Congkak


Congkak
A swan-shaped Malaysian congkak in the National Museum of Malaysia.

Congkak (Malay pronunciation: [ˈtʃɔŋkaʔ]) or Congklak is a mancala game of Malay origin played in Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Southern Thailand, and some parts of Sumatra and Borneo.

Close variants are Dakon or Dhakon (Java), Sungka (Philippines), Chongka' (Marianas), Jogklak (interior of Java); Dentuman Lamban (Lampung), Mokaotan, Maggaleceng, Aggalacang or Nogarata (Celebes), Chonka (Sri Lanka) and Naranj (Maldives).

Congkak, which is mostly played by girls, has simple rules that allow the boards to have different numbers of holes. Congkak boards are often made of teak or mahogany wood are often elaborately carved into various shapes such as naga or birds.

Contents

Etymology

The word congkak is believed to originate from old Malay "congak", meaning "mental calculation"[1] which is mainly practiced in this game. It is regarded that an efficient player who mentally calculates a few steps in advance will have an advantage in collecting points to win the game.

The word congkak or congklak also means cowrie shells, used in the game.[2]

History

A boat-shaped dakon, a name for Congkak in Java which actually a name for a bronze-iron age rock tools.

The oldest mancala game boards were found in a ruined fort of Roman Egypt and date back to the 4th century AD. The game was likely introduced to Southeast Asia by Indian or Arab traders in the 15th century.[3]

It is believed to have spread throughout Malay world through merchants via Malacca, an important trading post at that time.[1] In the early days, it was thought that this game was for the king and family and palace residents, however later it spread to the general population of the kingdom.[4] Beside the Malays, the Indian Peranakan also enjoy playing Congkak.[5]

In Java, the term "dakon stone" refers to the similarly pitmarked stones from the bronze-iron age period of Indonesia. These stones have rows of 4 or 5 cup-shaped holes and two holes at each end, a formation which has much in common with that of the similarly named game in Java. This prehistoric dakon stones is unrelated to the game and were probably employed in ceremonies to propitiate ancestors. Such stones can be found around Java.[6][7]

The current Malaysian Ringgit 10 sen coin has a Congkak board on the reverse in recognition of the long history of congkak in Malaysia.

Rules

A congklak with two sets of nine instead of seven.

The Congkak board has fourteen holes in two sets of seven (some have ten holes in two sets of five, some have eighteen holes in two sets of nine), plus an additional bigger store-holes for each player. Each player controls the seven holes on their side of the board, and their score is the number of seeds in their left-hand store. In Indonesia, the holes are called anak ("child"), while the larger store holes are called indung ("mother").[8]

A total of 98 pieces are used in the two sets of seven board version. In Southeast Asia, cowrie shells and tamarind seeds are the most common.[9] Seven seeds are placed in each hole except for the players' store. The objective of the game is to capture more seeds than one's opponent.

Players take turns moving the seeds except in the first move which is performed simultaneously, beginning with the hole closest to his/her own store. After this first simultaneous movement, once the last seed falls into an empty hole, the players' first turn is over and the opponent of the player who reached an empty hole first commences his/her turn after the other player has finished his opening move too. On a turn, a player chooses one of the seven holes under their control. The player removes all seeds from this hole, and distributes them in each hole clockwise[10] from this hole, in a process called sowing. Sowing skips an opponent's store, but does not skip a player's own store.

If a player is unable to fill a hole with seven seeds that hole is considered sunog ("burnt"); all excess seeds are returned to the store. The round begins with the player with no sunog holes taking his/her turn sowing first.

If the last seed falls into an occupied hole, all the seeds are removed from that hole, and are sown starting from that hole. The process continues until the last seed falls into a player's store, or an empty hole.

If the last seed sown falls into a player's own store, they immediately earn another turn, which can begin at any of the seven holes under their control.

The game ends, when a player has no seeds in his holes at the start of his turn. The remaining seeds are awarded to his opponent.

The objective of the game is to capture more seeds than one's opponent.

References

  1. ^ a b Omar Farouk Bajunid (1989). Warisan kesenian Melaka. Asrama Za'aba, Universiti Malaya. p. 81. ISBN 978-9839963199. 
  2. ^ Alan M. Stevens. Kamus Lengkap Indonesia Inggris. PT Mizan Publika. ISBN 9794333875, 9789794333877. 
  3. ^ Forshee, Jill (2006). Culture and customs of Indonesia (illustrated ed.). illustrated Publisher Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 177. ISBN 0313333394, 9780313333392. http://books.google.com/books?id=y0xVkgXZOfUC&pg=PA177&dq=congklak#v=onepage&q=congklak&f=false. Retrieved February 21, 2011. 
  4. ^ James Moore, Julina Jamal, Nora Jamaluddin, Regina Fabiny Datuk Dr. Paddy Schubert (Editor) (2003). The guide to Melaka, Malaysia. Leisure Guide Publishing. p. 264. ISBN 978-9832241096. 
  5. ^ Dhoraisingam, Samuel (2006). Peranakan Indians of Singapore and Melaka: Indian Babas and Nonyas--Chitty Melaka. Volume 14 of Local history and memoirs (illustrated ed.). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 9812303464, 9789812303462. 
  6. ^ Sanday, Peggy Reeves (2004). Women at the Center: Life in a Modern Matriarchy (illustrated ed.). Cornell University Press. p. 57. ISBN 0801489067, 9780801489068. http://books.google.com/books?id=yeG9UGz4_08C&pg=PA57&dq=dakon+stones#v=onepage&q=dakon%20stones&f=false. Retrieved February 21, 2011. 
  7. ^ van Heekeren, H.R. (1958). The bronze-iron age of Indonesia. Part 22 of Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde The Bronze-iron Age of Indonesia. M. Nijhoff. p. 177. ISBN 0313333394, 9780313333392. http://books.google.com/books?id=QwgYAAAAIAAJ&q=dakon+stones&dq=dakon+stones. Retrieved February 21, 2011. 
  8. ^ Kiernan, Jan; Reeves, Howard (2001). Asia counts: primary. Curriculum Press. p. 100. ISBN 1863664866, 9781863664868. http://books.google.com/books?id=wCxMJ7D-z4cC&pg=PA100&dq=congklak#v=onepage&q=congklak&f=false. Retrieved February 21, 2011. 
  9. ^ E. D. Wilkins, Sally (2002). Sports and games of medieval cultures (illustrated ed.). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 53. ISBN 0313317119, 9780313317118. http://books.google.com/books?id=IyFHvy-SCIYC&pg=PA52&dq=congkak#v=onepage&q=congkak&f=false. Retrieved February 21, 2011. 
  10. ^ Africa and Indonesia the Evidence of the Xylophone and Other Musical and Cultural Factores. Brill Archive. p. 199. http://books.google.com/books?id=N8wUAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA200&dq=dakon+java#v=onepage&q=dakon%20java&f=false. Retrieved February 21, 2011. 

External links


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