- Administrator (Australia)
Administrator of the Government(Administrator) has several uses in Australia.
Administrator of the Commonwealth
At the Commonwealth level, Section 4 of the
Australian Constitutionprovides that:
:"The provisions of this Constitution relating to the Governor-General extend and apply to the Governor-General for the time being, or such person as the Queen may appoint to administer the Government of the Commonwealth; but no such person shall be entitled to receive any salary from the Commonwealth in respect of any other office during his administration of the Government of the Commonwealth." [ [http://australianpolitics.com/constitution/text/1-6.shtml Chapter 1, Part 1 - The Parliament - General] ,
Following this provision, when the Governor-General dies, resigns or is absent from Australia, an Administrator is appointed. The Administrator is styled either Administrator of the Commonwealth or, less commonly, Administrator of the Government of the Commonwealth. On
11 May 2003the Letters Patentcommissioning the Governor-General were amended to include revised circumstances in which an Administrator can be asked to take over.McKeown, Deidre: [http://www.aph.gov.au/Library/pubs/RN/2003-04/04rn10.htm Frequently Asked Questions About the Office of Governor-General] , Parliament of Australia, 18 August 2003.]
By convention, the Administrator is usually the longest-serving state Governor, who holds a
dormant commissionfrom the Sovereign (Queen Elizabeth II) which comes into effect in these circumstances. For example, in May 2003when Dr Peter Hollingworthstood aside as Governor-General, Tasmanian Governor Sir Guy Green was appointed Administrator. [Epstein, Rafael: [http://www.abc.net.au/am/content/2003/s855339.htm Sir Guy faces first day as Administrator] , "AM" (ABC Radio National, 15 May 2003.]
Administrator of a State
In the Australian states, when the Governor dies, resigns or is absent, the Lieutenant-Governor (appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Premier) performs the official duties of the Governor as Administrator until such time as the Crown appoints a new Governor. In the absence of both a Governor and Lieutenant-Governor, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of that State or the next most senior Puisne Judge, traditionally holding, ex officio, the position of Lieutenant-Governor, assumes his position as head of the executive until a Governor is appointed. [ [http://www.governor.sa.gov.au/html/governor.html The Role of the Lieutenant Governor] ,
Governor of South Australia.]
Administrator of a Territory
Unlike the Australian states, each of which is a possession of the Crown "in its own right" and which therefore possesses a Governor directly representing the Queen, all Australian territories are possessions of the Crown "in right of the Commonwealth of Australia" and the sole "direct" representative of the Crown therefore remains the Commonwealth Governor-General. Unlike the states, the territories fall within the exclusive legislative and administrative competence of the Commonwealth. In respect of several territories the Governor-General is represented in the territory by an Administrator appointed to administer the territory on his behalf. In those territories with an Administrator, the Administrator can be considered the "indirect" representative of the Queen in the territory.
Northern Territory, which is not a state and does not have a Governor, but which is self-governing with its own legislature and executive, the role of the Crown is filled by an Administrator of the Northern Territoryappointed by the Governor-General-in-Council – that is, the Governor-General acting on the formal "advice" of the Federal Executive Council– on the "recommendation" of the Chief Minister of the Northern Territory, in accordance with the provisions of the "Northern Territory (Self Government) Act 1978 (Cth)". [ [http://www.nt.gov.au/lant/parliament/nt.shtml The Administrator as Head of State Appointment] , Northern Territory Legislative Assembly.]
Administrators of the Northern Territory since Self-Government
*John England: 1 June 1976 - 1 January 1981
Eric Johnston: 1 January 1981 - 1 July 1989
James Muirhead: 1 July 1989 - 1 March 1993
Austin Asche: 1 March 1993 - 17 February 1997
Neil Conn: 17 February 1997 - 31 October 2000
John Anictomatis: 31 October 2000 - 18 November 2003
Ted Egan: 18 November 2003 - 31 October 2007
Tom Pauling: from 9 November 2007
Australian Capital Territory
Unlike Australia's other internal self-governing territory the
Northern Territory, the Australian Capital Territorydoes not have an Administrator. As in all other Australian territories, the Governor-General of the Commonwealth remains the "direct" constitutional representative of the Queen in the Territory; however, pursuant to the provisions of the "Australian Capital Territory (Self-Government) Act 1988 (Cth)" there is a Territory "Executive" consisting of the Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territoryand any other Ministers admitted by him to the Executive. The Crown is therefore represented by the Governor-General of Australia in the Government of the ACT.
Other Australian Territories
As well as the internal and largely self-governing territories of the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory, Australia also possesses (or lays claim to – since Australia's Antarctic claims are not universally recognised) seven external territories, each of which falls within the sphere of influence of the Commonwealth and is administered by the Commonwealth Government. Three of these,
Norfolk Island(which enjoys a large degree of autonomy), the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islandsand the Territory of Christmas Islandhave permanent populations and also have an Administrator appointed by the Governor-General-in-Council to administer the territory on his behalf. The remaining four external territories, the Australian Antarctic Territory, the Coral Sea Islands Territory, the Territory of Ashmore Reef and Cartier Island, and the Territory of Heard and McDonald Islandshave no permanent population and do not have an Administrator as such but are administered directly by the Commonwealth Government, currently under the auspices of the Attorney-General's Department.
In addition to the two self-governing internal territories and Australia's seven external territories, there is also the internal territory of Jervis Bay. Prior to ACT Self-Government in 1989 what is now the Jervis Bay Territory constituted part of the
Australian Capital Territory. Upon ACT Self-Government it became a separate territory located on the Australian mainland; for the most part it is populated with Defence Force personnel. The territory does not have an Administrator and is administered directly by the Commonwealth Government.
* [http://www.gg.gov.au/governorgeneral/content.php?id=4 Letters Patent Relating to the Office of Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia]
* [http://www.nt.gov.au/administrator/ Office of the Administrator of the Northern Territory]
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