Campylobacter jejuni


Campylobacter jejuni

Taxobox
color = lightgrey
name = "Campylobacter jejuni"



image_width = 240px
image_caption = Scanning electron micrograph of "C. jejuni" demonstrating the chracteristic curved rod shape of the organism.
regnum = Bacteria
phylum = Proteobacteria
classis = Epsilon Proteobacteria
ordo = Campylobacterales
familia = Campylobacteraceae
genus = "Campylobacter"
species = "C. jejuni"
binomial = "Campylobacter jejuni"
binomial_authority = (Jones et al. 1931)
Veron & Chatelain 1973

"Campylobacter jejuni" is a species of curved, rod-shaped, non-spore forming, Gram-negative microaerophilic, bacteria commonly found in animal feces.cite book | author = Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) | title = Sherris Medical Microbiology | edition = 4th ed. | publisher = McGraw Hill | year = 2004 | isbn = 0-8385-8529-9 ] It is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world. Food poisoning caused by "Campylobacter" species can be severely debilitating but is rarely life-threatening. It has been linked with subsequent development of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which usually develops two to three weeks after the initial illness.

"C. jejuni" is commonly associated with poultry and naturally colonises the GI tract of many bird species. It has also been isolated from wombat and kangaroo feces, being a cause of bushwalkers' diarrhea. Contaminated drinking water and unpasteurized milk provide an efficient means for distribution. Contaminated food is a major source of isolated infections, with incorrectly prepared meat and poultry normally the source of the bacteria.

Infection with "C. jejuni" usually results in enteritis, which is characterised by abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and malaise. The symptoms usually persist for between 24 hours and a week, but may be longer. Diarrhea can vary in severity from loose stools to bloody stools. No antibiotics are usually given as the disease is self-limiting, however, severe or prolonged cases may require ciprofloxacin, erythromycin or norfloxacin. Fluid and electrolyte replacement may be required for serious cases.

The first full-genome sequence of "C. jejuni" was performed in 2000. [cite journal | author=Parkhill "et al." | title=The genome sequence of the food-borne pathogen "Campylobacter jejuni" reveals hypervariable sequences. | journal=Nature | year=2000 | volume=403 | pages=665–668 | doi=10.1038/35001088 | pmid=10688204 ]

Laboratory characteristics

"Campylobacter" is grown on specially selective "CAMP" agar plates at 42 °C, the normal avian body temperature, rather than at 37 °C, the temperature at which most other pathogenic bacteria are grown. Since the colonies are oxidase positive, they will usually only grow in scanty amounts on the plates. Microaerophilic conditions are required for luxurious growth. The selective medium known as Skirrow's medium is used. Skirrow's medium is blood agar infused with a cocktail of antibiotics: vancomycin, polymixin-B and trimethoprim under microaerophilic conditions at 42 degrees.

See also

*Campylobacteriosis


References


* cite web | title = Multiple Campylobacter Genomes Sequenced
url = http://www.plosbiology.org/plosonline/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0030040 | date = 2005-01-04 | accessdate = 2007-07-27

*
* [http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~ebam/bam-7.html Online Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 7: Campylobacter] - US Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition ("accessed 13 October 2006")


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