthors=Wassong, Stephen|year=2004|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|chapter=Athens 1896|isbn=0-313-32278-3|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=QmXi_-Jujj0C&dq=1896+games,+cycling&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 |oclc=52418065
*cite book |title=Running through the Ages|last=Martin|first=David E.|coauthors=Gynn, Roger W. H. |year=2000|publisher=Human Kinetics|isbn=0-880-11969-1|chapter=The Olympic Marathon|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Qb125O62NVQC&dq=Stamata+Revithi&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 |oclc=42823784
*cite book |title=America's First Olympics: The St. Louis Games Of 1904 |last=Matthews|first=George R.|year=2005|publisher=University of Missouri Press|isbn=0-826-21588-2|chapter=The Ghost of Plato|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=WKRUmep515oC&dq=Wenlock,+Brookes,+Coubertin&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 |oclc=58468164
*cite book |last=McGehee |first=Richard V.|format=PDF|title=Strange Pilgr
*cite web | last=Mullins | first=Samuel P. |url = http://www.ioa.leeds.ac.uk/1980s/84099.htm | title = Pierre de Coubertin and the Wenlock Olympian Games| accessdate=2008-07-11| publisher = University of Leeds | work =Proceedings of the International Olympic Academy–Selected 1980s Proceedings
*cite book |title=Running through the Ages|last=Sears |first=Edward S.|year=2001 |publisher=McFarland|isbn=0-786-40971-1|chapter=The Revival of the Olympic Games|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=vxxOw3FvOgwC&dq=Burke,++crouch+start&lr=&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 |oclc=46650949
*cite book |title=A Brief History of the Olympic Games|last=Young |first=David C. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2004 |location= Oxford |publisher=Blackwell |isbn=1-405-11130-5 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=hCNtwn24iK8C&dq=Zappas+Olympic+Committee&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 |chapter=The Modern Olympic Games |oclc=54111254
*cite book |title=The Modern Olympics: A Struggle for Revival |last=Young |first=David C. |year=1996 |location= Baltimore |publisher=John Hopkins University Press|isbn=0-801-87207-3
*cite journal | last = Zarnowski | format=PDF|first = C. Frank | year = 1992 | month = Summer | title = A Look at Olympic Costs | journal = Citius, Altius, Fortius | volume = 1 | issue = 1 | pages = 16–32 | url = http://www.aafla.org/SportsLibrary/JOH/JOHv1n1/JOHv1n1f.pdf | accessdate = 2007-03-24
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Austria at the 1896 Summer Olympics — Infobox Olympics Austria games=1896 Summer flagcaption=Flag of Austria within Austria Hungary competitors=3 sports=3 gold=2 silver=1 bronze=2 total=5Three sportsmen from Austria competed at the 1896 Summer Olympics. Though Austria was then a part … Wikipedia
France at the 1896 Summer Olympics — Infobox Olympics France games=1896 Summer competitors=13 sports=6 gold=5 silver=4 bronze=2 total=11Thirteen athletes from France competed in six sports at the 1896 Summer Olympics. France won the fourth most gold medals with 5 and the fourth most … Wikipedia