- Angela Davis
Infobox revolution biography
name = Angela Davis, Ph.D
dateofbirth = birth date and age|1944|01|26
Birmingham, Alabama, USA
Image_Caption = Speaking at the University of Alberta,
March 28 2006
movement = Civil Rights Movement,
Marxism, Feminism, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Critical Resistance, Frankfurt Sozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund
Black Panther Party for Self Defense(BPP)
Political Affiliation =
Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism, Democratic Socialism, Communist Party USA
alma mater =
Humboldt University of Berlin( GDR), University of California San Diego, University of Frankfurt( magna cum laude), Brandeis University
Herbert Marcuse, Dr. Huey P. Newton, Karl Marx, Jean-Paul Sartre
Angela Yvonne Davis (born,
January 26, 1944in Birmingham, Alabama) is an American political activistand university professorwho was associated with the Black Panther Party for Self Defenseand the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Davis was also a notable activist during the Civil Rights Movement, and a prominent member and political candidate of the Communist Party USA. In recent years, she no longer identifies as a communist, but rather a democratic socialist, and is currently a member of the Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism.
She first achieved nationwide notoriety when a weapon registered in her name was linked to the murder of
Judge Harold Haleyduring an effort to free a black convict who was being tried for the attempted retaliatory murder of a white prison guard who killed three unarmed black inmates. Davis fled underground and was the subject of an intense manhunt. Davis was eventually captured, arrested, tried, and then acquitted in one of the most famous trials in recent U.S. history.
Davis is currently a
graduate studies Professorof History of Consciousnessat the University of Californiaand Presidential Chair at the University of California, Santa Cruz. She works for racial and gender equality, and for gay rightsand prison abolition. She is a popular public speaker, nationally and internationally, as well as a founder of the grassrootsprison abolition organization Critical Resistance.
Davis was born in
Birmingham, Alabama, in the midst of Jim Crow laws. Her father was a graduate of St. Augustine's College, a traditionally black college in Raleigh, North Carolina, and was briefly a high school history teacher. After leaving teaching due to the low salary, he owned and operated a service station in the black section of Birmingham. Her mother, also college-educated, was an elementary school teacher with a history of political activism. Despite a modest income, the family purchased a large home in a mixed neighborhood where Angela spent most of her youth. The neighborhood, called "Dynamite Hill" locally, was marked by racial conflict. She was occasionally able to spend time on her uncle's farm and with friends in New York City. [cite book |last=Davis |first=Angela Yvonne |title="Angela Davis: An Autobiography" |year=1989 |month=March |publisher=International Publishers |location=New York City |isbn=0717-80667-7 |chapter=Rocks ] Her brother, Ben Davis, played defensive backfor the Cleveland Brownsand Detroit Lionsin the late 1960s and early 1970s.
During her childhood, Davis experienced the humiliations of
racial segregation. She was bright and begged to enter school early, attending Carrie A. Tuggle School, a black elementary school in dilapidated facilities and later Parker Annex, a similarly dilapidated annex of Parker High School devoted to middle school education. Davis read voraciously. By her junior year, she applied to and was accepted by an American Friends Service Committeeprogram that placed Black students from the South in integrated schools in the North. She chose to attend the Elisabeth Irwin High School in Greenwich Village, New York City; a small private school favored by the radical community. There, Davis became acquainted with socialismand communismand was recruited by the communist youth group, Advance. She also met children of the leaders of the Communist Party, including her lifelong friend, Bettina Aptheker.
Education and early career
Undergraduate work at Brandeis University
Upon graduation from high school, Davis was awarded a full scholarship to
Brandeis Universityin Waltham, Massachusetts, where she was one of three black students in her freshman class. Initially alienated by the isolation of the campus (at that time she was interested in Albert Camusand Jean-Paul Sartre), she soon made friends with the foreign students. She first encountered Herbert Marcuseat a rally during the Cuban Missile Crisisand later became his student. She worked part-time jobs earning money to spend the summer in Europe and attend the eighth World Festival of Youth and Studentsin Helsinki. That summer, she spent time in Parisand Switzerlandbefore going on to the Festival in Finland, where she and the other young people were strongly impressed by the energetic Cuban delegation. She returned home to an FBIinterview about her attendance at the communist-sponsored festival.cite book |last=Davis |first=Angela Yvonne |title="Angela Davis: An Autobiography" |year=1989 |month=March |publisher=International Publishers |location=New York City |isbn=0717-80667-7 |chapter=Waters]
During her second year at Brandeis, she decided to major in French and continued her intensive study of
Sartre. Davis was accepted by the Hamilton CollegeJunior Year in France Program and managed to talk Brandeis into extending financial support via her scholarship. Classes were initially at Biarritzand later at the Sorbonne. In Paris, she and other students lived with a French family. It was at Biarritz that she received news of the 1963 Birmingham church bombing, committed by the KKK, which deeply affected her as she was personally acquainted with the four young victims. That year, there were two Têt(Vietnamese New Year) festivals in Paris, one sponsored by supporters of the South, the other by supporters of the North. Davis attended the festival sponsored by the North which featured a clown dressed as an American GI.
Nearing completion of her degree in French, Davis realized her major interest was
philosophy. She became particularly interested in the ideas of Herbert Marcuseand on her return to Brandeis, she audited his course (required French courses precluded enrollment). Marcuse turned out to be approachable and helpful. Davis began making plans to attend the University of Frankfurt for graduate work in philosophy. In 1965 she graduated magna cum laude, a member of Phi Beta Kappa.
In Germany, having only a stipend of $100 a month to work with, she had great difficulty finding lodging, but after much looking finally found a place with a sympathetic family. Later, she moved with a group of students into a sort of
loftin an old factory building. At the University, she had great difficulty following the lectures of philosopher, sociologist and social critic Theodor Adornobut soon found that her fellow students, native German speakers, shared her difficulty. Visiting East Berlinduring the May Daycelebration, she felt that the East German government was dealing better with the residual effects of fascismthan the West Germans. Many of her roommates were active in the " Sozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund(SDS)", a radical student group. Davis participated in actions with them, but as things were happening back in the United States—the formation of the Black Panther Partyand transformation of SNCC, for example—she was eager to return.
an Diego, California
On her way to California, she stopped off in
Londonto attend a conference on "The Dialecticsof Liberation." The small Black contingent included Stokely Carmichaeland Michael X, a local Black Britishactivist. Davis was wearing her trademark afro hairstyle by then and was thus identifiable as a sympathizer with the Black Power movement. Although moved by Stokely Carmichael's fiery rhetoric, she was disappointed by the Black nationalist sentiments of the Black group and their rejection of Communism as a "white man's thing." She held the view that nationalism was a barrier to grappling with the underlying issue, capitalist domination of working people of all races. [cite book |last=Davis |first=Angela Yvonne |title="Angela Davis: An Autobiography" |year=1989 |month=March |publisher=International Publishers |location=New York City |isbn=0717-80667-7 |chapter=Flames]
Once in San Diego, she earned a
master's degreefrom the University of California, San Diego, returning to Germany for her Ph.D. in Philosophy from the Humboldt University of Berlin, GDR.
Davis worked as an acting assistant professor in the philosophy department at the
University of California, Los Angeles, beginning in 1969. At that time, she also was a radical feministand activist, a member of the Communist Party USAand associated with the Black Panther Party.cite episode | title = Interview with Angela Davis | episodelink = | series = BookTV | serieslink = | airdate = 2004-10-03 | season = | number = ]
In a controversial decision, the Board of Regents of the
University of California, urged by then-California Governor Ronald Reagan, fired her from her job in 1969 because of her membership in the Communist Party. She was later rehired after a community uproar.
During the summer of 1970, Davis had become involved in Black Panther efforts to garner support for the imprisoned George Jackson, Fleeta Drumgo, and John Clutchette, known as the "
Soledad brothers" (after Soledad Prison, where they were incarcerated). On August 7, George's brother, 17-year-old Jonathan Jackson, along with two others, disrupted trial proceedings in an attempt to assist the escape of friend James McClain from the Marin County Hall of Justice. McClain was on trial for an alleged attempt to stab an officer. In the courthouse, the three stood up from their seats and, at gunpoint, directed everyone to freeze. They then led the judge, the prosecuting attorney, and several jurors into a van parked outside. As the hostages entered the van, Jackson and the others were reported to have shouted, "We want the Soledad Brothers freed by 12:30 today!". During the escape attempt, Jackson and accomplice William Christmas were killed in a shootout with police. Judge Harold Haleywas killed by his captors with a shotgun taped to his throat inside the van. Prosecutor Gary Thomas was paralyzed by a police bullet during the incident.
A shotgun used by the escapees was registered in Davis's name, implicating her in the escape attempt. The California warrant issued for Davis charged her as an accomplice to conspiracy,
kidnapping, and homicide. On August 18, 1970, Davis became the third woman and the 309th individual to appear on the FBI's Ten Most Wanted Fugitives List. [cite web
work =Davis (Angela) Legal Defense Collection, 1970-1972
Davis fled California and evaded the police for over two months before being captured in
New York City. While being held in the Women's Detention Center in New York City, she was initially segregated from the general population, but with the help of her legal team soon obtained a Federal court order to get out of the segregated area. [cite book |last=Davis |first=Angela Yvonne |title="Angela Davis: An Autobiography" |year=1989 |month=March |publisher=International Publishers |location=New York City |isbn=0717-80667-7 |chapter=Nets]
Davis got on well with other inmates, and with the help of her outside supporters was able to initiate a
bailprogram for indigent prisoners. Her own bail was posted by Rodger McAfee, a farmer from Caruthers, California.
In 1972, eighteen months after her capture, she was tried and acquitted of all charges; the mere fact that she owned one of the guns used in the crime was not sufficient to establish her responsibility for the plot.Caldwell, Earl. [http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/03/08/home/davis-acquit.html "Angela Davis Acquitted on All Charges"] "
The New York Times". June 5, 1972. Retrieved on 2008-07-02.]
Following her release, Davis temporarily relocated to
Cubafollowing in the footsteps of fellow radicals Huey Newtonand Stokely Carmichael. Her reception by Afro-Cubans at a mass rally was so enthusiastic that she was reportedly barely able to speak. [cite book
authorlink =Richard Gott
title ="Cuba: A New History"
publisher =Yale University Press
location =New Haven, Connecticut
pages =p. 230
id =ISBN 0-300-10411-1 ]
upport for the Peoples Temple
Angela Davis was an ally of the
Peoples Temple, led by controversial political figure Jim Jones, and she attended Jones' speeches at the Temple. [Reiterman, Tim and John Jacobs. "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverend Jim Jones and His People". Dutton, 1982. ISBN 0-525-24136-1. p. 266.] Between 1975 and 1977, Davis participated in Temple rallies, convened privately with Jones and the Temple, which promoted apostolic socialism, and was considered to be the Temple's favorite African American communist. [Reiterman, Tim and John Jacobs. "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverend Jim Jones and His People". Dutton, 1982. ISBN 0-525-24136-1. p. 281 & 369.] Most notably, during one of the Temple's "White Nights" in Jonestownin September of 1977, Davis addressed 1,000 Temple members via radio relay, urging her support and agreeing with Jones' assessment that "there is a conspiracy designed to destroy the contributions which you have made to the struggle." [Reiterman, Tim and John Jacobs. "Raven: The Untold Story of Reverend Jim Jones and His People". Dutton, 1982. ISBN 0-525-24136-1. 369.]
Jonestown later became the site of the greatest single loss of American civilian life in a non-natural disaster until the incidents of September 11, 2001 and the only murder of a Congressman in the line of duty in U.S. history. [Rapaport, Richard, [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2003/11/16/INGEM3070J1.DTL&type=printable "Jonestown and City Hall slayings eerily linked in time and memory"] , San Francisco Chronicle, November 16, 2003] [Brazil, Jeff. [http://www.rickross.com/reference/jonestown/jonestown9.html "Jonestown's Horror Fades but Mystery Remain."] "Los Angeles Times". December 16, 1999.]
Davis ran for Vice President on the Communist ticket in 1980 and 1984 along with
Gus Hall. She has continued a career of activism, and has written several books. A principal focus of her current activism is the state of prisons within the United States. She considers herself an abolitionist, not a "prison reformer," and refers to the United States prison systemas the " prison-industrial complex." Her solutions include abolishing prisons and addressing the class, race, and gender factors that have led to large numbers of blacks and Latinos being incarcerated.
Davis was one of the primary founders of
Critical Resistance, a national grassroots organization dedicated to building a movement to abolish the prison-industrial complex.
" magazine. [cite web
title =Angela Davis
publisher =Notable name database
Davis spoke out against the 1995
Million Man March, arguing that the exclusion of women from this event necessarily promoted male chauvinismand that the organizers, including Louis Farrakhan, preferred women to take subordinate roles in society. In response to the March, and together with Kimberlé Crenshaw and others, she formed the African American Agenda 2000, a small alliance of Black feminists.
Davis is no longer a member of the Communist Party, leaving to help found the
Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism, which broke from the CPUSA due to the latter body's support of the Soviet coup attempt of 1991and the communist parties of the Warsaw Pact. [cite news
title =(title unknown)
publisher =Committees of Correspondence
accessdate = ] She remains on the Advisory Board of the Committees. [cite web
title =Advisory board
work =Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism website
publisher =Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism
accessdate =2007-07-20] Davis points to
Cubaas an example of a country which successfully addresses social and economic problems. In her view democracy and socialism are more compatible than democracy and capitalism.
In recent years, Angela Davis has spoken out against the
death penalty. At the University of California, Santa Cruz, she participated in a 2004 panel concerning Kevin Cooper. She also spoke in defense of Stanley "Tookie" Williamson another panel in 2005. Davis remains a prominent figure in the struggle against the death penalty in California.
She was the commencement speaker at
Grinnell Collegein May, 2007. On October 27, Davis was the keynote speaker at the 5th annual Practical Activism Conference at UC Santa Cruz. [Santa Cruz Indymedia coverage of the [http://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2007/10/27/18456544.php 5th annual Practical Activism Conference] at UC Santa Cruz.]
On February 08, 2008, she spoke on the campus of Howard University on behalf of the invitation of Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc. Alpha Chapter. On February 24, 2008, she was featured as the closing keynote speaker for the 2008
Midwest Bisexual Lesbian Gay Transgender Ally College Conference. On April 14, 2008, she spoke at The College of Charleston as a guest of the Women's and Gender Studies Program.
The first of the three tracks on
Herbie Hancock's 1970 album " Mwandishi" pays tribute to Angela Davis. The track itself is titled "Ostinato (Suite for Angela)".
John Lennonand Yoko Onoreleased the song "Angela" about her and the Rolling Stonesreleased " Sweet Black Angel," both of which chronicled her legal problems and advocated for her release.The 1976 film "Network" features a parody of her in its character Laureen Hobbs.
Vaginal Davis, active since the early 1970s, took her name as an homage to Angela Davis.
Cuban musician Pablo Milanes wrote "Cancion para Angela Davis" for her in 1984.
The last track on
Sun Ra's 1984 album " The Sun Ra Arkestra Meets Salah Ragab in Egypt" is titled " Music for Angela Davis".
In the 1987 Eddie Murphy film Raw, Murphy makes a reference to Angela Davis' afro.
Davis appears as a minor character in
American Pastoralby Philip Roth.
An audio clip of Angela Davis is used in a song by underground Virginia rapper Dicap the Emcee.
The Swedish artist
Turidstarts the song "Visa om imperialismens taktik" with the words "Åh, Angela Davis, det var natt när dom hämtade dej..." (Oh, Angela Davis, they came for you in the night...)
In the 2001 movie "How High", Redman makes reference to Angela Davis while making fun of a professor. He says "You Angela Davis mustache havin mothafuka" and goes on with other black panther and racial segregation references.
Black History Monthepisode of the Proud Family, Penny Proudhad to play the role of Angela Davis for her history project.
Davis appears in the 2006 documentary film "The U.S. Vs. John Lennon" in both the archive footage and in interview segments as Dr. Angela Davis.
Davis's presentation forms a major part of the book and video of the 1996 Feminist Family Values Forum presented by the Foundation for a Compassionate Society in Austin, Texas. [http://www.feminist.com/resources/artspeech/family/ffvfexc.htm]
On March 8th 2008 Davis attended the Capital Woman event in London, England. Where she spoke about current prison issues and answered various question put to her by the audience.
Angela is mentioned in Le Tigre's song Hot Topic, among other inspirational women.
In the popular 1999 German film "Sonnenallee," members of a communist youth organization in the GDR write letters in support of Davis during her imprisonment.
A recording of Angela Davis appears on the song "Hot Night" from Me'shell Nedegocello's 2001 album Cooki.
The 2008 film
The Bank Jobincludes a poster saying "Free Angela Davis"
In the first season, 16 episode of Friday Night Lights, Smash Williams calls his friend "Angela Davis" for encouraging him in his walk-out against his football team.
In the early 1990s, Angela Davis was mentioned as a friend of Philip and Vivian Banks on the show Fresh Prince of Bel Air
Angela Davis is mentioned in the song "Crooklyn Dogders" by the group of the same name assembled for Spike Lee's film
Angela Davis in Russian culture
Thousands of Soviet citizens signed letters demanding the release of Angela Davis, and in Russian the phrase "Freedom to Angela Davis!" ( _ru. "Свободу Анджеле Дэвис !") became a synonym for fighting against certain problems abroad, refusing to see problems in one's own country. Also an
Afrohaircut sometimes in Russian is called "Angela Davis". In 2003 the Russian rock band "Neprikasaemye" (The Untouchables) recorded a song called "Freedom to Angela Davis!" (Свободу Анджеле Дэвис !), referring both to an "Angela Davis" haircut and her imprisonment, with the widely quoted refrain "Дайте ей свободу, суки !" (Free her, bastards ! (literally -Give her freedom, bitches)).
Russian dissident and Nobel Laureate
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyncriticized Davis's sympathy for the Soviet Union in a speech he delivered to the AFL-CIO on July 9, 1975in New York City, pointing out hypocrisy in her attitude toward prisoners under Communist governments. According to Solzhenitsyn, a group of Czech dissidents “addressed an appeal to her: `Comrade Davis, you were in prison. You know how unpleasant it is to sit in prison, especially when you consider yourself innocent. You have such great authority now. Could you help our Czech prisoners? Could you stand up for those people in Czechoslovakia who are being persecuted by the state?' Angela Davis answered: 'They deserve what they get. Let them remain in prison.'” [cite book | last =Solzhenitsyn
authorlink =Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
title =Warning to the West
publisher =Farrar, Straus and Giroux
date =October 1976
location =New York
pages =pp. 60-61
id =ISBN 0374513341]
* "" (1971) ISBN 0-451-04999-3
* "" (1972)
* "" (1974) ISBN 0-7178-0667-7
Women, Race and Class" (1981) ISBN 0-394-71351-6
Violence Against Women and the Ongoing Challenge to Racism" (1985) ISBN 0-913175-11-0
Women, Culture and Politics" (1989) ISBN 0-679-72487-7
* "" (1999) ISBN 0-679-77126-3
The Angela Y. Davis Reader" (1999) ISBN 0-631-20361-3
Are Prisons Obsolete?" (2003) ISBN 1-58322-581-1
* "" (2005) ISBN 1-58322-695-8
List of African American philosophers Critical Resistance
* [http://www.floridamemory.com/PhotographicCollection/VideoFilm2/video.cfm?VID=2 Brief film clip, 1979] Angela Davis speaking at Florida A&M University’s Black History Month convocation.
* [http://blackhistorydaily.com/black_quotes/angela__davis_quotes.html Angela Davis Quotes - a collection of some of Angela Davis's most memorable statements and observations]
* [http://humwww.ucsc.edu/FMST/facDavis.html UCSC Biography of Angela Davis]
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/race/interviews/davis.html A PBS interview with Angela Davis]
* [http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=03/04/07/0158221 Democracy Now! roundtable discussion on 'Resisting the Prison Industrial Complex' including Angela Davis as guest]
* [http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/03/08/home/davis.html New York Times archive of all Angela Davis-related writings]
* [http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/03/08/home/davis-acquit.html New York Times' account of her acquittal]
* [http://www.time.com/time/community/transcripts/chattr092298.html Time chat-room users Interview with Angela Davis, "Attacking the 'Prison Industrial Complex'"(
* [http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2003/03.13/09-davis.html Harvard Gazette article about Davis, (
* [http://www.english.ucla.edu/ucla1960s/7071/watkins.htm Timeline of Angela Davis at UCLA (part of the UCLA History project)]
* [http://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2007/10/27/18456544.php Audio Recording of Angela Davis at the Practical Activism Conference at UC Santa Cruz] on October 27, 2007
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,,2207188,00.html The Guardian interview with Angela Davis] , November 8, 2007
"About Angela Davis"
* [http://www.ibiblio.org/prism/jan98/inspire.html Independent Paper Editorial "Davis Inspires Student to Reflect on Agenda"]
"Documents from the Women's Liberation Movement"
* [http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/wlm/angela/ Liberation News Service. "Angela."]
* [http://odyssey.lib.duke.edu/wlm/world/ "The World Watches Angela."]
* [http://www.criticalresistance.org/ Group to end the prison-industrial complex]
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